From Guyot's Earth and Man," translated by the late C. C. Felton, President of

Harvard College.
The accumulated and moving waters of the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico
are the inexhaustible source of that torrent of warm water which, under the name of
the Gulf Stream, precipitates itself over the breakers of Bahama, flows along the
coast of Florida, at a rate varying from two to five miles an hour, according to the
season, and keeps on its way upon a line parallel to the shore at a short distance
from its margin, until it passes beyond Cape Hatteras.

The Stream, hitherto narrow, deep, and rapid, meets in this vicirity the cold waters from the north, and the sand banks running along at a distance from the coasts as far as the southern part of Newfoundland. Repulsed by these obstacles, it makes a sudden turn to the east, becomes much broader, spreads over the surface, and goes henceforth on its slackened course to the Azores, whence it bends towards the south in order to recommence from the coasts of Africa the immense cycle of the never-ending rotation.

These warm waters of the tropics advance northward even beyond the limits we have just indicated. Driven by the south-east winds prevailing in the Northern Atlantic, they proceed to bathe the coasts of the North of Europe, the temperature of which they soften, and often deposit on the lonely shores of Scotland and Norway the plants and seeds of the tropical regions — unangwerable witnesses of their distant

On seeing the narrow breadth of the Gulf Stream, from its origin to Cape Hatteras, one is led to ask how it can be sufficient to cover with warm water the immense surface it occupies from this point all the way to the Azores. The beautiful explorations, executed under the able direction of Professor Bache, Superintendent of the Coast Survey, give the answer; for numerous thermometrical soundings prove that off this cape the depth of the current is such, that at three thousand feet below the surface it still presents nearly the same differences of temperature which distinguish it from the surrounding sea, and clearly mark its limits.

It is doubtless these deep waters which appear at the surface when it becomes broad; for, as it loses in speed, the warm waters are free to ascend and take the place assigned to them by their lesser density, at the same time that this very cause lavors the accumulation of the waters in the part of the current where its progress is slackened. It only changes form, and in advancing, must lose in depth what it gains in width.

The polar currents of the Atlantic are perceptible chiefly on the coasts of America. Hudson's and Baffin's Bays, and the Sea of Greenland, pour their waters and their ice along the eastern coast of the continent, and contribute, doubtless, to lower the temperature.

Buch are the most salient features of the vast picture presented by the oscillations of the ocean waters. Although we have merely touched upon the subject, we know already enough, I believe, to be convinced that, if the causes of these movements flow, for the most part, from the general laws regulating the physical constitution of the globe, their evolutions, and the special and individual characters that they assume in each ocean, are an immediate result of the configuration and disposition of the terrestrial masses forming the basin of the seas.

The great oceanic currents are one of the grandest phenomena presented by the wise economy of Nature. Their extent, the prodigious length of their course, in some nearly equal to the circumference of the globe, fill us with astonishment, and leave far behind everything of this description to be seen in the watercourses of the continents. Owing to these permanent streams, the sea waters mingle from pole to pole, and move with ceaseless flow from the Pacific to the Indian Ocean, and from this to the Atlantic; and this unending agitation preserves their healthfulness and purity. Like the winds, the currents tend to equalize differences, to soften extremes.

The cold waters of the antarctic pole temper the scorching heats of the coast of Peru; the warm waters of the Gulf Stream lessen the severity of the climate of Norway and the British Islands. Their importance is no less in the relations of the people and the commerce of the nations. It is the currents which, together with the wiuds, trace the great lines of communication upon the highways of the oceans, favoring or obstructing the intercourse of one country with another, bringing near together places apparently the most remote, separating others that seem to touch each other. Their importance in nature and history cannot fail to impress the minds of all.

THE RIVER-FALLS INTO THE OCEAN. – Some idea of the enormous quantity of water that is perpetually flowing into the oceans of the globe is derived from the extent of its chief river basins. The Rhone, for example, drains the waters from an area of 7000 square miles

of country; the Rhine, which has a length of 600 miles by its windings, drains the water from a country of twice that area; and the Danube from 55,000 square miles of surface; but the waters from an area of 300,000 square miles fall into the St. Lawrence, and those from 1,000,000 of square miles into the Mississippi, which, by its windings, has a length of 3560 miles. It is estimated that 1,800,000 of tons of water fall daily into the Mediterranean, which, besides the great rivers that fall into it, receives more than twenty secondary rivers, and innumerable

[ocr errors]

TIDE TABLE. The Tides given in the Calendar pages are for the Port of Boston. The following table contains the approximate difference between the time of High Water at Boston and several other places.

