Oldalképek
PDF
ePub

THENEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY

ASTOR, LENOX AND TILDEN FOUNDATIONS

1901

PREFACE.

“ THE English Reader” and “ The Sequel” to that performance, having met with a favourable reception from the public, the compiler has been induced to prepare a small volume, on a similar plan, for the use of children who have made but little progress in reading. It has been his aim to form a compilation, which would properly conduct the young learner from the Spelling-book to the “ English Reader :" and in prosecuting this design, he has been par. ticularly careful to select such pieces as are adapted to the understanding, and pleasing to the taste, of children.

work calculated for different classes of young readers, sho ild contain pieces suited, in point of language and matter, .o their various ages and capacities. The compiler, in conformity with this idea, has endeavoured to arrange the materials of each chapter so as to form an easy gradation, which

may be adapted to the different progress of the learn

Judicious teachers will know how to apply this ar[ gernent to the years and abilities of their pupils.

Care has been taken to render the language of all the pieces correct and perspicuous; that the young learner may impleve in style as well as in reading, and insensibly ac. quire a taste for accurate composition. To imbue the tender saind with the love of virtue and goodness, is an especial object of the present work: and with this view, the pieces have been scrupulously selected ; and, where necessary, purified from every word and sentiment that could offend the most delicate mind.

ers.

As a work tending to season the minds of children with piety and virtuc', and to improve them in reading, language, and sentiment, the compiler hopes it will prove a suitable Introduction to the “ English Reader,” and other publications of that nature : and also a proper book for those schools, in which, from their circumscribed plan of educa.. tion, larger works of the kind cannot be admitted.

Advertisement to the Second English Edition.

The compiler has added to this edition more than twenty pages of matter, which he hopes will be found useful and interesting He has also given to many of the pieces a new arrangement, calculated to render every part of the work more intelligible and pleasing to young minds.

RULES AND OBSERVATIONS

FOR ASSISTING CHILDREN TO READ WITH PROPRIETY

THE compiler of this work having, in the preface to his “ English Reader,” explained at large the principles of elo. cution, nothing on this head seems to be necessary, in the present publication, but to give a few plain and simple rules, adapted to the younger classes of learners; and to make some observations, calculated to rectify the errors which they are most apt to commit. These rules may be comprehended under the following heads. They are comprised in few words, and a little separated from the observations, that those teachers who wish their pupils to come mit them to memory, may more readily distinguish them from the parts which require only an attentive perusal.

I. All the simple sounds should be pronounced with fulness, distinctness, and energy; particularly the vowels, on the proper utterance of which, the force and beauty of pronunciation greatly depend.

The simple sounds, especially those signified by the letters l, r, s, th, and sh, are often very imperfectly pronounced by young persons. B and p are apt to be confounded : 80 are d and t, s and 2, f and v. The letters v and w are often sounded the one for the other: thus, wine is pronounced vine; and vinegar, winegar. The diphthong ow, is, in some words, vulgarly sounded like er: as foller, meller, winder; instead of follow, mellow, window. When several conso. nants, proper to be sounded, occur in the beginning or at the end of words, it is a very common error to omit one of them in pronunciation: as in the words asps, casks, guests, preadth, fifth, twelfth, strength, hearths. Not sounding the letter h, when it is proper to sound this letter, is a great fault in pronunciation, and very difficult wholly to correct.

When children have acquired any improper habits with respect to simple sounds the best mode of correction is to

make them frequently repeat words and sntences, in which those sounds occur. When the simple sounds are thoroughly understood and acquired, the various combinations of them into syllables and words will be easily effected.

II. In order to give spirit and propriety to pronunciation, due attention must be paid to accent, emphasis, and cadence.

When we distinguish a syllable by a greater stress of the voice, it is called accent. When we *hus distinguish any word in a sentence, it is called emphasis. It is difficult to give precise rules for placing the accent: but the best general direction, is, to consult the most approved pronouncing dictionaries, and to imitate the practice of the most correct speakers.

There are, in every sentence, some word or words, on which the sense of the rest depends; and these must always he distinguished by a fuller and stronger sound of voice, whether they are found in the beginning, the middle, or at the end of the sentence. It is highly improper to lay an emphasis on words of little importance. Words put in opposition to each other, are always emphatical: as, “ Here I am mismahle ; but ihere I shall be happy.“ Children,” says Beattie, are not often taught to read with proper emphasis. When books are put before them which they do not understand, it is impossible they should apply it properly. Let them, therefore, read nothing but what is level to their capacity. Let them read deliberately, and with attention to every word. Let them be set right, not only when they misapply the emphasis, but also cautioned against the opposite 'extremes of too forcible and too feeble an application of it: for, by the former of these faults, they become affected in their utterance; and by the latter, insipid.'? That children may be enabled to apply the emphasis with judgment, they should carefully study the subject, and ascertain the meaning of every difficult word and sentence previously to their being called to read to the teacher.

As emphasis consists in raising the voice, cadence signi fies the falling of it. Towards the close of a sentence, the cadence takes place, unless the concluding words be emphatical. It should always be easy and gradual, not abrupt; and should never be expressed in a feeble and lan

[ocr errors]
« ElőzőTovább »