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CONTENTS.

PART I.

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COMPANION TO THE ALMANAC

FOR

1864.

PA RT 1.

GENERAL INFORMATION ON SUBJECTS OF MATHEMATICS, NATURAL PHILOSOPHY, NATURAL HISTORY, CHRONOLOGY, GEOGRAPHY, FINE ARTS, PUBLIC ECONOMY, &c.

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I.-OCCUPATIONS OF THE PEOPLE. In the Companion' for 1862 a very full account of the results of the Census was given from the official Preliminary Abstracts. Since that time, a Volume relating to England and Wales, in which the numbers of the People and of the Houses, with their local distribution, has been published, with the final revision of the central authorities. The differences between the first Abstracts and the corrected Returns are very trifling, so that our Paper may be sufficiently relied upon as forming the materials for general deductions. The Second Volume of the Census of England and Wales taken in 1861, bears date July 1, 1863. It contains the Ages, Civil Condition, Occupations, and Birthplaces of the People. The information on the subject of Occupations is so valuable, especially at a period when a large portion of the manufacturing population is deprived of its wonted employment, that we must reserve for a future paper the Occupations of the Scottish and Irish People. In an Introductory Note to this Volume of Tables relating to England and Wales, the Registrar-General

says,

" The nomenclature of many occupations is in an unsettled state. But in 1851 an attempt was made to frame a classification under which all the varieties of occupation could be placed; and that classification was to a certain extent successful. After further experience, its groups have been simplified and its ramifications extended, so as to exhibit in one view the whole population of England and Wales marshalled in six groups, according to their various occupations."

The Summary Tables of Occupations exhibit the whole community inhabiting our industrial hive, and working "in divers functions, under Classes, Orders, and Sub-Orders. We propose, instead of giving all the Tables in one view, to separate the Classes, showing the Orders and Sub-Orders of each, and adding in each division such observations as appear to us essential, or at least interesting.

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79, 7401

33, 7541
183,597 3,920,457

339, 2071
4,536| 468,804
60, 261 1,286,960 318,5411

9,326| 323,524 148,794

16,872 46,138

62,450
4,828,3993, 262,5101,565,889 682,085 401,4792,580,4251,164,410
11,426,7203,473,916 7,952,8043, 290,3194,032,347

96,612
2,010,4541,631,652 378, 802 344,692

385,974 158,120

385,345
623,710 585,420
481,957
544,094

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The first striking fact which appears on the face of this Table is, that out

of 20 millions of people, only 150 thousand do not appear in the enumeration of those of specified occupations and conditions. The Census is founded upon the returns made by each family or individual as to their status. The vague“Rentier” of the old French passport has no place here. Men and women for the most part shrunk not: from naming their employments; and though there may be a little of that colour which pretences to gentility occasionally put on, we may conclude that the record, upon the whole, is honest and true.

The Domestic Class, II. as we shall see when we come to the Orders and SubOrders which it comprises --represents those engaged in Domestic Offices the Wives, Mothers, Children, Relatives, and Servants of a Household. The Classes I., III., V., VI., form an aggregate of 6,478,160. The Agricultural Class, IV., comprises 2,010,454 persons. Thus we see that the possessors or workers of the land form only about one-fourth of the whole working community. If we compare the males enumerated under various Occupations, we shall find that those belonging to the four non-agricultural Classes amount to 4,619,249, whilst those comprised in the Agricultural Class amount to *1,631,652. This computation gives the same result as to the proportions of Agriculturists to other workers,

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I. PROFESSIONAL CLASS.—This is divided into three Orders. The first, comprising persons engaged in the General or Local Government of the Country, amounts to 87,350 persons. The second, persons engaged in the defence of the country, reckons 131,944. The third, persons engaged in the Learned Professions, or engaged in Literature, Art, and Science (with their immediate subordinates), is stated at 262,663. The total of the Professional Class is 481,957. We proceed to the Sub-Orders of Class I.

Class is

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