When the sign – is prefixed to the hours and minutes in the table, the time must be subtracted from the Boston timc; and when the sign + is prefixed, the time must be added to the Boston time.



[ocr errors]



+4 12 Charleston, - 4 15 New London, Bay, Buzzard's,

- 3 50 Fryingpan Shoals, 500 Newport, * Narraganset, - 3 53 Georgetown Bar, - 4 30 Norfolk,

St. Mary's, - 200 Harbor, Amelia, - 3 00 Philadelphia, Bermuda Inlet, - 4 30 Island, Block, - 3 53 Plymouth,

0 00 Cape Ann,

Pr. Edward, -1 00 Portland,
Charles, -3 45

Rhode, - 4 45 Port Campbell,
000 Marblehead,

0 00 Port Jackson,

- 3 30 New Bedford, -353 Providence, Henry,

- 3 50 Newburyport, O 15 St. Salvador, St. Mary, - 2 30 New Haven,

1 14 Sandy Hook,


-2 36 -4 05 -3 CO +2 37

0 00 -043 - 2 30 - 3 30 - 3 5 +4 15

[ocr errors]

TERRITORIAL ACQUISITIONS OF THE UNITED STATES. - The following is a list. -1. The purchase of Louisiana and the Mississippi Valley, in 1803,

from France, for $15,000,000. 2. The purchase of Florida, in 1819, from Spain, for $3,000,000. 3. The annexation of Texas, in 1845. 4. The purchase of California, New Mexico, and Utah, from Mexico, for $15,000,000, in 1848. 5. The purchase of Arizona from Mexico, for $10,000,000, in 1854. 6. The purchase, in 1867, of the immense Russian Possessions, running down on the Pacific coast from the north pole to fifty-four north latitude, at which line it strikes the British Possessions, for $7,200,000 in gold, and whose estimated area is over 500,000 square miles.

We find the following statistical table, giving the ratio of deaths to every hundred inhabitants. The small number of deaths in the newer States may probably be accounted for in part by the fact of there being fewer children and old people in them. Oregon .35 South Carolina. : 1.20 Texas

. 1.46 Minnesota .46 Pennsylvania .1.24 New York

. 1.51 Wisconsin .95 Indiana . 1.30 Rhode Island

. 1.52 California

.98 Maine
....1.30 Kentucky.

. 1.53 Vermont. 1.00 New Jersey .....1.30 Connecticut

. 1.56 Michigan . 1.04 Delaware

.1.32 District of Columbia 1.03 Iowa. . 1.06 New Hampshire . 1.33 Maryland.

. 1.65 Florida . 1.09 Virginia . 1.34 Missouri

. 1.80 Georgia 1.09 Jilinois. 1.36 New Mexico

.1.88 Alabaina, . 1.19 Arkansas . 1.44 Massachusetts

.1.95 Tennessee ...1.18 Mississippi

. 1.44 Utah ..

.2.10 North Carolina 1.19 Ohio

. 1.46 | Louisiana

[ocr errors]


[ocr errors]

. 2.31

COPPER-MINING IN THE UNITED STATES. – Thc copper-mining companies in the United States number one hundred and twelve, and $15,515,500 lias been paid into their coffers by sanguine owners of shares. Only eight of the companics have cver paid dividends; the aggregate of these up to the 1st instant being $5,880,000. But they have been the quarter of a century about it. Of these companies tifty.one have their location in Boston, of which three bave paid dividends; thirty-six in New York, of which three also have paid dividends; nine in Pittsburg, of which two have paid dividends; fourteen in Philadelphia, of which none have paid dividends, and one in Chicago, which, in the matter of dividends, is as barren as Philadelphia.

The three copper-producing counties of Michigan - Keweenaw, Ontonagon, and Houghton, - have a population of 17,000. These counties produced, ir. 1866, seven thousand two hundred ninety-four tons of copper, worth $4,376,400. Equal to $257.49

per head.

CONSUMPTION OF ARDENT SPIRITS IN THE UNITED STATES. There to said to be annually consumed in this country forty-two millions gallons of distilled spirits, one hundred and eighty-six million gallons of fermented liquors, ten million gallons of imported liquors; the estimated cost of which is $500,000,000. Much liquor is smuggled into the country, and an immense but unknown quantity is secretly distilled. - January, 1867.

PRODUCTION OF PETROLEUM:--The oil product of Pennsylvania, and of the petroleum regions of other parts of the country, during the past six years, is estimated at about 11,640,670 barrels of crude oil. To produce this there have been sunk from the beginning of the petroleum excitement to the end of 1866, seven thousand nine hundred and thirty wells, not more than one tenth of which are now believed to be producing oil.

