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PROBATE COURTS IN MASSACHUSETTS.
(Corrected 1869.) COUNTY OF SUFFOLK. - At Boston, COUNTY OF BERKSHIRE.- At Pittsfield, every Mon, in each month, except July. 1st Tues.of Jan., Feb., March, April, May,
COUNTY OF Essex. - At Salem, 1st June, Sept., Oct., and Dec., 3d Tues. of Tues. of each month; at Lawrence, 20 July, and Wed. next after 1st Mon. of Tues. of each month, except April, May, Nov,; at Lee, Wed. next after 1st Tues. July, Aug., and Oct.; at Gloucester, 2d of Jan. Apl., and Oct., and Wed. next Tues. of April and Oct.; at Newburyport, after 3d Tues. in July; at Adams, Thurs. 3d Tues, of each month, except March, next after 1st Tues. in Jan. Apr., and May, Aug., Sept., and Nov.; at Haver- Oct., and Thurs. next after 3d Tues, in hill, 3d Tues. of May and Nov.; at Ips- July; and at Great Barrington, Wed. wich, 3d Tues, of March and Sept. next after 1st Tues, in Feb., May, Sept.
COUNTY OF MIDDLESEX. - At Cam- and Dec. bridge, 1st, 2d, and 4th Tues. of each COUNTY OF PLYMOUTH. - At Plymouth, month, except Aug.; at Lowell, 3d Tues. 2d Mon. of every month, except July and of Jan., March, May, July, sept., and Aug.; at Wareham, 4th Mon. of Oct.; at Nov.
East Bridgewater, 4th Mon. of Feb. and COUNTY OF WORCESTER. - At Wor- Dec.; at Hingham, 4th Mon. of March; at cester, 1st and 3d Tues. of every month Middleboro', 4th Mon. of April and Jan., except Aug.; at Fitchburg, 4th Tues. of and 20 Mon. of July; at Abington, 4th April and Sept.; at Milford, 2d Tues. of Mon. of May, Aug., and Nov.; at South April and Sept.; at Templeton, 20 Tues. Scituate, 4th Mon. of June; at Bridgeof May and Oct.; and at Barre, Wed. water, 4th Mon. of Sep.; at North Bridgenext after 2d Tues. of May and Oct. water, 3d Mon. of April and Oct.
COUNTY OF HAMPSHIRE, At North- COUNTY OF BARNSTABLE. - At Barnampton, 1st Tues. of every month; at stable, 2d Tues. of Jan., Feb., Mar., Aug., Amherst, 2d Tues. of Jan. and Aug.; at Sept., and Dec., and 3d Tues. of April Belchertown, 2d Tues. of May and Oct.; and June; at Harwich, 21 Mon, after 1st and at Williamsburg, 3d Tues. of May and Tues. of May, and Mon. after 3d Tues. of Oct.
Oct.; at Orleans, 3d Tues. of May, and COUNTY OF HAMPDEN. — At Spring. 4th Tues. of Oct.; at Wellfleet, Wed. field, 1st Tucs.of Jan., Feb., March, April, next after 3d Tues. of May, and Wed. May, Junc, July, Sept., Nov., and Dec., next after 4th Tues. of Oct. ; at Provinceat Westfield, 3d Tues. of March, June, town, Thurs. next after 3d Tues. of May, Sept., and Dec.; at Monson, on the 2d and Thurs. next after 4th Tues. of Oct.; Tues. of June; and at Palmer, on the 2d and at Falmouth, 3d Tues. of Noy. Tues. of Bept.
COUNTY OF NORFOLK. — At Dedham, COUNTY OF FRANKLIN.-At Greenfield, 1st Tues, of every month, except Aug.; 1st Tues. of every month except Nov.; at at Dorchester, every Wed., except during Northfield, 2d Tues, of May and Sept.; | August. at Orange, 2d Tues. of March and Dec. DUKES COUNTY. - At Holmes' Hole viland 3d Tues. of June; at Conway, 3d lage, in Tisbury, on the 3d Mon. of April, Tues. of May; at Shelburne Falls, 4th and 1st Mon. of Sept.; at Edgartown, 3d Tues, of May, 20 Tues. of Feb., and 4th Mon. of Jan. and July, and 1st Mon. of Tues. of Oct.
