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these plants, the advent of rain or moist air may be the surface of the stigma, becoming the involuntary pretty accurately prognosticated. A few will re- medium of communicating the fertilizing influence fuse to close at night if it is about to rain on the from the one to the other. morrow, as if anxious to greet the friendly power; The spores or sporules of the confervæ, soon while others, of a more timid character, will not un- after their first formation, execute movements close their flowers in the prospect of wet. The in water bearing the most vivid analogy to the cilJittle snowdrop safely shuts up its humble flower iary motion of the embryo mussel, described in No. before the storm; but, as Macculloch observes, it is 128 of our present series. The pollen tubes of a remarkable circumstance that, if it is covered the asclepiadeæ pierce the walls of their enclosing by the shelter of a bush, it makes no attempt to cell, and succeed in reaching the stigma wheresoclose, while its less fortunate companions around it ever it may be situated. are all firmly shut up. The plants whose leaves There is yet another class of movements, in the fold up at night are few in number, and are confined parts of vegetables, which surpasses all the rest in the chiefly to the leguminosa and oscalideæ. It is even, singularity of its appearance, and in the difficulty of in these orders, more frequent to find this peculiari- discovering any exciting cause for it. The sensity existing in the leaflets than in the proper leaves tive plant forms one of the nearest of the approaches of the plant. In a few instances, this motion is to animal life to be found in the vegetable kingdom, due simply to a hygrometric condition of the air, being endowed with the faculty of what may be affecting their tissues, as it does other inanimate called sensation, if the most striking evidence of objects: these are exceptions to an otherwise gen- feeling-retirement from injury—is to be recognized eral rule.

under such a head. The species commonly known Spontaneous motions, to a remarkable degree, as the sensitive plant is the Mimosa pudica. When are to be discovered in plants at that which forms one of its leaflets is touched, it, with its fellow, closthe highest point of vegetable vigor-the period es soon after, and both fold up: this is followed by when the functions of their flowers are about to be the closure and folding up of the next pair of leafcompleted. It has been long known that the fila- lets, and subsequently of all the leaflets on the ments of the flower of the common berberry rise up same stock, while the stalk itself then droops and and strike the stigma with their anthers upon the bends down at an articulation which has the effect slightest irritation : the anthers lie in the concavity of a hinge. If the shock communicated to the of the petals, and could never approach the stigma, plant is pretty sharp, the same consequences take were it not that the busy insect, in its search for place throughout the whole of its leaves, and leafhoney, provokes the irritability of the stamina, and stalks, and it is, to speak comparatively, of a rapid thus secures the impregnation of the seed. In the character. The position then assumed is identical monk's-hood, it is stated that each of the stamina is with that which the plant takes at night. The inclined to the stigma in succession, with the utmost more healthy the plant, and the more elevated the regularity, for seven or eight days. The stamina temperature of the stove, the more active and lifeof the golden amaryllis are constantly agitated like are the motions. The plant also seems to throughout the whole period of fecundation. The respond to these apparent injuries more quickly in genus styridium possess a spontaneous motion of a the morning, and at noon, than at a later period of more striking character. So long as the flower is the day. After a time, it reöpens its leaves, and immature, the pistil is immovable ; but as soon as the stock lifts up its head, when we may again ofit is perfected, if this column is irritated by a fend it, and cause a second occurrence of the moveneedle, it throws itself from the one to the other ment : but this irritability is soon exhausted, and side of the flower with considerable force; but in a then requires a period of repose for its restoration. short time it recovers its original position. These A curious experiment was once made with one of morements may be repeatedly produced by the same these plants. It was taken out in a carriage, in full means. It has been prettily, and not improbably vigor, but as soon as the vehicle began to move over conjectured, that this remarkable irritability was in a rough pavement, it drooped its leaves, and was tended to enable the flower to cast off any insect affected throughout; but on the journey, it at intruder which might attempt to insinuate itself length seemed to have accommodated itself to the into it. The stamina of the cactus tuna, or Indian motion, and resumed all its former appearance ; a fig, when gently scratched with a needle's point, fact which speaks volumes in favor of the voluntary gradually take, from the erect, a recumbent posi- and sensorial character of this singular attributetion, and crouch down together at the bottom of the spontaneous motion. flower, as if withdrawing from the injury. The We have another familiarly known instance in filaments of the geranium bow forwards, so as to the dionæa muscipula, Venus' fly-trap, a native of place the anthers upon the stigma.

