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house of the LORD, and all the men of Judah | the king was placed when he came to the and all the inhabitants of Jerusalem with him, temple, as the Hebrew doctors will have it. and the priests, and the prophets, and all the The king's seat, saith Jacob Juda Leo, was people, both small and great (Heb., from small in the court of the Israelites, at the entrance even unto great]: and he read in their ears into the court of the priests, by a marble all the words of the book of the covenant pillar. which was found in the house of the LORD. Dr. A. Clarke.By a pillar.] 1995, The prophets.

upon the stairs or pulpit.This is what Pool.— The prophets ; either Jeremiah, is called the brazen scaffold, or pulpit which Zephaniah, Urijah; or the sons or disciples Solomon made, and on which the kings of the prophets.

were accustomed to stand when they adHoub. - 2 O'N°2377, propheta. Legitur dressed the people. See 2 Chron. vi. 13, 2 Par. xxxiv. 30 D’187, Levilæ, quam and the parallel places. scriptionem antetulit Lud. Cappellus, cum Commandments, testimonies, statutes. forte crederet non fuisse eo tempore in notes on Deut. vi. 2, 20, vol. i., pp. 666, 667. Israel prophetas, sed unam Holdam prophe- Slood to the covenant. tissam, quam consultum iverant homines à

Ged., Booth.Consented to the covenant. Sed fieri potuit multis de Gesen.—798. Seq. ? to persist, to persecausis, ut Holda consuleretur, non cæteri vere in any thing, Isaiah xlvii. 12; Eccl. prophetæ, cùm præsertim Holda in Jeru-viii

. 3 ; 2 Kings xxiii. 3; once c. acc. Ez. salem habitaret. Itaque incertum est, utra xvii. 14 to keep the covenant and rings to scriptura verior, an prophetæ, an Levitæ.

stand to it. Comp. Esth. iii. 4, whether He read.

Mordecai's matters would stand, i. e., whether Bp. Patrick.– He ordered some to read he would persist in that course. (xxii. 10) in several places, so that all might Maurer.Et perstitit (ut Eccles. viii. 3 ; hear.

Jes. xlvii. 12) populus in fædere, stetit Ver. 3.

fædere, uti etiam Latini dicunt; vel : atque ita fecerat fædus, propr. und so stand es dann im Bunde (cf. E. Gr. crit., p. 540. Gr.

, $. , 2). Prior interpretatio præniyong in ipsis ITferenda videtur. De Wettius: und es trat ? improng in den Bund, teinere.

Ver. 4.

?
:
ó Bao deus tpos , : ,

évámlov Kupiou . εσθαι οπίσω Κυρίου, του φυλάσσειν τας εντολάς αυτού, και τα μαρτύρια αυτού, και τα

' δικαιώματα αυτού εν πάση καρδία και εν πάση και ενετείλατο ο βασιλεύς τω Χελκία το ψυχή, του αναστήσαι τους λόγους της δια- ιερεί το μεγάλο και τους ιερεύσι της δευτεθήκης ταύτης, τα γεγραμμένα επί το βιβλίον ρώσεως και τους φυλάσσουσι τον σταθμών, του τούτο. και έστη πάς ο λαός εν τη διαθήκη. εξαγαγείν εκ του ναού κυρίου πάντα τα σκεύη

Au. Ver.–3 And the king stood by a τα πεποιημένα τω Βάαλ και το άλσει και pillar, and made a covenant before the πάση τη δυνάμει του ουρανού κ.τ.λ. LORD, to walk after the Lord, and to keep Au. Ver.--4 And the king commanded his commandments and his testimonies and Hilkiah the high priest, and the priests of his statutes with all their heart and all their the second order, and the keepers of the soul, to perform the words of this covenant door, to bring forth out of the temple of the that were written in this book. And all the Lord all the vessels that were made for people stood to the covenant.

Baal, and for the grove, and for all the host Stood by a pillar. See notes on xi. 14. of heaven: and he burned them without

Bp. Patrick.— The king stood by a pillar.] Jerusalem in the fields of Kidron, and Unto which his throne adjoined; wherein carried the ashes of them unto Beth-el,

וַעֲמַד הַמֶּלֶךְ עַל־הָעַמוּד וַיִּכְרְת .(2 ,476 .,.min אֶת־הַבְּרִיתוּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה לָלֶכֶת אַחֵר

מִצְוֹתָיו

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לְהָקִים אֶת־דִּבְרֵי הַבְּרִית הַזֹּאת וַיְצַו הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶת־חִלְקִיָּהוּ הַכֹּהֵן הַכְּתָבִים עַל־הַסֵּפֶר הַזֶּה וַעֲמָד כָּל־ הַגָּדוֹל וְאֶת־כֹּהֲנֵי הַמִּשְׁנֶה וְאֶת־שְׂמְרֵי הָעָם בַּבְּרִית : הַמַר לְהוֹצִיא מֵהֵיכַל יְהוָה אֵת כָּל־ orthov

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צְבָא הַשָּׁמַיִם וגו'

צבָא הַשָּׁמָיִם :

The priests of the second order.