March and Dec.; and at West Tisbury, COUNTY OF BRISTOL. - At Taunton, 1st 1st Mon. of June, and 3d Mon. of Oct. Frid. of March, June, Sept., and Dec.; at Probate Courts, in addition to the terms New Bedford, 1st Frid. of Feb., May, now allowed by law, may transact any Aug., and Nov.; at Fall River, 1st Frid. of business within their jurisdiction, where Jan., April, and Oct., and 2d Frid. of July. due notice has been given to all parties
COUNTY OF NANTUCKET. - At Nan- interested therein, or when no notice is tucket, on the Thurs. next after the 2d required, on any day when courts may Tues, of every month.
lawfully be held. JUDGES OF PROBATE COURTS IN MASSACHUSETTS. Suffolk Co., Isaac Ames, Boston.
Barnstable Co., Jos. M. Day, Barnstable Essex Co., Geo. F. Choate, Salem.
Nantucket Co., Edw. M. Gardner, Nant. Middlesex Co.,Wm. A. Richardson, Camb. Dukes Co., Th. G. Mayhew, Edgartown. Worcester Co., Henry Chapin, Worcester, Hampden Co., W. S. Shurtlett, Springfild, Franklin Co., Chas. Mattoon, Greenfield. Hampshire Co., Sam. F. Lyman, Northam. Bristol Co., Edm. H. Bennett, Taunton. Norfolk Co., Geo.White, Needham. Plymouth Co., Win.H.Wood Middleboro'. I Berkshire Co., J. T. Robinson, No. Adams. MUNICIPAL AND POLICE COURTS IN MASSACHUSETTS.
(Corrected 1869.) Municipal Courts are held at Boston, crim., every day, at 9 A. M., civil, every Saturday; Boston Southern District (Roxbury), crim., daily, 9 A. M., civil, every Saturday; at Worcester, crim., every day, at 9 A. M., civil, every Saturday; at Taunton, crim., every day, at 9 A. M., civil, every Monday.
Police Courts are held daily for criminal business, and as often as requisite for civil business, at Adams, Cambridge, Charlestown, Chelsea, Chicopee, Fall River, Fitchburg, Gloucester, Haverhill, Lawrence, Lee, Lowell, Lynn, Milford, New Bedford, Newburyport, Pittsfield, Salem, Springfield, and Williamstown.
DOES IT PAY TO CUT FODDER POR CATTLE? Most farmers are in the habit of cutting the fodder for their stock, and especially for horses. But the question is often asked, whether it pays? Some, to avoid the labor it requires, are disposed to doubt. If they would experiment, and observe carefully, they would soon satisfy themselves.
The teeth of cattle were evidently intended for eating grass. That is chiefly their food while in a state of nature. We keep them in an unnatural or artificial condition, and in a climate far colder than that, where they are generally found wild, and where they could hardly subsist during the long winter months on the natural productions of the earth. We contine them in stables, or barns, and cut and dry the grasses which constitute their food; and the nearer we can bring their food to its natural succulent condition, the more readily do they thrive upon it.
Cutting dry food saves some of the labor of mastication, always a severe work for most cattle, on account of its unnatural or artificial condition.' We must therefore conclude that the finer it is cut the better; for, however fine you may cut it, it will still be far more difficult to masticate than green grass. Cutting may make it comparatively fine, while moistening, steaming, and other preparation, will make it more succulent, and soften the hard, and often wiry, fibre. The same amount of hay cut and steamed will go nearly, if not quite, twice as far as it will in its dry state; that is, it will be twice as available as food. Proof of this statement is abundant, and so ample as to place it beyond all question; and yet owing to our natural indo lence, we still go on feeding uncut hay, and uncooked hay, and stalks of corn, and, often, unground grain and whole roots. The argument against cutting hay will apply with equal force against grinding grain, and yet nothing is more wasteful than feeding whole grain to stock, and few things are more wasteful than coarse ground grain. It ought not only to be ground, but ground fine, the finer the better.
A very strong reason for cutting, is, that it can be made more palatable, so that everything will be consumed. The profit in this direction, alone, is equal to the cost, for a simple mixture of good hay and straw, or, swale hay, half and half, will be readily consumed, while the latter, alone, will often be rejected. The mixture will, therefore, be nearly, if not quite, as good as clear English hay uncut. Coarse hay, or hay badly cured, straw and cornstalks, are readily eaten when cut and mixed together, and moistened or steamed, even by stock inclined to be dainty. Does not this show that even poor fodder when cut and steamed is more palatable to cattle, than the best of food uncut, and uncooked ? It is the judgment of the cow herself, and she ought to know.