Canada, spreading upon the ground the peculiar It has been not long since related that there is a leaves which have originated its name. They are plant growing in the Swan river colony possessing provided with teeth, and have the appearance of a yet more extraordinary powers of motion. Its rat-trap-a comparison which applies to their funcflowers are of an anomalous structure, and it would tion as well. When the insect alights upon the seem that the anthers form the superior, and the leaf, and touches its midrib, it is instantly caught stigma the inferior lids of a kind of box. The by the springing up of the lateral valves of the upper lid does not touch the under, but is connected leaf; and so great is the force and velocity of this to it by a hinge : they remain apart until some in- act, that the fly is crushed to death. There has sect lights upon the flower ; the lid then instantly been an ingenious surmise that the object of this closes over it, and keeps it prisoner so long as it is contrivance is to furnish the plant with a species of turbulent and buzzes about : when it is quite still, food for which it seems to entertain this extraordithe lid uncloses, and suffers it to depart from its nary predilection. There is a humble, and, by convegetable lock-up: if, however, the lid fails in cap- trast, a feeble instance of a similar nature in a little turing the trespasser, it rises again in anticipation British plant called the sun-dew, found growing in of a new-comer. In this case the insect, by bust- bogs and wet heaths, the leaves of which are covling about, rubs off the polen of the anthers upon ered with a gummy exudation, which prevents the

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escape of the insects alighting upon them, and these It remains briefly to indicate the existence of are subsequently further secured by the leaves what may be called movements in closed cells in slowly folding over them.

vegetables. In the Cheledonium majus, a peculiar Decandolle tells us that there is a species of vibratory motion has been detected, affecting the acacia, a native of Senegal, which goes by a name particles of its yellow sap. This is destroyed corresponding to “Good morning :" because, when by cold, and is subject to a curious intermittence in touched, its leaves bow down as if to salute those the occurrence of the vibrations. The chara, an who touch them. There is also a plant, a native aquatic plant, affords us the best known example of of Dominica, called “ the sentinel," from the fact this kind of motion ; its stem is formed of elongated that its leaves keep up, as it were, a constant cells, which, under microscopic examination, are watch : one of them is always on the qui vive; the found to contain a transparent liquid, with globules leaf is bent down, then rises and assumes its erect floating in it: these globules move up one side of position, and there is an uninterrupted succession the cell and down the other, in a continual circuit, of such evolutions in this curious plant to the ample the motion in each cell being independent of that justification of its appropriate title.

in immediate relation to it. No cause has hitherto Of all the wonderful movements in plants, there been distinctly assigned to this phenomenon—it is is not one which excites more astonishment than one which obtairs in many aquatic plants. The that of the Desmodium, or Hedysarum gyrans; we globules are believed to be starch vesicles. could not find a more appropriate name for it than The sertularia, campanularia, and tubularia, the “ vegetable chronometer.”. Its habitat is the among polypes, possess a circulation which has banks of the river Ganges, where, indeed, under some resemblance to the above. A current of the fostering influence of the fertilizing mud, the granular particles, having a motion like that of sand humid air, and the fervid sun, it is alone to be found in an hour-glass, has been discovered to set along in the plenary enjoyment of its remarkable powers. the axis of the tube, forming portions of the stem Beneath the slanting sunbeam and the muddled air and branches, to continue in one direction for a of our own climate, even in our best stoves, the short time, then immediately to return in the oppomovement, there so vigorous, dwindles to feeble site. Sometimes the granules have a vibrating agitation-sufficiently remarkable, however, to dancing motion : in the tubularia, a current sets up make it one of the curiosities of the conservatory. one side of the tube and down the other, as in the It requires a temperature exceeding 100 degrees chara. Fahrenheit for the full development of its mobile The cases just cited bring us to the confines of powers.