THE OLD BAY STATE. THE following tribute to Massachusetts we extract from an eloquent Address, entitled " AN EDUCATED COMMONWEALTA,” delivered by Dr. George B. Loring, at the dedication of a building erected for a Town House and High School, in North Andover, in May, 1867:

“And now of the efforts of Massachusetts to improve her material condition by the arts of peace. More than thirty years ago she commenced a system of public improvements, by loaning her credit

to the enterprise of her citizens; and the fruits of her wisdom in this respect are before us. In 1830, before a railroad was running within her limits, when her agricultural and commercial wealth constituted nearly all her resources, manufactures being still in their infancy, her valuation amounted to $208,360,403. În 1840, while her railroad system was yet in its infancy, and the effect of her loans was yet doubtful, her valuation had increased to $299,878,327. In 1860, however, under the influence of her public liberality and her private enterprises, the valuation of her property increased to $897,796,826; and in 1865, to $1,009,000,000.

“of the products of her industry, Governor Bullock, in his last annual message, remarks: 'I am enabled to announce to every bolder of a Massachusetts bond, whether at home or abroad, the fact, that while the first report indicated an annual product of eighty-six millions of dollars, the second of one hundred and twenty-four millions, and the third of two hundred and ninety-five millions, the fourth and last exhibits an aggregate of five hundred and seventeen millions ($517,000,000). And this result is yet more gratifying, and no less remarkable, when it is remembered that the increase of seventy-two per cent. on production in the last decade has been attained with an increase of only three per cent. in our population.'

“And how true and dauntless has our State been in this great enterprise of Popular Education! In peace and in war she has never faltered. Even under the heavy drafts made upon her treasury during the rebellion, her expenditures for cducation steadily increased. And when peace camo, with its accumulated indebtedness, the schools received, if possible, still more earn est care. Last year the increase of scholars in our schools was over ten thousand; and the amount raised by taxation for schools was larger by more than two hundred thousand dollars than during any previous year.

" The devotion of two millions of dollars by an individual benefactor, Mr. George Peabody, for the diffusion of knowledge in the West and South-west, has excited the admiration of mankind. The amount expended by Massachusetts last year, as her annual contribution to the cause of learning, was larger than this by more than five hundred thousand dollars, - being $2,574,974 49, in her public schools alone. In addition to this, her colleges have been libérally supported; and it has been estimated that her sons have bestowed more than a million dollars in private subscription, bequest, and donation, to the fortunate recipients of their bounty.

"And now, pardon me while I consider with you for a moment, before we close, and separate, and return to our customary avocations, the policy wbich naturally belongs to such a State as ours, a State which has accomplished so much, and which can bear the burden of the past and present by being confident, and bold, and ener: getic for the future. Massachusetts has won her position as a controlling State, and her renown and honor, by calling upon the resources of her sons, with the entire and unwavering belief that her call would be answered.

“The loaning of her credit was done with the expectation that her people would avail themselves of every opportunity afforded by these great channels of trade; and that expectation has not been disappointed. More than thirty years ago a system of education was inaugurated here, which could only succeed by the devotion and liberality of the people — by a popular determination to use all means of education, at whatever trouble and cost. It is enough to say that the system has succeeded.

"Bix years ago, unprepared and unaccustomed, the State was plunged into a long and exhausting war, in the prosecution of which all her resources of men, money, and moral force were required, and in the result of which depended her existence as part of a free and prosperous republic. All this work of peace and war has not been done without a heavy burden of debt. In 1850 we had a mere nominal, unsecured indebtedness. Ir. 1860 six and a half millions of dollars would have paid all claims against us. In 1863 the obligations of the State had increased to a little more than eleven millions; in 1864 to nearly fourteen millions; and in 1867 it amounts to $25,520,995 92, of which $14,427,585 24 are provided for by sinking funds, &c., applicable by law to the redemption of the public debt, and leaving more than nine millions unprovided for, except so far as depends upon the energy, industry, honesty, and success of the people. And when I allude to that policy which belongs natarally to our State, I mean that policy which will enable her to bear this debt, and pay it without discouragement to her sons, and without checking that industry which has made her great and prosperous.