STEAMING FOOD. It has been said by a very successful, practical feeder, that twenty pounds of good hay, cut and steamed, will keep a cow in better condition, than thirty pounds, uncut and uncooked. It stands to reason that it should be so; for “ if the food goes into the animal at blood heat, so much of the animal heat as has to be expended in warming that otherwise cold food after entering the stomach, would be saved to go to flesh; for the animal heat has to be created by this food, and is, therefore, expended in producing it, and cannot to that extent, of course, make fat or flesh. So, also, would be saved the amount of food expended in producing the muscular strength and work of the jaws in grinding, for this power has to be furnished from some scource, and we hold that the power so produced in the internal system of the animal itself, is the dearest possible way of making it. Cooking or warming the food is, therefore, a great economy; much more, we consider, than its additional expense.” This looks like the true doctrine and the true practice, and it is clearly stated. The power to grind or masticate hay must come from the food itself, and the less labor of this kind we require of the animal, the more it will thrive.
The great reason why farmers neglect to prepare the fodder for cattle, is the expense. Now, see how cheap and simple an apparatus can be got up, that will answer every purpose. Let us try it, and see.
Line your feed box with tin or sheet iron. That is no great trouble. Çut your feed, and mix several kinds together, some good, and others of poorer quality. Now turn on a gallon of boiling hot water for every two bushels of this cut feed. Shut on the cover tight, and leave it for five or six hours, over night, if necessary. In mixing different kinds together in the box, a few layers of cut or sliced roots will greatly add to the value. And if the articles used are very poor, like stalks, swale hay, straw, etc., a little bran, shorts, or middlings, will be an excellent ad dition. If you will try this, even in this rough and cheap way, you will find it will give you a gain of at least twenty-five per cent, and probably thirty per cent over the ordinary mode of feeding, while the manure will be worth at least, double that of cattle fed on uncut hay. The digestion will be perfect, and the health, and thrift of the animal astonishing.
We do not speak from theory. It is practice and experience, intelligent practice, and long experience; and we do not hesitate to say, give it a fair trial, and then let
TIME TO TRIM ORCHARDS. Farmers are often in doubt as to the best time to trim their fruit trees; and perhaps no question of practice is more frequently asked than this, “ What is the best time to trim?"
Orchards may be trimmed late in the fall, as well as any time, and it is better to attend to it in the early part of the winter, rather than to put it off. The opinions of practical orchardists differ, as to the best period for trimming: Some prefer early spring, but partly because it is a period of leisure, while the absence of foliage, gives an opportunity to see the work as it progresses, and to watch its effect on the tree; but if upuertaken at that season, the work should be stopped as soon as the buds swell, and the leaves begin to expand, because the sap is then in active motion, and the wounds bleed, and do not heal' over so readily. Besides, the bark in spring, is very easily peeled off, and leaves a bad appearance. After the trees have completed their growth, and formed the terminal buds at the ends of their shoots, trimming may again be resumed. On the whole, we are quite satisfied, that the late fall offers all the advantages of early spring pruning, and fewer risks of injury to the tree. Mild weather along through the winter, will answer equally well.
In pruning large, old apple orchards, it is important to keep in view the following rules :
1. Avoid cutting off large limbs, except in cases of necessity, as old and dead limbs. 2. Admit light, equally, to all parts of the tree, by thinning out branches.
3. Remove crooked and badly growing limbs, so as to preserve a handsome, and uniform top.
4. It is better to do the work gradually, or in successve years, than to go at it too much at once. Begin at the top or centre. It lets in the light and air.
5 A good coating of shellac dissolved in alcohol, is desirable on all cuts, exceeding an inch in diameter. Make it thick enough to be of the consistency of paint. Let the wounds dry a little before it is put on. It is simple and inexpensive, avd the trees withstand the operation better for it. But don't flatter yourself that heavy pruning of an old orchard, will restore vigor without good cultivation. Very moderate and gradual pruning, is the correct mode of treatment; and thin, with good cultivation, will be attended by the best results. A drove of hogs will answer instead of the plough.
ATTENTION TO SPECIALTIES. I am not inclined to advocate the cultivation of one crop or another, to the exclusion of all others, for that would be absurd, - be like putting all the eggs into one basket. I would go further, and say, that I would have the farmer raise, even a greater variety of miscellaneous crops, for the supply of his own family. There is no reason, why a much larger assortment of garden vegetables for home consumption, should not be produced upon every farm. It would promote the comfort, the health, and the economy of the household, and need interfere but little, with the general operations of the farm. But so far as the management of the farm is concerned, I wish simply to suggest the adoption of some line of effort as a specialty, whether it be the culture of fruit, the culture of corn, or grass, the breeding of stock, the keeping of sheep, or of poultry. I would leave the particular object of pursuit to be governed by circumstances, such as the location, and character of the farm. I would study its special fitness for one thing or another.