the two kingdoms. They have been quoted, not The lateral leaflets of the plant are in perpetual as instances of a motion strictly deserving the epimotion under favorable conditions—a motion of a pe- thet “ spontaneous,” but to show that the distincriodic character. One leaflet will rise until it at-tive characters of each, with immediate reference to tains a considerable angle, and then, by a succession the attribute in question, are so finely shaded into of little starts, comparable to the intermitting mo- one another, as to defy all attempts at an artificial tion of the seconds hand of a watch, it is depressed separation. to an equal angle, and then begins to rise. While It is hoped that motions sufficiently singular in one leaflet rises, its fellow falls, and between them themselves, but of a mechanical, and a purely methey keep a continual oscillatory motion. This chanical character, will not be confounded, as they movement does not cease during the night: in fact, too commonly are, with the kind of movement here in its own climate, it has a fair title to the perpetual described. Thus the spring and detent of some motion award. It is remarkable that, even if the seed-vessels the hygrometric closure of some flowers leaf is held between the finger and thumb, and everlasting flowers, for instance-will open and forcibly prevented from moving, it will, as soon as close for many years after they are dead, if alterit is set at liberty, immediately recommence its nately exposed to moist and dry air. The forcible movements, and with accelerated velocity, as if the action of the squirting cucumber—Momordica elapower had been accumulating during the interval. terium—the up-tendency of the iridaceous corm, The direct rays of the sun, or movements in the at- however deep it is buried, and the upward rising of mosphere, are not the causes of, neither are co- the roots in palm-trees, are curious and interesting operative with, any other cause of these movements, in themselves, as evidences of the effects of certain as they are most lively in the shade, and when the physical laws, but are not to be reckoned in physioatmosphere of the stove is perfectly still.

logical importance with the simple act of the The last example to be here enumerated, ap- unsheltered snowdrop-an intuitive avoidance of proaches in its character so nearly the motions of evil. the humblest members of the animal scale-animal- In many of the spontaneous motions here enuculæ—that it is really hard to call it anything merated, we are permitted to discover the immeelse than a vital phenomenon : it is the motion of diate end which they serve; for others we are still the oscillatoria, a genus of confervæ. Upon the unable to assign a cause or an object. It would field of the microscope they appear like an infinite not be the least important of the ends served, if, by multitude of filaments, having a greenish cast, in- the demonstration of a power of motion of inscrutatersected by many articulations or divisions. They ble origin, we might be taught that the resources are seen to twist about from right to left, in a man- of the Divine architect are deeper and richer than ner bearing the most direct resemblance to the the narrow confines of our too conceited philosophy writhings of worms. They travel, when uncon- can circumscribe, and than, moreover, in our invesstrained, to distances many times their own length, tigations into his handiwork, we are at all times in water, in the course of a few hours.

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DURABILITY OF TIMBER IN A WET STATE. bark still adhering to some, when the mud is re

moved. As one passes up the creek a few miles “In digging away the foundations of old Savoy the stumps approach the surface, and near the Palace, London, which was built six hundred and edge of the live swamps they become very numerfifty years ago, the whole of the piles, consisting ous.- -Trenton Gazette. of oak, elm, beach, and chestnut, were found in a perfect state of soundness, as also was the plank

From the N. Y. Mirror. ing which covered the pile heads."

This paragraph is taken from an English paper.
The cedar swamps of Cape May afford even more

Mr. Lover, the Irish novelist, poet, painter, remarkable proofs of the durability of timber in a dramatist, and, we believe, actor, has arrived in wet state.

this city. He has already received from a portion On the north side of Maurice River Creek the of the press the courtesy due to his distinguished meadows and cedar swamps, as far up as the fast reputation. As the author of Rory O’More, Handy land, are filled with buried cedars to an unknown Andy, and £. S. D., as well as of several successdepth. In 1814 or 1815 an attempt was made to ful dramatic productions acted by Power, and of sink a well curb near to Dennis Creek Landing, songs which are known everywhere, America, havbut, after encountering much difficulty in cutting ing paid him nothing in the shape of copyright, through a number of logs, the workmen were at should eagerly welcome any opportunity to make last compelled to give up the attempt by finding, at him amends. The day will come, we trust, that the depth of twenty feet, a compact mass of cedar whenever a copy of one of Mr. Lover's books is logs.