Ver. 5. Pool.The priests of the second order: non en crippning non? either those two who were next in degree to , ?

? (Dr. A. ); ? ? of whom see 2 Sam. viii. 17; or the heads a nikmah bin nimis book of the twenty-four courses, which David had appointed, i Chron. xxiv.

Gesen.- m. (r. 1758). 1. Second rank, και κατέκαυσε τους χωμαρίμ, ους έδωκαν second place, in order, dignity, honour, βασιλείς Ιούδα, και έθυμίων εν τοις υψηλούς etc. Often in the gen, after a noun, as kai év tais tróleow 'Ioúða kai tois TEPIKÚKAQ προς το the second priest, who stands Ιερουσαλήμ, και τους θυμιώντας το βάαλ, και next to the high priest ( t Πό) 2 Kings τω ηλίω, και τη σελήνη, και τοις μαζουρώθ, xxv. 18; Jer. lii. 24; Plur. non se, sa- kai táon duvápel toù oúpavoû. cerdotes secundarii, priests of the second Au. Ver.-5 And he put down (Heb., order, 2 Kings xxiii. 4. So ayon na??? caused to cease] the idolatrous priests (Heb., the second chariot in order, Gen. xli. 43. chemarim, Hos. X. 5. Foretold, Zeph. i. 4),

Prof. Lee.—Priests of the second rank. whom the king of Judah had ordained to burn

Bp. Patrick.The priests of the second incense in the high places in the cities of order.] They that were under the high Judah, and in the places round about Jerupriests; especially the sagan (as the Targum salem ; them also that burned incense unto here hath it), who was the vicar of the Baal, to the sun and to the moon, and to high-priest, and stood at his right hand the planets [or, twelve signs, or, constellawhen he officiated, as the Jews tell us in tions], and to all the host of heaven. Joma, where they say a man could not be The idolatrous priests. made a high-priest unless he had been first Bp. Patrick.—These idolatrous priests are a sagan.

called chemarim in the Hebrew, because The keepers of the door.] Whom the they were clothed in black garments (as Jews call amarcelim ; which word we find Kimchi gives the reason, both

upon

this xii. 10, where the Targum expounds it, place and upon Zeph. i. 4); whereas the “priests that were treasurers:" that is, such priests of the Most High were clothed in Levites as had the custody of the sacred white; especially those whose genealogy money, which was for the repair of the was not questioned. They, indeed, who temple. And the Hebrew phrase is not could not make out their descent, were much different, “the keepers of the clothed in a black habit, to distinguish them thresholds ;” that is the entrance into those from undoubted priests ; and so were they chambers (as Hottinger thinks) wherein who had any defect or blemish in their body, were kept such things as were of public use as appears from the Talmud in Middoth. And in the temple. Of which there were seven : indeed it is certain, that they among the wherein the priests' garments were laid up, heathens, who sacrificed to the infernal and other such-like things.

gods, were clothed with such vestments, as All the vessels.] The word we translate appears by Canidia in Horace, lib. i., sat. vessels or instruments, signifies all the 8, and Medea in Apollonius Rodius, lib. ii., various furniture belonging to Baal, and the ver. 861; from whence some think they had rest of the false gods, which served either the name of uehavnpópoi, which we find in for offering of incense, or sacrifices, or the some ancient inscriptions. And thus the vestments of the priests, &c.

Egyptians bewailed Osiris, all which was Baal. See notes on Judg. ii. 11, p. suitable to their nightly sacrifices; wherein 166.

they were sad for the absence of the sun, The grove. See notes on Exod. xxxiv. 13, who was meant by Osiris, as Gilbertus vol. i., p. 376.

Cuperus observes in his Harpocrates, p. 129. For all the host of heaven.

And here now we have found the original of Bp. Patrick.- All the host of heaven.] these chemarin, priests clothed in black, That is, the planets, and the rest of the For it was a black ox which represented stars, which the Sabæans, and Chaldeans, Osiris among the Egyptians, and it was and other eastern people, worshipped. covered ιματίω μελανι βυσσίνω, “ with a

black silk garment; from whence, in all Houb. ...091; circulo animadvertunt likelihood, the priests came to be so clothed. Codices ; legendum 2'2001, et in circuitu. Dr. A. Clarke.5 The idolatrous priests.

