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POETRY.--Sleep not Death, 2. The Last French Romance, 20. Come, 47. Earl Can-
ning, 47. · An Hour of Prayer, 48. Lucerne, 48.

To CORRESPONDENTS. We are much obliged to “A Lady” in Philadelphia. Her
interest in “ The Living Age" is so cordial as to be quite cheering. If she had given her
address we should have been glad to explain to her, more at large than we can do here;
the article she refers to was not copied from an American Journal, as she will see by look-
ing at the table of contents.

Very many kind letters we are obliged to pass unnoticed, because the writers give us no
address and it is inexpedient to answer in print.



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Grato m' è il sonno

Mentre chè'l danno e la vergogna dura." In immemorial aisles, whose mellow gloom

Was crimsoned with the flush of setting day, CLEAR and cool, clear and cool, Where angels prayed above a trophied tomb, By laughing shallow and dreaming pool ;

Shadowed or sealed by death a woman lay; Cool and clear, cool and clear,
The smile, the scorn of regal majesty,

By shining shingle, and foaming wear ;
Seemed frozen on her lips, or fixed in stone, Under the crag where the ouzel sings,
A chaplet of the stars that cannot die

And the ivied wall where the church-bell rings, Shone on the brow where living light was Undefiled, for the undefiled; none;

Play by me, bathe in me, mother and child. Yet death it was not, or it did not seem,

Methought, she slumbered in a heavy trance, With fitful starts, the passion of a dream,

Dank and foul, dank and foul, And mourners stood around, and wept for By the smoke-grimed town in iis murky cowl. France.

Foul and dank, foul and dank,

By wharf and sewer and slimy bank ; Then Freedom bowed her stately form and Darker and darker the further I go, said:

Baser and baser the richer I grow; “O, Mother, mine no more, I seek a home.

Who dare sport with the sin-defiled ? Who are my friends ? the cxile and the dead.

Shrink from me, turn from me, mother and Where are my banners ? Do they float at

child. Rome? One short bright morning of my life I stood,

Armed at thy side, crying to Earth be free! Strong and free, strong and free, Through crashing kingdoms, through a sea of The floodgates are open, away to the sea. blood,

Free and strong, free and strong, Unconquerable, I looked and clung to thee; Cleansing my streams as I hurry along, I shone like Hesper over death's array, To the golden sands and the leaping bar,

And death was beautiful. The steadfast sky And tho taintless tide that awaits me afar,
Sees baser hopes and meaner men to-day, As I lose myself in the infinite main,
These dare not follow where I point and die; Like a soul that has sinned and is pardoned

again. “ They tremble if I speak. I must begone.”

Undefiled, for the undefiled, Then Faith said, sadly, “ He who came to Play by me, bathe in me, mother and child. Joined Faith with Freedom. Shall I rest alone,

A marble mourner weeping on a grave ? France knew me once. Her white-cross war

riors fought, Bleeding and faint, a passage to my shrine; And, as they fell, the peace that is not bought

FAITH AND WILL. Came to them with death's kiss; the cause

was mine; By all the woman's weakness I was strong:

Two Powers, since first the world began, Now, courtiers, give the word, and hirelings Twin Masters of the fate of man

Have ruled our race and rule it still :

Are Faith and Will.
The soldier's clatter drowns the sacred song;
I fly like Mary bearing Christ away.”

The pole-star and the helm of life,
A murmur of unutterable woe,
“ Let us depart," was breathed upon the air, O'er plains of peace and seas of strife,

That sets the end, this gives the force, Cross shadows flickered ghost-like to and fro,

To carve our course. The sculptured angels seemed to cease from

prayer; But Honour, gray with years, knelt in the dust, The power that stands on rocks of strength,

“I watched thy cradle first, I quit thee last. And lets the tempest lash and foam, The secret massacre, the broken trust,

Unshaken-is the power at length
Can these, can Cæsar's crown, degrade thy

That brings us home.
I live a memory in the hearts of men."
And Hope, with eyes fresh kindled from the But where is home? that Faith can tell.

But what is Faith? that Will can prove
Said, “ Lady, thou shalt rise and reign again, By suffering bravely, striving well,
Thou art immortal, and thy foe is–One."

And serving Love.



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From The Spectator. to whom the process was explained were KING COTTON.

delighted; nevertheless, they refused with THERE is—or was until recently-a tall, many thanks the chevalier's offer to work handsome man confined in a lunatic asylum his invention. It was found that flax-cotton at Camberwell. He used to sit mournfully could not be profitably spun without making for days and weeks in a corner of his lone various alterations in the existing machinery, room, little given to talk, and less to physi- and to this the Lancashire mill-owners obcal exercise. Now and then, however, he jected, saying, why should we trouble ourbroke out in a sudden blaze of excitement, selves about the new raw material as long repeating incoherent sentences, in which as we have got cotton in abundance? With only the word “flax-cotton was distinctly something of a prophetic vein, M. Claussen audible,