sold in this country, he will receive the author's It is a constant business near Dennis Creek to tithe, and in like manner with his plays and songs. "mine cedar shingles.' This is done by probing In the mean time, the public may flock to hear him the soft mud of the swamps with poles, for the sing these very songs, and tell some of the anecpurpose of discovering buried cedar timber; and dotes which give so much life to his novels. It is when a log is found the mud is cleared off, the log Mr. Lover's intention, we understand, to give a cut up into proper lengths with a long one-handled series of “Irish evenings,” illustrative of the song saw, and these lengths split up into shingles and and humor of his countrymen. They will doubtcarried out of the swamp ready for sale. This less assume the form of a most refined and attrackind of work gives constant employment to a large tive entertainment. number of hands. The trees found are from four To the Editor of The Tribune : to five feet in diameter ; they lie in every possible Lover is, as you know, the writer of songs equal position, and some of them seem to have been (quite equal, I think) to any of Burns'. He is the buried for many centuries. Thus, stumps of trees author of tales of humor, in a vein in which he has which have grown to a great age, and which have no equal. His songs are set to his own music, of a been decaying a century, are found standing in the twin genius with the words it fuses. His power place in which they grew, while the trunks of very of narration is peculiar and irresistible. His comaged cedars are lying horizontally under their mand of that fickle drawbridge between tears and roots. One of these instances is thus described to laughter-that ticklish chasm across which touch us, in a manuscript from Dr. Bresley, of Dennis mirth and pathos—is complete and wonderful. Creek, who has himself “mined” many thousand He is, besides, a most successful play-writer, cedar shingles, and is now engaged in the busi- and one of the best miniature painters living. He ness : “ I have in my mine a cedar some two and a is a Crichton of the arts of joyance for eye half feet over, under a large cedar stump six feet But it is not of his many gifts that I am now particin diameter. Upon counting the annual growths of ularly aiming to remind your

readers. the stump, I found there were thirty of them in an In his personal appearance Lover has no smack inch ; so that there were 1,080 in the three feet of superfine clay. He looks made out of the fresh from the centre to the outside of the tree. The turf of his country, sound, honest and natural. He stump must thus have been 1080 years in growing. is careless in his dress, a little absent in his gait To all appearance, the tree to which it belonged and manner, just short and round enough to let his has been dead for centuries ; for, after a stump in atmosphere of fun roll easily about him, and if these meadows decays down to the wet, there is no frayed at all in the thread of his nature, a little more decay-none, at least, that is perceptible.marked with an expression of care-the result of Now, we have 1080 years for the growth of the years of anxieties for the support of a very intereststump, and 500 for its decay, and 500 for the ing family. His features seem to use his countegrowih of the tree under it; for this must have nance as a hussar does his jacket-wearing it grown and fallen before the tree to which the loosely till wanted—and a more mobile, nervous, stump belonged sprouted. We are thus carried changing set of lineaments never played photograph back for the term of perhaps 2,000 years, of which to a soul within. There is always about him the 1,500 are determined, beyond question, by the modest unconsciousness of a man who feels that he growth of the trees.''

can always employ his thoughts better than upon The better opinion is, that these trees have himself, and he therefore easily slips himself off, gradually sunk through the soft mud of the and becomes the spirit of his song or story. He swamps, after having attained their growth and does nothing like an actor. If you had heard him fallen. Many, however, have decayed in their singing the same song, by chance, at an Inn, you erect position, for the swamps are full of stumps would have taken him to be a jewel of a good felstanding as they grew.

low, of a taste and talent deliciously peculiar and Within a short distance of the mouth of Dennis natural, but who would spoil at once with being Creek, and about three miles from any growing found out by a connoisseur and told of his merits. timber, can be seen at low water, in the bed of the He is the soul of pure, sweet, truthful Irish nature, stream, numerous cedar and pine stumps, about though with the difference from others, that, while six feet below the surface of the meadow, with the he represents it truly, and is a picce of it himself,

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he has also the genius to create what inspires it. I his faculties of patience have another worla for To an appreciative mind, it, of course, adds power their development; that is all. To him it is indiffully to the influence of a song, that the singer ferent whether he listens to the war of a thousand himself conceived the sweet thought, put it into cannon or to the strains of Grisi and Mario. He words and melted it into music.

has no choice. Duty is the grand sentiment of his Lover is so genuine a piece of exuberantly gifted existence. It kept him in the Peninsular, when, Nature, still unspoiled from the hand of God—that contending with his mighty foe, he was assailed at the appeal for appreciation of him is to that within home with all the malice of faction, and now it us which is deeper than nationality or fashion—to takes him to routs and operas. Did it require him our freshest and most unsunned fountain of human to be fastened to Damien's bed, he would obey its liking. He has been recognized and admired, for mandates without a murmur. his nature, in the most artificial society of the It is now his duty to bear his part in civil life, world. It would be strange, indeed, if he should to lend the lustre of his presence to his sovereign's find himself farther from appreciation of it, in a new court—to share in her pleasures—to show an interrepublic.

est in her pursuits. Duty is from him a magical I have given you no idea of his peculiar style, word, the sentiment of his existence ; he has braved but have endeavored only to say what was not death for its sake a thousand times, and still lives likely to be said soon enough by those unacquainted only to show his devotion to it. with him.