Baal. See notes on Judg. ii. 11, p. Who these were is not well known. The 166. Chaldee, Syriac, and Arabic call them the Bp. Patrick.-Unto Baal, to the sun, and priests simply, which the kings of Judah had to the moon.] Here Baal is distinguished ordained. Probably they were an order from the sun (so Dr. A. Clarke] ; and made by the idolatrous kings of Judah, and therefore signifies the same with Belus, who called kemarim, from 105, which signifies to was a deified king: and indeed it is highly be scorched, shrivelled together, made dark, probable, that not only Baal, but Moloch or black, because their business was con- and Adonis, were the names only of some stantly to attend sacrificial fires, and probably very potent kings, who were adored when they wore black garments ; hence the Jews they were dead, and in time were thought to in derision call Christian ministers kemarim, be real gods. because of their black clothes and garments.

To the planets. Gesen.-ps only in plur. opp idol-priests Bp. Patrick.—The Hebrew word maza. 2 Kings xxiii. 5; Hos. x. 5; Zeph. i. 4. loth, which the LXX pronounce mazuroth,

is thought by Procopius Gazæus to be the Syr. liscos a priest in general. But this name of a star, and most likely the evening word, as well as other Syriac words relating star : which others take to signify a constelto Divine worship, is restricted by the lation, as we translate it in the margin ; or Hebrews to idol-worship: see Gesch. der all the twelve signs. For the Jewish astroHebr. Sprache p. 58.-As to the etymology, nomers call the zodiac, ophanhamazaloth, the

circle of the signs. liscas, is pp. blackness, sadness, Bp. Horsley.-To the planets. The Heb. and concr. one who goes about in black,

word seems rather to express the physical in mourning,” hence an ascetic, a priest

. influences of the planets.

Gesen.-niki? f. plur. (see note) constella

, כֹּמֶר

Comp. Lui, fal, gloomy, sad, mourn- tions

, spec. the twelve signs of the zodiac,

كمر

2 Kings xxiii. 5. Sept. pacovpád, as if ing, also an ascetic, monk, ecclesiastic. See reading nim, as in Job xxxviii. 32. Vulg. Comment. on Isaiah xxii. 12; xxxviii. 15.

duodecim signa. Targ. epizo, Syr. I Å Sjaśc. Prof. Lee.—79), pl. only, o'zin. Syr.

- The same word is frequent in later Heb. Pisces, sacrificulus ; v. isca, tristatus writers, and also in a form slightly changed

in Aramæan; e. g., a nepra constellations est. Idolatrous priests, from their ascetic character, as Gesenius thinks ; but from of heaven Targ. Isaiah xlvii. 13; Appa

the twelve signs Targ. Esth. iii. 7, al. the Pers., belt, worn by the Magi, as Sjošs 2 Kings 1. c. Wisd. vii. 17, &c. Ikenius thinks. See his Dissertation on the The sense signs of the zodiac, therefore, is omni. 2 Kings xxiii. 5 ; Hos. x. 5; Zech. supported not only by the context, but also i. 4.

by the Aramæan usage, as well as by the To burn incense.

almost constant tradition of ancient interHoub.—27", et adolevit : Legendum, preters. See Thesaur. p. 869. vel ups, ad adolendum, ut legere videtur Note. More difficult is it to determine Syrus, vel 103", et adolebant, ut Græci the origin and true signification of the forms Intt. et ut Chaldæus,

, High places. See notes on 1 Kings iii. 3, as identical, r and l being interchanged (see pp. 719—721.

in 5); although it is uncertain which form Bp. Horsley.-5, 8, 8, 9, 13, 15, 15, 19, is the primary one. Taking first, the 20. High places; rather, chapels. The softer, nity, these constellations are held chapels in verse 9, are to be understood of to be so called from their influx or influence chapels for the service of Jehovah; but in upon the destinies of men, from r. 517 to all the other places, of idolatrous chapels. flow ; (comp. Lat. influxus stellarum Firmic.) Round about.

or from their going, rerolving, from r. bis

which are justly regarded ,מַצְרוֹת and מַזָלוֹת

VOL. II.

6 L

וַיִּתַּץ אֶת־בָּתֵּי הַקְדֶשִׁים אֲשֶׁר בְּבֵית

q. v., or again, the signs of the zodiac were thereof upon the graves of the children of regarded as the stations or lodgings of the the people.