“Now, I know no way to do this except by a constant appeal to that energy and business capacity which have marked her course thus far, and to that incessant struggle for moral and intellectual elevation for which she has become distinguished, believing, as I do, that prosperity and virtue go hand in hand, and that neither can

STATE DEBTÀ. . We copy the following statement from one of our daily journals : WHEN speaking of the Public Debt, the debts of the States are usually let out of account. They only appear in State documents, and are not easily calculated in a lump. The debts of cities and towns, wlvioh form another large aggsegate, are still more difficult to get at. Altogether, the public indebtedness of the country cannot be less than three thousand millions at the present time. This amount represents the dead loss by the war; yet it does not show the whole extent of that loss, which also includes the decreased rate of developineut while the war raged, and the actual destruction which it occasioved.

The Financial Chronicle has prepared a comparative statement, showing the amounts owing by the States in 1860 aud 1866, compiled from local sources. The statement embraces thirty-two States, whose aggregate indebtednebs shows an increase of $96,304,881. In 1860 they owed $255,849,709; in 1866, $352,154,500. The debt of Massachusetts has increased from $7,175,978 to $25,505,747. That of New York grew from $34,182,975 to $51,853,082. Connecticut, which in 1860 owed a modest $50,000, now staggers under $10,000,000; New Hampshire, which six years ago thought $82,148 debr enough, now submits patiently to $4,169,818; Rhode Island and Vermont, which formerly did not owe a dollar, now have liabilities, respectively, of $3,626,500 and $1,567,500. In the West, Wisconsin has risen from $100,000 to $2,282,191; Iowa from $422,296 to $622,296; Missouri from $23,923,000 to $37,145,928.

Of the border States, Tennessee is the most heavily encumberset, its debt bavig swelled from $16,643,666 to $25,277,347. The war debts of the Southern States were wiped out with the cause they espoused, and their increase of debt is, therefore, with one or two exceptions, for the most part confined to the accumulation of overdue interest. The debt of Alabama has risen from $5,048,000 to $6,304,972; that of Florida from $383,000 to $638,863; that of Louisiana from $10,023,903 to $13,357,999; that of North Carolina from $9, 129,505 to $14,433,000; that of Virginia from $33,248,141 to $45,119,741; while the debt of Arkansas has grown but nominally, and Texas, which was wont to print a simple nil, now confesses to $2,320,360. Meanwhile Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, and Pennsylvania have slightly diminished their State debts; but the debts of cities and towns have increased in those States and elsewhere throughout the country:

This vast increase of debt has not been accompanied by any corresponding increase of resources. In the fictitious currency now in use values have increased, it is true, in the North; but we cannot tell what they will be by and by, when we get down to hard pan, while the valuation of the South must have decreased by at least one thousand millions, without taking into account the assessed value of negroes held as property before the war. If anybody believes that the country has increased in actual wealth more than enough to pay the expense of the war since the war commenced, it is an error. We seriously question whether the real wealth of the whole country is a dollar greater than it was in 1860. If we are correct, the amount of the increase in the public indebtedness, added to the increase to which we were entitled in six years of peace, shows the cost of the war. We cannot reckon it less than five thousand milfions. A fearful bill! ...

The people everywhere are suffering from the burdens heaped upon them. Pricesof food, of rents, of clothing, are increasing, and our taxes are growing higher every year. Our local taxes are no exceptions. The State tax for this Commonwealth amounts to $5,000,000 in 1867, against $3,700,000 in 1900. The rate of taxation in this city has increased in the same time from thirteen to seventeen dollars in the thousand; and the same is true of all the cities and towns about us. The remedy is in the bands of the people, and if they do not exercise it they have no right to complain.

Now what the people have to do is, to select only the best men for their publie offices, - for their senators and representatives in Congress, and the State legislaturcs; men of honesty, integrity, good judgment, and common sense. Under our public embarrassments the best and most judicious men alonc should be intrusted with the management of affairs. The highest degree of wisdom will be required in legislation, the highest integrity in executing the laws and the disbursement of public money. Instead of expanding our debts and liabilities, public and private, let us contract them, as the only safe and sure course out of our difficulties.

SOUTHERN LOSSES DURING THE WAR.- Mr. Robert Tyler writes a letter to the Montgomery Mail, stating that in his opinion the estimates of Commodore Maury, respecting the losses of the South during the war, are altogether too high, and he cuts them down about one half, as follows: By emancipation, $1,700,000,000 ; expenses of the war, $600,000,000; destruction of private property, $700,000,000; additional Federal taxation, $500,000,000; total, $3,500,000,000.

BOOKS ABOUT AMERICA. - Since the discovery of America, about fifty thousand books have been printed relating to this country. A dictionary of these works is to be published by a New York bibliographer. Thirty-seven Abbotts and two hundred and two Adamses are authors in the list.