Some farms are admirably adapted to the raising of fruit. Some have a warm, south eastern exposure, with a light, warm soil adapted to the grape, where vineyards would retnrn a profitable yield. Some have facilities for the raising of cranberries, and it is a pity not to take advantage of them. Some are remarkably well adapted to the raising of poultry, retired, and free from disturbance. Some are specially suited for grass, and the raising of stock would seem to be a leading pursuit, and so on. The idea is to study, and take advantage of the peculiar capacities of each farm; for of ten farms taken at random, scarcely any two would present the same characteristics.
APPLES FOR STOCK. Some people appear to have an idea, that apples are of little value for stock. That is not my opinion. I have fattened many a pig on boiled apples, and I know they made a savory and palatable mess. Besides, I have a friend, a practical farmer in New Hampshire, who agrees in this opinion. He has been feeding his horse, cows, sheep, and swine, on apples cut up in a root cutter, and finds the cows give a larger yield of milk, and richer cream, - nearly equal to that from the best of grass. He goes further, and is inclined to think it more profitable in the long run, to raise good late keeping apples for feeding stock, than to grow roots for the same purpose. I cannot quite indorse this idea; but í fully believe in the value of apples for cows and sheep, and would not deprive stock of them on any account, if I had them to spare.
ROOT CROPS. It has always been a matter of surprise to us that so few of our farmers appreciate the value of the root crop, as an article of food for stock. The labor is not so great as to deter us from raising roots, for it is well known that, if*judiciously managed, the amount of labor required is but little, if any, greater than that required for a crop of corn or any other of our cultivated crops.
The soil, the climate, or the atmosphere, with us, may not in every respect be so favorable as in England, where the root crop is regarded as second to none in importance; yet what difficulties we have are, to some extent, withiu our control, and the reason for our neglect can be only that the real value of Swedes and mangolds is not so generally understood as it ought to be.
The soil requires to be well pulverized. That is the first condition. But there is no doubt that the larger amount of food of the turnip is derived from the atmosphere, and the smaller amount from the soil, and much of this latter is really taken irom the atmosphere in the soil rather than from the soil itself.
Root crops want a good supply of phosphates. When it is considered that a large crop of Swedes on an acre of land often amounts to many tons, it will readily be seen that they can hardly find a full supply of food in the soil. Phosphate of lime may be called the essential food to be supplied artificially for most root crops, and hence it is desirable to add it in a soluble form, so that the plant may the more readily take it up. The English farmer has adopted the plan of liberal supplies of artificial manures, and the trade in these substances has become immense. The whole world has been ransacked for phosphates to supply the demands of the English market, and we have suffered them to be taken from us to fertilize the soil of England, when we needed them on our own soil.
With regard to the mangold, which is a variety of the beet, probably a mixture of guano and super-phosphate would produce better results than either alone. The mangold needs artificial assistance in the shape of manure in its early stages of growth, in order to force it into the rough leaf. If you get a good growth in the early stages, it soon gets on to a condition when it can help itself liberally from the atmosphere, and a good bulb will be the result. We get our best mangold crop in our dry summers. It is a native of a warm climate, and it likes the sun. Though it does better on a stiffer soil than the Swede requires, yet it often succeeds well on a sandy loam. On such a soil, no doubt, a compost of clay and manure, well soaked in the urine of the barn cellar, would suit it best. A most thorough ploughing should be given as carly in the spring as practicable, and a second ploughing just before the seed is to be sown.
If the ground is full of couch-grass, or weeds of any kind, the more care bestowed in cleaning the land the less trouble will there be in the after culture. The English throw the land into ridges. We are inclined to think a level culture preferable here. The distance apart may vary from eighteen to twenty-four inches. It is better to allow plenty of room for the horse-hoe, and to save a good deal of labor which would otherwise be required. A good tilth and careful horse-hoeing are essential to success. The hoe should be started as early as practicable; the sooner after the leaves are well formed the better.
The mangold is one of the most valuable roots we have, and it ought to be more extensively cultivated than it is. It keeps late into the spring, and furnishes a muchneeded article of food at a season when some sort of succulent food is required. The Swede comes next. That is useful in the early part of the winter. The English turnip is a sort of makeshift which answers very well in December, or in making the change from grass to winter feed. It can be raised easily and in large quantities after any early crop of oats or peas.
KEEP BETTER STOCK. To improve the breed of animals, it is by no means necessary to incur a great ex pense in bringing animals from a distance. If a farmer will mount his horse and ride across the country some fine day, and view the live stock of his neighbors, he will soon perceive that there are abundant means of bettering his circumstances by ? cross, or exchange, at a slight cost; and he by this plan is improving his judgment by comparison, and hoarding up, by experience, for å future day, that which will be of more value to him than the expense of many such excursions; and improvements once begun and persisted in for a short time, will produce such a corresponding improvement in the mind and circumstances of the farmer as will insure their continuation, and richly reward all his labor and outlay.