Grove. See notes on Exod. xxxiv. 13, sun in his course; comp. Siło station, vol. i., p. 376.

Of the children of the people. night-quarter, from r. Je to descend, dis- Pool. -i. e., of the common people, whose

graves were made together in some common mount: as the Arabs in like manner call the

place, which was generally accounted very zodiac TU Illi circle of palaces. impure and contemptible

, and therefore a fit More correctly, however, the harder nini?, of bastards, who are oft called the children Job xxxviii. 32, is assumed by others as of the people ; who as they had this brand the earlier and primary form, though they of infamy laid upon them, that they might have not succeeded in pointing out its true not enter into the congregation of the Lord, origin ; for the niip are not crowns, as if Deut. xxiii. 2 ; so possibly they were exposed cognate with 2 diadem; nor zones, belts, to this further ignominy, to be buried in a from r. 7, as implying either the belt of peculiar, and in the most infamous place.. Orion or the zone of the zodiac; but in Or rather, as it is in the Hebrew, of that accordance with the certain usage of the people, i. e., those idolatrous people, as it Hebrew and Arabic, the word signifies pre- is explained, 2 Chron. xxxiv. 4, and here monitions, forewarnings, concr. forewarners, sufficiently implied in this and the foregoing presagers, (comp. præsaga Stat. Theb. 8, verse. 145,) i. e. constellations having a fore- Dathe, Ged., Booth.—Upon the graves knowledge of future events and foretokening of the common people. them to mortals, according to ancient and

Ver. 7. popular belief; see in r. 152 Hiph. no. 1, for the Arabic usage.

Arab. ,ü 1V. to premonish, to ad- no niz? Den nomin monish. Prof. Lee.—nikip, fem. plur., r. 523. Arab. και καθείλε τον οίκον των καδησίμ των εν

τω οίκω Κυρίου, ου αι γυναίκες ύφαινον εκεί 7 Jio, mansio, domus. The Arabian name xerrelju ro árger.

Au. Ver.-7 And he brake down the for the signs of the zodiac generally. The

houses of the sodomites, that were by the Tevi sulle is not the “ circulum palati- house of the Lord where the women wove orum,or signs of the zodiac, as Gesenius hangings [Heb., houses) for the grove.

Sodomites. See notes on 1 Kings xiv. 24, erroneously states; but that orb (supposing

Pp. 825, 826. on the Ptolemæan system, that there are

Bp. Patrick.-R. Solomon Jarchi thinks it many, orbs on orbs ") in which they are found. Once, 2 Kings xxiii. 5. But here the statues of the moon, or Venus, there were

probable, that

among

those who worshipped as the context seems to intimate, the planets, those who prostituted themselves to filthy LΧΧ τοίς μαζουρώθ.

mixtures, But Mr. Selden, by kedeshim Host of heaven. See notes on ver. 4.

(which we translate sodomites), understands Ver. 6.

the priests of Astarte, whom St. Jerome upon Hosea iv. calls exsectos, upon pretence

of greater purity, depriving themselves of

:677 those parts that serve for procreation of και έρριψε τον χούν αυτού εις τον τάφον children. . των υιών του λαού. .

Hangings. Au. Ver.-6. And he brought out the Or, garments for the service of the grove, grove from the house of the Lord, without for the idols or the priests belonging to Jerusalem, unto the brook Kidron, and them. Heb. houses, i. e., either little chapels burned it at the brook Kidron, and stamped made of woven work, like those which were it small to powder, and cast the powder made of silver, Acts xix. 24; within which

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וַיִּשְׁלֵךְ אֶת־עֲפָרָהּ עַליָקְבֶר בְּנֵי

וַיָּבֵא אֶת־כָּל־הַכֹּהֲנִים מֵעָרֵי יְהוּדָה .Portan urbis intrabat הַכֹּהֲנִים מִצְבַע עַד־בְּאֵר שָׁבַע וְנָתַץ אֶתר

gitur , in singulis portis ard , uti vulgatus בָּמְוֹת הַשְׁעָרִים אֲשֶׁר־פְּתַח שַׁעַר יְהוֹשֻׁעַ

vertit , exstructae videntur , ut intrantes et שַׂר־הָעיר אֲשֶׁר־עַל־שְׂמָאול אִישׁ בְּשַׁעַר

there were

some representations of their von sic tractamus, ut O 307, pilosorum, grove idols; or rather, tents made of those vel satyrorum, de quorum cultu et sacrificiis curtains. So Bp. Putrick.