The same in peace as in war, he is never ill, Yours truly,

W. never wanting ; he is never too early or too late.

With what a contemptuous feeling must he hear

people talk of pleasure : he to whom it matters THE DUKE AND THE OPERA.

nothing whether, on rising from his hard pallet toThe hero of Waterloo is one of the most con- morrow, he receives an invitation for a court ball, stant habitués of the Opera. Can life present a or is appointed to command once again in the Penstronger contrast than that exhibited by his noble insular! aspect, his white hairs, the glorious recollections When the queen indulges her fancy with some that surround his name, to the frivolities of fantas- palace masquing, the duke, in the exact costume tic ballets? Can he spend the evening of his hon- prescribed, with powdered peruke, with unaccusored life more unprofitably than in gazing on scenes tomed garments, is at the palace to the moment. in which he can have no interest, in listening to If there is a cartoon exhibition, he reviews the picsounds to which he is indifferent? What connec- tures as though he really took an interest in all the tion can there be between the labors of his past allegorical vices presented to his view. He life, the toils of his campaigns, the hazards of his misses none of the Egyptian-hall exhibitions bloody combats, and the faded graces of Taglioni, none, we mean, that position in society calls on him or the meretricious allurements of Cerito ? Napo- to notice. It is his part not to disavow merit, but leon at St. Helena shows a finer picture to the to assist in its exaltation when recognized. He mind than Wellington caged in his opera-box, lis- makes a present to Tom Thumb, he records his tening, happily somewhat dull in hearing, to the opinion of the euphonia. If he is at the Opera hoarse bawling of Fornasari ? Does he go there ballet late on Saturday night, he is at the Royal night after night for fashion, or for pleasure? Is Chapel, St. James', early on Sunday morning. his mind so vacant that it requires amusement? Is Heaven knows! May we always hold charitable bis time so little occupied that he is devoured by judgments! He may esteem one duty of as much ennui?

importance as the other. Who shall answer these questions? Who shall One other great hero was nurtured by the last dare to pass judgment on a character so illustri- war, whose glory will not pale when brought in

Who shall even venture to arraign or to contact with that of Wellington. Duty was with excuse his actions ? Yet, it may not be presump- him, too, the ruling sentiment of his life-more, it tuous, if it be admitted they are singular, to seek a was with him a passion, and he died while exaltkey to them.

ing it as the grandest aim of life. Yet we cannot The duke does nothing without a motive, nothing imagine Nelson acting the part of our Wellington. without thought. This is his distinctive character, We cannot believe that his fiery spirit could have that his mind is always wakeful, and so piercing been purified to such an utter abnegation of self. and comprehensive that it pervades every fibre of We cannot conceive that he, in his respect for his sentient being, and rules the slightest motion duty, would ever have lost all his individuality, all of his frame. He does nothing unconsciously. his vehemence of feeling, even all his ardent de

The duke is the same man in his opera-box as, sire for renown. Had Nelson lived he could never when in the plains of Vittoria, his eagle eye caught have been what Wellington is now. the false movement of the French battalions, and If it be glorious for man to throw off all the poured his army on the instant to overwhelm and weakness and failings of his nature, and to appear destroy them-the same as when, on the heights as the embodiment of abstract quality, the hero of of Waterloo, he watched for the coming of the Waterloo-apart from his military fame-has Prussians, and saw with an anxious but unshaken achieved a grand title to distinction. In his civil, soul his squares swept by the ruthless fire of the as in his martial career, he appears unaffected by French artillery.

the weaknesses of humanity, the representative of The scene has changed. His sense of duty and the first principle of social life-duty.-Britannia.


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From the Spectator. small provision-dealers in Ireland could not withPROGRESS OF IRELAND.

stand the powerful competition of the government granaries.