Letters. --The maximum standard weight for the single rate of letter postage 18 one half oz, avoirdupois. The rate of postage on all domestic letters not exceeding one half oz. shall be uniform at three cents; and for each half oz., or fraction thereof, of additional weight, an additional rate of three cents, to be in all cases prepaid by postage stamps. DROP or LOCAL LETTERS, two cents per half oz., prepaid by stamps; and no further fee can be charged for delivery, or for taking from street boxes to the mails. IRREGOLAR MATTER. — Letter rates are to be charged on irregular matter, part writing and part print, except that publishers may send and receive proof-sheets, and advise patrons, by writing on papers, when their subscription is up, at printed matter rates. On unclassified matter, where no specific rate is Bet down, letter postage is charged. BOLDIERS' AND SAILORS' LETTERS are exempt from this extra charge, and may go unpaid if franked. Returned DEAD LETTERS, free. Foreign dead letters subject to conventional stipulations with the respective governments. Letters not finding owners at the office named, must be forwarded, when the place is known, free. The Postmaster-General may pay not more than two cents for carrying letters in vessels not carrying mails, such letters to be put in post-office on arrival in port; if for local delivery, another two cents should be affixed. No fees are allowed for letters collected by a carrier on a mail route.

Nowspapors, Magazinos, &c. – Newspaper, or second class postage, is, for papers not over four ounces each, per quarter, once a week, 5 cts.; twice, io cts.; three times, 15 cts.; six times, 30 cts.; seren times, 35 cto., and so on, adding one rate for each issue more than once per week, to be prepaid for not less than three months nor more than a year, at the office of reception. Publishers of weekly newspapers may send within their county free. On magazines issued less often than once à week, one cent for four ounces to regular subscribers. Special bargains may be made by the Postmaster-General for transporting packages of newspapers, &c. Publishers must be notified when papers are not taken out for one month, which notice may be sent free. BILLS AND RECEIRTS for subscriptions may be enclosed in papers and go free; any other written enclosure imposes letter postage. Publishers may exchange papers free, not exceeding sixteen ounces in weight.

Books - Not over 4 oz, in weight, 4 cts.; between 4 and 8 oz., 8 cts.; between 8 and 12 oz., 12 cts. ; &c.

Miscellaneous Including pamphlets, occasional publications, transient newspapers, handbills and posters, book manuscripts and proof-sheets, whether corrected or not, maps, prints, engravings, sheet music, blanks, flexible patterns, flexible samples and sample cards, phonographic paper, letter 'envelopes, postal envelopes or wrappers, cards, paper, plain or ornamental, photographs, seeds, cuttings, bulbs, roots, and scions, not over 4 oz. in weight, 2 cents; over 4 oz., and not over 8 oz., 4 cts.; over 8 oz., and not over 12 oz., 6 cts.; over 12 oz., and not over 16 oz., 8 cts. All matter not above specified is charged at letter postage : all classes, except as above mentioned, must be prepaid.

Money Orders — For any amount not exceeding $50 on one order, are issued in the principal offices, on payment of the following fees : Orders not exceeding $20, 10 cts., over $20, and not exceeding $50, 25 cents. This system is becoming popular with many who preferred the registry system,

Franking.-Franking is restricted to the president, his private secretary, the vice-president, heads of executive departments, heads of bureaus and chief clerks, to be designated by the Postmaster-General, senators and representatives, secretary of senate and clerk of house – but this only to cover matter sent to them, and that despatched in the way of business, except documents issued by Congress. 'DOCUMENTS from officers to their several departments, marked official, also go free; also PETITIONS to Congress. The weight of franked matter must not exceed four ounces per package, savo Congress books, &c.

Foreign Letters (except to England and Ireland, to either of which the postage is 12 cts., prepayment optional) should indicate on the outside the route by which they are to be sent, as the difference by various routes is great. Thus, to Austria, and any of the German States, via“ Prussian closed mail," 30 cts., prepayment op: tional; if prepaid, 28 cts.; via Bremen or Hamburg,”

15 cts., prepayment optional; via “ French mail,” not exceeding 402., 21 cts.; not exceeding oz., 42 cts. To the CANADAS, 10 cts., prepayment optional. To ŚWITZERLAND, via " Prussian closed mail,” if prepaid, 33 cts.; if not, 35; via " French mail," not exceeding 402., 21 cts.; not exceeding % oz., 42 cts., prepayment optional; via “Bremen or Hamburg mail, 19 cts., prepayment optional. To FRANCE, not exceeding 14 oz., 15 cts.; not exceed

« ElőzőTovább »