interdicitur, Lev. xvii. 7. ...59w wy, ad Gesen.—n!). 1 A moveable house or dexteram viri. Hæc sine addito, nihil sigdwelling, a tent, tabernacle, Arab. fuisse 2122, vel 1925, post so, ut sit ad

nificant. Chaldæus monet nos, omissum Gen. xxvii. 15; Xxxiii. 17 ; of tabernacles, dextram viri, intrante

eo portam urbis. consecrated to idols, 2 Kings xxiii. 7; comp. Nempe Chaldæus habet, na 732 xsxw by na No. 3, 4.

yun, ad sinistram viri, eo intrante portam. Grove. See notes on Exod. xxxiv. 13, Dathe.-8 Removit omnes sacerdotes ex vol. i., p. 376.

oppidis Judææ, et polluit loca excelsa, in Ver. 8.

quibus adoleverant, a Gibea usque ad Ber

sebam. Destruxit sacella portarum a) et in

? primis id, quod erat ad introitum portæ hattan? nispnenin no Josuæ, urbis præfecti, ed sinistram ei, qui

. a) Quoniam nina in numero plurali le? , ,

, exstructæ

exeuntes idola, quibus aræ istæ dicatæ

:777 erant, adorarent. Quod si est, sequens 708 και ανήγαγεν πάντας τους ιερείς εκ πόλεων | precipuam aliquam harum ararun indicat, , Ιούδα, και έμίανε τα υψηλά, ου έθυμίασαν in loco illo designato, de quo nihil amplius εκεί οι ιερείς από Γαιβάλ και έως Βηρσαβεέ | constat, exstructain. Sed oi ó legerunt sinκαι καθείλε τον οίκον των πυλών τον παρά την gularem: και καθείλε τον οίκον των πυλών τον θύραν της πύλης 'Ιησού άρχοντος της πόλεως, παρά την θύραν της πύλης, κτ.λ., nec non των εξ αριστερών ανδρός εν τη πύλη της | Arabs. πόλεως. .

227 goz?] et diruit sacella portarum, in Au. Ver.-8. And he brought all the primis id, quod erat ad introitum porte priests out of the cities of Judah, and de- Josuæ. ning ning , cf. vs. 15 : etiam filed the high places where the priests had altare illud et sucellum (1999) diruit, creburned incense, from Geba to Beer-sheba, mavitque sacellum, comminuit in pulverem. and brake down the high places of the gates Ceterum bene Dathius: “ quoniam," etc. that were in the entering in of the gate of [vid. supra). Joshua the governor of the city, which were

Ver. 10.

. Brake down the high places of the gates.

. 3, ? ? pp. 719—721.

: Of the gates.

Houb., Horsley, Ged., Booth. Of the satyrs.

και έμίανε τον Ταφέθ τον έν φάραγγι υιού Houb. 8 Accersitis autem er urlibus 'Εννομ, του διαγαγείν άνδρα τον υιόν αυτού και Jude Sacerdotibus, contaminarit aras, ubi άνδρα την θυγατέρα αυτού το Μολόχ εν πυρί. sacrifici thura incendebant, à Gabaa usque Au. Ver.-10 And he defiled Topheth, ad Bersabee, subvertitque aras Satyrorum, which is in the valley of the children of quæ erant in portů Josue, principis civitatis, Hinnom, that no man might make his son ad sinistram eorum, qui urbis portam su- or his daughter to pass through the fire to bibant.

Molech. 8 :

Meliùs 1'3", et venire jussit. Topheth. ...nu 1927, incendebant hic thura. Legen- Dr. A. Clarke.-St. Jerome says, that dum bw, ibi ; fuit 17 malè geminatum, ex Topheth was a fine and pleasant place, well 7 subsequenti...o'yo nion, . Plerique ver- watered with fountains, and adorned with tunt, excelsa portarum. Tamen malè por- gardens. The valley of the son of Hinnom, tarum, ubi agitur una porta Josue. Tolera- or Gehenna, was in one part; here it appears biliùs Chaldæus pn, janilorum. Nos the sacred rites of Molech were performed,

וְטָמֵא אֶת־הַחֹפֶת אֲשֶׁר בְּנֵי בֶּני־הִנָּם

-on a man's left hand at the gate of the city לְבִלְתִּי לְהַעֲבִיר אִישׁ אֶת־בְּכָוֹ וְאֶת־,3 .Iigh places

.
See notes on 1 Kings iii
בְּתָּוֹ בָּאֵשׁ לַמֶּלֶךְ :

בן קרי

: ויבא 8

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