The unhappy man's name was remonstrated, arguing that the supply was Chevalier Claussen. By birth a Dane, and not all to be depended upon, and that, bea man of high scientific education, he gave sides, it would be better, and cheaper in the himself up early to the study of practical long run, to make European hands feed Euchemistry, particularly those branches con- ropean mills, by the aid of perfected steamnected with the manufacture of textile fab- agencies, than to leave the task to the rude rics. After years of labor, and many experi- manual labor of unwilling bondsmen. It ments, he came to the conclusion that the was the voice of the preacher in the desert : fibre of ilax, if rightly manipulated, is supe- Lancashire listened not; and when the Hyde rior to cotton for all purposes in which the Park show was over, Chevalier Claussen latter is employed, and therefore ought to and his invention were no more thought of supersede it, as well on this account as being than the man who discovered the compass. an indigenous plant, for the supply of which Sorely troubled in mind, and with abject povEurope might remain independent of serf or erty staring him in the face, Claussen then slave. Claussen's experiments were well re- pursued his pilgrimage, crossing the Atlanceived in his own country, and his king gave tic to America. What happened to him in him the title of Chevalier ; but, unfortu- the great Western Republic is not accurately nately, little other substantial encourage- known; but it is presumed that some 'cute ment. The inventor then went to France, natives laid hold of the young man from the married a young French lady, was presented old country, squeezing his brains and then at court, and received the order of the Le- throwing him overboard. It was rumored gion of Honor; but again got little else but that Chevalier Claussen had got a “partpromises of future reward for the years of ner;” and not long after somebody, partner labor devoted to the one great object he had or otherwise, brought him back to this counin hand. Somewhat weary of his work, and try, shutting him up in a lunatic asylum at sorely pressed by poverty, Chevalier Claus- Camberwell. Here the history of Aax-cotsen next came to this country, arriving just ton ends: the inventor in a madhouse ; Lanin time for the International Exhibition of cashire without food for her mills and her 1851. He displayed in the Hyde Park Pal- people. ace some beautiful articles made of flax-cot- The case of flax rersus cotton has not ton, and set all the world in raptures about since had a fair trial. It is strange, indeed, the new invention, the more so as he freely to perceive in this matter to what an extent explained the secret of the process for con- the industry of whole nations is liable to folverting flax-straw into a material equal in low in the wake of mechanical inventions. all and superior in some respects to the cot- It was not until the seventeenth century that ton fabric. The manipulation was simple cotton goods were made in England, while enough, according to Claussen's showing. filax was cultivated to a far greater extent, The fax, cut into small pieces by machinery, and woven into textile fabrics, though with was left for a short while to the combined very simple mechanical appliances. Then it action of alkaline solvents and of carbonated happened, about the year 1685, that a colony alkalies and acids, which converted the fibre of Huguenot families, flying in consequence into a material very similar to cotton, and of the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, setfit even, to some extent, to be spun with cot-tled in the North of Ireland, and

the ton machinery. The English manufacturers first impulse to the cultivation and manufac




ture of flax. Among the refugees was a pictorial representations on the walls of gentleman of the name of Louis Cromonelin, Egyptian tombs and temples, some of them a native of St. Quentin, whose family had as strikingly similar to the doings of Irish been engaged for generations in the linen and Belgian peasants engaged in the flax trade. This M. Cromonelin took a patent manufacture as if copied on the spot. We for various contrivances in the spinning and have no more curious illustration of the in weaving of flax, and setting earnestly to many respects one-sided and singularly acwork in the new manufacture, crops of the cidental progress of modern civilization. plant soon sprang up in all directions, and There is something truly marvellous in the thousands of acres of land, mere wastes pre- contemplation of the thousand wonderful conriously, were covered with the graceful little trivances for manufacturing cotton shown in annual, on tall and slender stalk, with deli- the" iron tabernacle” of the present Internacate blue flowers, which in the time of Abra- tional Exhibition, and the reflection that the ham already produced the “fine linen " on whole is but the product of some seventy or the spindles and looms of Babylonia. The eighty years. Before Arkwright's time the flax manufactories, no less than the manu- cotton manufacture was carried on