Many of our farmers destroy the hope of improving their stock by a system of false economy in the selection of the males from which they breed their stock; many do not keep a male from which to breed their horses or horned stock; nor is it necessary, as one will do for a neighborhood; but this one should be the best; and in order to keep a good one, a good price can, and must, and should be charged for his services. Remember there is a great difference in the money value of the young animal coming from good and poor stock – difference enough to leave a
TO BRING UP WORN-OUT LAND.
Probably the most effective way to improve and bring up an old and exhausted pasture, would be to plough and cultivate the land and bring it into good condition. If that is not practicable, it would be a good plan to haul on a good compost topdressing, and spread it in the fall. Then as soon as practicable in spring, that is, as soon as the team can go on without poaching and injury to the land, sow on a thick seeding of clover and orchard grass, say ten to fifteen pounds to the acre, and go over first with a tooth, and then with a brush harrow. If you cannot command à sufficiently heavy dressing of compost or yard manure, add a dressing of plaster of Paris, say one hundred and fifty pounds to the acre at the time of sowing the seed or harrowing, or directly after.
The distance to haul the manure may be less objectionable in winter when there is more leisure, and when possibly it may be sledded. If you have not the manure to spare, you can easily make arrangements for it in the fall, when the top-dressing may go ou earlier, say in December. If no yard manure can be spared for it, you can use some artificial manure, like guano and plaster, early in spring, when a little clover seed would, no doubt, be beneficial.
The cheapest way may be to stock the lot with sheep, if it is so situated as to be practicable. Stock a little hard, and feed them extra, and they add to the fertility of the land, and rapidly bring it up.
But ploughing, where it is practicable, or thorough cultivation, is probably the best way to treat it. The coating of manure we speak of can be got on when the ground is frozen much better and cheaper than in spring.
If the pasture is rough and rocky, full of bushes, so that it cannot be ploughed, cut the bushes, and stock heavily with sheepSheep will keep down almost all, except huckleberry bushes and alders. The former should be loosened with a heavy harrow, and the latter are easily killed by cutting,. Go over the huckleberry pasture with an iron-toothed harrow, and then grub up the bushes. It is rather expensive, but the cheapest way in the end. Blueberry bushes, sumachs, wild blackberry vines, and many others, the sheep will surely destroy, and they will improve the land while doing it.
FARMERS' CLUBS. During the long evenings of the late fall and early winter, it is a capital plan to start up, and keep up, a farmers? club. It may be made the means of great good, whether considered in an educational, or social point of view. It won't do to get rusty and dull, as any one is apt to do, who has nothing to interest him, and much time to till up." Farmers' clubs are kept up with interest and spirit in some towns, while in others they languish after the first year of novelty. We are inclined to think the interest flags from some want of management on the part of those who assume to lead off. There is certainly variety enough in the innumerable subjects connected with agriculture, and there would seem to be no good reason why the attendance and the interest in the meetings should fall off. At the same time there is constant need of effort, to make each meeting attractive, and this effort should be directed to drawing out facts and the results of experience, the procuriug and distributing pamphlets, books, reports, seeds, &c., and the bringing out of new men, especially young men, who inay be too modest to put themselves forward without a little gentle urging.
We believe it has been found by experience, that meeting at each others' houses has been more satisfactory all round, than meeting in any central hall. There is greater freedom, more of a social and' home feeling about the meetings, less stiffness and formality. A subject is assigned for special investigation, to be presented, say by the member at whose house the meeting is held, who is followed, after he is through, by others who take part in the discussion, asking questions for further information upon certain points, &c.
Now, in those cases where the interest, for any cause, seems to languish, we would suggest that the plan of meeting around be adopted, if it is not already practised, or that some new plan be tried to awaken the interest of those who need it. It is not advisable to leave the management to take care of itself. It is better to have a fixed and well understood subject assigned beforehand; and if the programme can be made up at the beginning of the season by a committee appointed for the purpose, so much the better. It gives time for thought and investigation, and will bring out better matured results
than any reliance upon chance, or any dependence upon the spur of the moment.
The exercises may profitably be varied occasionally by essays, lectures, and social gatherings, visiting and uniting with neighboring clubs, &c.; but at any rate let the interest be kept up by a study of novelty and change, if necessary... One thing is certain, and that is, a farmers' club can be made successful, interesting, and useful, for we know that such is the case with many clubs; and what has been done may be done again,