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same thing for all the other numbers, shewing him, by holding up the thumb, and the fore finger, that two ones are called two, and that the figare 2 means the same; and so on, up to ten; the thumb and two fingers for three, the thumb and three fingers for four, the thumb-and four fingers for five. The thumb and all the fingers of the right hand, and the thumb of the left hand must be held up, at the same time for six. All the right hand and the thumb and forefinger of the left hand 'must be held up for seven, and so on, making him spell each word, with his fingers. When you come to the figure ten, you must hold up the thumbs, and fingers of both hands, and make him take notice of the word ten, and spell it with his fingers, and then try to make him understand, that the figure one stands for one ten, and that the 0 méans, that there are no ones to add to it; he must shake his head for a sign that the O means the same thing, as if you said no or none. He will understand this better, when you go on to eleven; and now I will tell you what I think to be the best way of doing this. Copy the dots which are written within lines at the bottom of the page, on separate little bits fo card, and keep them carefully together, in a little box. When you are going to teach the child to understand the word eleven, and the figure eleven, take out of the box one of those cards that has ten dots upon it, and put upon the table by you, the cards that have 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, dots upon them, shew him the card that has ten dots upon it, tell him that it is one ten by holding up first the thumb of the right hand, and then the whole of the two hands at once, for ten, then take the card that has only one dot upon it, and set that by the side of the one ten; shew him that the word for one ten and one one, is eleven, and shew him the figure eleven. Then go back to the ten, shew him the card with ten dots, and write the

Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb. 221 word ten upon your slate, and also the figure one to shew the child you have one ten; then shew the child the little heap of cards, point to the word ten and the figure one and ask bim by looks and sigps whether you shall take any of them to add to the card with the ten dots. Shake your head, as much as to say, no this is only one ten, there are no ones to put to it. And then write the 0 after the l. You can try him often in this way to practise it, after he knows how to write down the figures on his slate, by shewing him any, card of dots you choose, and making him write down the right word or the right figure, and it will be a very nice play, and you can make it a reward for him to have his box of dots, after he has been repeating and spelling his words very well.

In this same way, you may go up to twenty, shewing him then, that you have two tens and no ones. But I am afraid of tiring both you and your little scholar if I say more about it now; and the surest way of leading him on well in his learning, is to give him only a little at a time, and to get that learnt very perfectly, by practising it often, If you find any difficulty in understanding the way of learning the figures, which I have told you, I would advise you to shew it to a schoolmaster, or any kind lady or gentleman, that lives near you, and I dare say they would easily explain it to you. .. . .

I advise you to practise your child in adding the names of the numbers to the other words he has learnt in the same way as you do the colours, and make him get the habit of counting the things he sees about him; 1 table, 2 chairs, 3 boys, 4 cups, 5 spoons, G plates, and so on of any thing you see.

This will give you an opportunity of shewing him, that when he writes of more than one thing, the letter S (at least in most words) is put at the end of the word,

Teach your child also, to speak the numbers in the way I have told you before, by looking at your mouth and feeling your throat, and under your chin, while you speak. One, two, four, five, ten, are very easy words, and I dare say he will soon learn to speak them. I will say more of the figures when I write to you again. · I am your sincere friend,

D.D.

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Thoughts on Courage.

223

THOUGHTS ON COURAGE.

The false notions, which prevail on the subject of courage, produce corresponding evils in practice. It is commended by some as a virtue, which compensates for the want of almost every other good quality. There are, indeed, occasions in which courage is so highly to be esteemed, that a man can never be depended upon for the performance of the duties of religion, or of society without it: but this cou. rage is founded, not on a strength of body, carelessness of consequences, or insensibility to danger ; but on firmness of mind, arising from a sound and solid judgment of the importance of the case, and of the duty of maintaining our ground. Courage is shewn in coping with difficulties, contending with dangers, and grappling with objects of terror. But there are difficulties, which a wise man sees are not worth the attempt to master, dangers for incurring which no sufficient inducement appears, and terrors wbich he knows must be avoided by other means than by braving them. Whoever therefore commends a man for his courage, because he obstinately holds on his course in defiance of the warning voice of wisdom, does but give him the praise due to a mariner, who should keep his vessel on one tack, though the breakers before, bim discover the rocks on which his vessel must infallibly be dashed to pieces. There are cases, however, on which a man cannot be commended, unless he does maintain bis resistance, even with the loss of life; but these are cases, in which some great and good end is to be attained by resistance. If no such end is in view, the courage of the. enlightened hero does not excel the boldness of the savage, who is urged by a blind and irrational impulse to attack any object which falls in his way.

e manly dittle noticoon in Al

The manly decision of the real hero requires a temper but little noticed and prized by men; a temper found in perfection in HIM only, who was at the same time the most patient and the most in. vincible character ever exhibited in the world. That sort of courage which leads us to endure trials, often arises from much better principles than that which urges us on to deeds of daring violence. The coolness of the British sailors, who, under the command of Lord Hood, lay on their faces without returning a shot, while the fleet sailed up to the mouths of the enemies' guns, is to be conimended as an instance of this. The same quality is seen more in the patient bravery of the officer, than in the daring courage of the private seaman; because the former, not withdrawn by the eagerness of contention, from the consciousness of danger, coolly gives the necessary commands without shrinking; wbile the attention of the latter is often so entirely occupied with the active labour of the fight, that he is but little sensible of his danger. Equal praise is due to the undaunted resolution of the eight Russian regiments, which, in their war with the Prussians marched in succession and took the position, in which each preceding regiment had been cut off to a man. But as in military affairs, that commander shews most of this excellent temper, who (like Fabius of old,) can bear the insults of his enemies, the taunts of his impatient soldiers, and the reproaches of his countrymen, without being driven from the execution of the plan, by which he knows he can at the favorable moment secure the the victory; so is be of all men to be saluted as the real hero, who has the courage to turn aside the scoffs and revilings of those who affect to be the arbiters of infamy and honour, and, in spite of all, keeps on his course of conscience and religion unmoved. In the eyes of the Christian philosopher, no courage can be said to rest on a

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