- as the facturers, following the impulse thus given, flax manufacture is still to a great extent-in throve remarkably well in Ireland; and it the cottages of agricultural laborers, who, is interesting to note that at the present day working partly in the fields and partly at their a descendant o M. Louis Cromonelin is at simple band-looms, brought both calicoes the head of one of the largest linen estab- and cabbages to the nearest market, to dislishments in the province of Ulster. Towards pose of them to itinerant dealers. The stride the end of the latter century the use of the from those old rural hand-looms to the modfibre of flax was near taking the lead in the ern machinery exhibited in the western anmanufacture of textile materials, when all nexe of Captain Fowke's warehouse is far at once a series of mechanical inventors, more gigantic than anything else in the hisHargreaves,Compton, Arkwright, and others tory of modern inventions, not excepting rail-appeared upon the stage, devoting them- way travelling and electric interchange of selves entirely to the improvement of cotton words. Itis doubtful, indeed, whether there is machinery. Their efforts produced a social anything more expressive of human ingenuity and commercial revolution as great as the —that which Carlyle calls the beaver-faculty introduction of the locomotive on the road. of man-in the world, than some of the cotThe quantity of cotton brought to this coun- ton-spinning automatons at the exhibition. try in 1764 amounted only to about four An immense row of spindles are seen flying millions of pounds ; but in 1780 it came to round in furious whirl, twisting slender be seven millions ; in 1790, thirty millions ; threads in all directions, bending upwards in 1800, about fifty millions ; and increas- and downwards, obedient to an invisible ing every decennium by from forty to one power, and performing evolutions unaphundred millions, reached in 1860 the total proachable in exactness and regularity by of 1,250,000,000 pounds. Every step in this the hand of man. Other parts of the marising scale of consumption was marked, and chinery take the cotton fibre, spread it evenly was produced in the first instance by im- over long lattices, pass it between rollers, proved machinery. It seemed as if the en- lead it along under à complication of wraptire energy of the mechanical genius of the pers, combs, brushes, and knives, and disage had been thrown into one direction of charge it in the end in greatly altered form, making contrivances for spinning and weav- ready for furthur manipulation. There is ing cotton, and that all rival branches of in- incessant life, movement, and action, and no dustry had become totally neglected. So it propelling agency visible, save an occasional happened that the methods for preparing whiff of steam, which now and then pops out flax adopted in this country, and, indeed, from beneath the world of wheels. Perhaps over the whole of Europe at the present a little girl, with flakes of cotton in her hair, time, still resemble those used by the an- and more flakes in her apron, is looking on cient flax-growers of Egypt four thousand leisurely from the distance, pulling out here years ago, and yet followed by the natives and there an errant thread; but apparently of Hindostan. This is proved by numerous not otherwise interested in the doings of the huge automaton. Contemplating the thing crying in its distress, grew originally in the for awhile, nigh stunned by the tumult of Antilles, where Columbus found it on his wheels and levers, the thought creeps over arrival, and settled a supply of it as a tribute the mind that all earthly intelligence has on the natives. The districts of San Franbeen concentrated here for the sole purpose çois of Bailly, and other old settlements of of shaping the fibres of the gossypium plant Guadaloupe and the neighboring islands, into a textile fabric. To perform the task, furnished for a long time the whole of Euten millions of steam-propelled spindles are rope with the best kind of cotton. In 1808, incessantly whizzing in this country, and the export of the material from the Antilles hundreds of thousands of free men must be amounted to near a million and a half of dependent on the labor of the slave. It is a pounds; but the culture was as suddenly contemplation almost hideous, to think of a interrupted by the wars of the first empire, legion of such automatons as are seen in the as recently again in the internecine strugwestern exhibition annexe, all whirling and gle of America. Flying from the scene of whizzing, but with no food to put down their strife, some French emigrants carried a throat, and nothing to grasp between their small quantity of cotton seed from Guadairon teeth. King Cotton, with famine in his loupe to South Carolina, and thus established trail, looks lurid in the extreme.

the element of commercial importance in the The terrors vanish somewhat on a further American Republic. This was the origin of stroll through the exhibition. There are the famous sea-island cotton. For many hundreds upon hundreds of stalls, from all years past, the French Government has tried parts of the world, whose owners offer to hard to revive the culture of the plant in the feed King Cotton, be he ever so hungry. Antilles, but without any appreciable sucAustralia, South America, the Cape, Natal, cess.

The millions spent to encourage the Egypt, Algiers, Ceylon, China, Japan, the industry have had no other effect hitherto whole of India, and a host of other countries, but to destroy it more and more, by introdown to classic Attica, have sent samples of ducing the artificial element. The same has their gossypium to show what they can do been the case in other countries, ever towards keeping the ten millions of British governments or commercial associations spindles in movement. The sight is a very have attempted to carry the matter with a fair one ; but, alas, far from being entirely high hand. King Cotton evidently disdains consolatory. The catalogue of countries restraint, and will rule only by the grace of which can produce cotton, but have not yet God and his own supreme will. Whether it proved it, is like the list of works which would not be wise to temper the sway by young authors and poets set down in their constitutional means, such as the appointpocket-books, as intending to write as soon ment of Prince Flax to the chief ministry, is as called upon, and which consequently they a question which the owners of the ten milnever do write. This awful question of cot- lions of spindles will have to decide before ton, it seems, is ruled everywhere more by long. It seems hard and almost unnatural accident than by the will of governments and that hundreds of thousands of Europeans nations. The ten millions of British spin- should be dependent for their very existence dles grew into existence because, as it on the fibres of a plant which will only grow chanced, a few working men of Lancashire in hot and unhealthy climes, and the control took to inventing power-looms instead of of which, wherever produced, must be inseflax-steeping machines; and King Cotton cure in the last degrec. Accident made King himself built up his throne on the banks of Cotton sovereign ; but nature points in anthe Mississippi, because a couple of half- other direction, to an organism of the samo starved Frenchmen were wrecked there one constituencies, which flourishes with our day with a few seeds of gossypium in their race from the torrid zone to the north pole. pockets. The finest “long-stapled” cotton, We have it on high authority that man does the only kind for which Lancashire is really not live on bread alone : why on cotton ?


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