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OR, A

D I CT I O N A RY.

ARTS, SCIENCE S,

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A N D

MISCELLANEOUS LITERATURE;

Constructed on a PLAN,

BY WHICH

THE DIFFERENT SCIENCES AND ARTS

Are digested into the Form of Distinct
TREA TISES OR SYSTEMS,

COMPRIS ENDING

The HISTORY, THEOR Y, and PRACTICE, of each,
according to the Latest Discoveries and Improvements;

AND FULL EXPLANATIONS GIVEN OF THE
VARIOUS DETACHED PARTS OF KNOWLEDGE,

WHETHER RELATING TO

NATURAL and ARTIFICIAL Objects, or to Matters ECCLESIASTICAL,

Civil, MILITARY, COMMERCIAL, &c.
Including ELUCIDATIONS of the most important Topics relative to Religion, MORALS;

MANNERS, and the OECONOMY of Life:

TOGETHER WITH

A DESCRIPTION of all the Countries, Cities, principal Mountains, Seas, Rivers, c.

throughout the WORLD;,
A General HISTORY, Ancient and Moderns of the different. Empires, Kingdoms, and States ;
An Account of the Lives of the moft Eminent Persons in every Nation,

from the earliest ages down to the present times. -

AND

Compiled from tbe writings of the best Autbors, in several languages; the most approved Dictionaries, as well of general science as of its parti-

cular branches ; tbe Transactions, Jourrals, and Memoirs, of learned Societies, botb at bome and abroad: tbe Ms. Le&tures of

Eminent Profeffors on different sciences; and a variety of Original Materiile, furnised by an Extenfive Correspondence.

THE THIRD EDITION, IN EIGHTEEN VOLUMES, GREATLY IMPROVED.

ILLUSTRATED WITH FIVE HUNDRED AND FORTY-TWO COPPERPLATES.

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Entered in Stationers Hall in Terms of the ag of Parliament.

1

Ν Ε Η

N EH
Nchenjah. EHEMIAH, or Nermias, son of , Nehemiah being arrived at Jerusalem with the king's Nehemiah,

was born at Babylon during the captivity, (Neh. commission, went round the city; and having viewed
i. 1, 2, &c.) He was, according to some, of the race of the condition of the walls, assembled the chief of the
the prie!!s, but, according to others, of the trile of people, produced his commishon, and exhorted them
Judah and the royal family. Those who maintain the to undertake the reparation of the gates and walls of
first opinion, support it by a passage in Ezra, (x. 10.) the city. He found every person ready to obey him ;
nyhe re he is called a priest; but those who helieve whereupon he immediately began the work. The
that he was of the race of the kings of Judah, say, ift, enemies of the Jews, observing these works in such
That Nehemiah having governed the republic of the forwardness, made use of all the means in their

power
Jews for a confiderable time, there is great probabili. to deter Nehemiah from this undertaking, and made
iy he was of that trilie of which the kings always were. feveral attempts to surprise him ; but finding that their
zdly, Nehemiah mentions his brethren Hanani, and designs were discovered, and that the Jews kept upon
some other Jews, who coming to Babylon during their guard, they had recourse to craft and stratagem,
the captivity, acquainted him with the sad condition endeavouring to draw him into an ambuscade in the fields,
of their country. 3lly, The office of cup-bearer to where they pretended they would finish the dispute at
the king of Persia, to which Nehemiah was promoted, an amicable conference : but Nehemiah gave them to
is a further proof that he was of an illustrious family. understand, that the work he had begun required his
4thly, He excuses himself from entering into the in- personal attendance; and therefore he could not come
per part of the temple, probably because he was only to them. He sent the same answer to four several
a laic, (Neh. vi. 11.) “Should such a man as I fee? messages that they sent one after another on the same
And who is there that, being as I ain, would go into subject, (id. iv. and vi.)
the temple to save his life?

Sanballat, the chief of the enemies of the Jews, to-
The scripture (Ezra. ii. 62. Nehem. vii. 95.) calls gether with his associates, wrote word, that a report was
him xunn tirpbatho, that is to say, “cup-bearer;" for spread that the Jews were building the walls of Jeru.
he had this employment at the court of Artaxerxes salem only with a design to make it a place of brength,
Longimanus. He had an exceeding great tenderness to support them in an intended revolt ; that it was
for the country of his fathers, though he had ne. faid also that Nehemiah had suborned false prophets
ver seen it ; and one day as some Jews newly to favour his designs, and to encourage the people to
come from Jerusalem acquainted him with the mi- choose him king; and to stop the course of these ru-
serable estate of that city, that its walls were beat mours, he advised him to come to him, that they might
down, its gates burnt, and the Jews were become confer together, and take fuch resolutions as should
a reproach among all nations; he was sensibly affec- be found convenient. Nehemiah gave himself no
Eted with this relation ; he fafted, prayed, and hum- trouble on this account, bùt returned for answer, that
bled bimself before the Lord, that he would he fa. all those accusations were false and made at random.
vourable to the design he had then conceived of asking About the same time he discovered, that a false pro-
the king's permission to rebuild Jerusalem. The course phet, called Shemaiah, had been corrupted by his ene-
of his atrendance at court being come, he presented mies, and that some of the chief of the city were fe-
the cup to the king according to custom ; but with a cretly in confederacy with them. Yet all this did not
countenance sad and dejected ; which the king obser- discourage him : he went on with his work, and hap-
ving, entertained some suspicion, as if he might have pily completed it in two and tiłty days after it had
had some bad design; but Nehemiah (ii.) discovering been begun.
the occasion of his disquiet, Artaxerxes gave him leave Then he made a dedication of the walls, of the
to go to Jerusalem, and repair its walls and gates: towers, and of the gates of Jerusalem, with the fulem-
but, however, upon this condition, that he should re- nity and magnificence that such a work required. He
turn to court at a time appointed. Letters were made separated the priests, the Levites, and the princes of
out, directed to the governors beyond the Euphrates, the people, into two companies, one of which walked
with orders to furnish Nehemiah with timbers neceffary to the south and the other to the north, on the top
for covering the towers and gates of the city, and the of the walls. These two companies were to meet at
house designed for Nehemiah himself, who was now ap- the temple. The procession was accompanied with
pointed governor of Judea, in the year of the world music both vocal and inftrumental : and when they
3350.

were all come to the temple, they there read the law,
Vol. XIII. Part I.

offered

А

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