The little and constant dealThe condition of Ireland has impressed the ers who purvey for the public were ruined, and left Morning Chronicle with the most singular and con- the government, in many instances, in the undispuflicting feelings. According to our contemporary, ted possession of the market. But will the governthat condition “begins to excite serious doubts ment keep the market? Can they keep it? It is whether the government may not have done more the beginning of a system at once degrading to the harm than good” by interfering to supply the peo- people to endure and impossible for the government ple with food. That which seems to have awak- to sustain." ened the fears of the writer is the necessity for Are we to infer from these gloomy forebodings further aid. The nature of his alarm is altogether that “the late government” ought not to have instrange, and, as it appears to us, groundless. terfered, but ought to have left the remedy to the

The doubter fully recognizes the emergency working of pure political economy? We fear that under which government acted : speaking of the pure political economy would have done very little disease in the potato crop, which" bore all the to aid in supplying the food to relieve starvation character of a sad and fatal disaster'in Ireland,” he Political economy, like tonic medicine or dietetics, is says

of no undoubted virtue for a sudden emergency. * In England the potato bore but a small pro- The case described in the first extract above forbade portion to the whole food of the people ; and good all hesitation ; it demanded instant action; and we trade, with full wages, promised abundance of must regard the evil consequences, if there have means to purchase the other necessaries of life ; but been such, as things not to have been avoided—not in Ireland each man's own plot of potatoes consti- now to repine at, but manfully to encounter with tuted the sole dependence of entire districts; and correctives. The censor appears to think that there these gone, the last hope of subsistence fled with was a needless fright : that it would have been best them. Ireland, moreover, was unfortunately cir- to leave the Irishman to the slower but surer and cumstanced : the plot of potatoes was not alone the healthier means of bettering his condition by indesole source of food, it was the sole field of employ- pendent industry. But no plan of independent inment." • To such a country it might even have dustry could have brought food to the multitude, been doubted if the temptations which such a where the customary article of food was wholly threatened scarcity would usually hold out would wanting and there was no money to buy others. It tempt commercial enterprise and capital to its aid. was not the food for next year that was in question, The merchant speculates not only on the demand, but the food from day to day. It is a burlesque but also on the means of payment. Altogether, on political economy to preach independent exertherefore, it would be difficult to conceive so strong tion to a man actually sinking under the pangs of a case to justify a government in stepping out of its hunger. usual course, and making an extraordinary effort to England herself would have been injured most save a whole people from starvation. Indian corn seriously by neglect of Ireland. The Morning was imported with the capital of the exchequer." Chronicle tells us that double the number of reap

This aid it is which begins to excite doubts- ers was expected over this year : so, had Ireland “The extent to which public money has been been left to starve, a double allowance of that half espended in Ireland during the last year, not real- pauper class, enfeebled by want of food, therefore ly in employing the people, but literally in feeding doubly helpless and uncertain in their industry, them, is but little known, we apprehend, in this would have been thrown upon the rural districts of country. But just in proportion as means have Great Britain, or would have thronged the ports of been furnished gratuitously, independent exertion migration. What would the English laborer have has been relinquished.

It is the most said to it? Oh! pure political economy would say, remarkable fact connected with the history of Ire- he must have been content to meet the wholesome land during the past year, that even the railways exposure to competition. We doubt the advantage which have there been in the course of construc-of any such contest, of any such migration as that tion have experienced the greatest difficulty in pro- of the Irish reapers to this country. What would curing sufficient continuous and steady labor. It is be the effect of its absence in England? Why, on no less singular, that in a year of so much do- the one hand, its effect would be to raise agricultumestic dearth, there has been less emigration to ral wages, on the other, to set the agricultural emEngland than in any former season ; and it is a ployers on finding better means of economizing still more startling fact, that in this year of suffer- labor by the help of machinery. The incursions of ing in Ireland, when such extraordinary efforts the unsettled Irish laborers have helped to beat have been made by the executive to save a perishing down the level of wages in this country, without people, neither haymakers nor reapers have come bringing the slightest improvement to our modes of from Ireland. Nor is it, alas! that the agriculture.

Ireland herself can derive no permaIrish have better prospects now, independently of nent and fructifying benefit from so irregular a their casual labor, than they had last year. On the draught upon the labor-market. She has harvests contrary they are infinitely worse. Last

year the of her own to reap. The migration is a sign of potato crop failed: this year it is one universal the very worst state of society—that in which the blank; it is annihilated.

At a moment means of subsistence actually fall short even of abwhen the Irish should be making the greatest exer-solute necessity. It is because the Irish are already tion, they seem to be making none. What, then reduced to the “ coarsest kind of food”—because will be the value of the aid doled out to them by the they cannot fall upon anything easier and cheaper government during the last year, if it have deprived to obtain than potatoes, and because they have not them of the motive to personal and independent ex- enough even of those—that they must perforce ertion for the future? But, moreover, the policy leave home and contend with the English laborer of the late government is showing itself in other for part of his scanty means. To do so, the Irishman ways to have been equally mischievous. The yearly does that which must powerfully contribute


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