.הָיה תחיה : referens dicit

quod haud dubie factum fuisset, Benhadadi ashamed, as apprehending that the prophet morbum non futurum esse lethalem, sed eum suspected or discerned something extramoriturum esse vi oppressum ab Hasaële. ordinary and of an evil and shameful nature Priora verba igitur hic ad illum referre in him. The Hebrew words are ambiguous, debebat ; posteriora autem huic prædicebant, and may indifferently be referred to either quid esset eventurum.

of them; but they seem more properly to Maurer.—10 M5 ON 7?] i, dic ei. NS= belong to Hazael, because it follows, by way is K'ri (ut Lev. xi. 21 ; 1 Sam. ii. 3 ; 2 Sam. of distinction, the man of God wept. xvi. 18, al. cf. ad Exod. xxi. 8), quod ipsum Dr. A. Clarke.- He settled his counteexhibent complures libri et versiones antiquæ. nance stedfastly.] Of whom does the author

ita esse capiendum, nec tanquam nega- speak? Of Hazael, or of Elisha? Several tionem ad sequentia trahendum, cum ex eo apply this action to the prophet. patet, quod ns non infinitivo absoluto, seq. The Septuagint, as it stands in the Comverb. fin., rarissime tantum præponitur (E plutensian and Antwerp Polyglots, makes Gr. min., p. 236, ex.), tum maxime col- the text very plain : Kai éoth Açan kata ligitur ex comm. 14, ubi Hasael, Elisæ verba poowTOV avtov, kal TapeOnkev evwTLOV avtov

. Ex morbo (cf. δωρα, εως ησχυνετο και εκλαυσεν ο ανθρωπος 17? TO TINT vs. 8, 9) utique evadere poteris, tov Ocov, And Hazael stood before his face, morbus tibi minime letalis erit. Sed ostendit and he presented before him gifts till he was mihi Jova, eum certo moriturum esse. Vates, ashamed ; and the man of God wept. divinitus edoctus, regem violenta morte The Codex Vaticanus, and the Codex moriturum esse (cf. vs. 15), ad quæstionem, Alexandrinus, are nearly as the Hebrew. num ille ex morbo, quo laboret, evasurus sit, The Aldine edition agrees in some respects respondet, morbum minime letalem fore; with the Complutensian; but all the Versions præterea vero de suo addit, se certo scire, follow the Hebrew. regem nihilo secius moriturum esse. Sua Ged., Booth.Then looking [Booth., havsponte intelligitur, regi non nisi priora verba ing looked] him steadfastly, and long, in the referenda fuisse. Schulzius sensum ita ex- face, the man of God wept. pedivit : “ Interrogas me nomine regis ; Houb.—11 1D 709, et firmavit vultum equidem vero jam scio, quid ei responsi suum. Hæc de Hazael dicuntur, quomodò daturus sis, sive vitam sive mortem præ- et hæc, W TY OV", et obstupuit diu multùmdixero. Meo illi nomine vitam promittere que. Sed 72", et flevit, pertinet ad Elisæum, statutum est tecum. Mihi vero ostendit ut liquet. Non esset Hebr. consuetudinis, Deus, eum certo moriturum esse.” Ex hac ut tria verba de eodem homine acciperentur, interpretatione verba liberius ita vertenda nominativo eorum ad finem rejecto. Obessent: per me licet eas renunciatum regi, stupuit Hazael in responso Elisæi, vel eum ex morbo evasurum esse. Mihi vero stuporem simulavit, cùm celare vellet Eliostendit cet.

sæum, sui regis mortem non sibi fore in

gratam. Ver. 11.

Ver. 12. ?


και τας εν γαστρί έχούσας αυτών αναρκαι παρέστη των προσώπω αυτού, και έθηκεν ρήξεις. έως αισχύνης και έκλαυσεν ο άνθρωπος του Au. Ver.-12 And Hazael said, Why θεού. .

weepeth my lord ? And he answered, Au. Ver.-11 And he settled his counte- Because I know the evil that thou wilt do nance stedfastly (and set it), until he was unto the children of Israel: their strong ashamed : and the man of God wept. holds wilt thou set on fire, and their young

Until he was ashamed. See notes men wilt thou slay with the sword, and wilt ii. 17, p. 880.

dash their children, and rip up their women Pool.--He settled his countenance sted with child. fastly; the prophet fixed his eyes upon Rip up their women with child. So Gesen. Hazael. Until he was ashamed ; either till I and most commentators. the prophet was ashamed to look any longer Bp. Patrick.—12 This last expresses the upon him; or till Hazael (so Patrick] was highest degree of barbarous cruelty; for

וַיַּעֲמֵד אֶת־פָּנָיו וַיָּשֶׂם עַד־בְּשׁ וַיִבְךְ אִישׁ הָאֱלֹהִים


וְהָרְחֵיהֶם תְּבַקְעַ :


-et preg ,והרתיהם sic , pro :בחוריהם ,tres Orat

*אמֶר אָמַר לִי חָלָה תִחְיֶה :

וַיאמֶר חֲזָהוֹל כִּי מָה עַבְדְּךָ הַכָּלֶב


which there was no occasion, if he did but And that this is the true sense, his immediate kill the women with child, for the child in murder of his master on his return fully the womb would die with them, without proves. “Our common version of these ripping them up. Therefore, a late learned words of Hazael," as Mr. Patten observes, man, looking on this as a thing unheard of,“ has stood in the front of many a fine dewill have the word haroth not to signify clamation utterly wide of his real sentiment. women with child, but castles or fortified His exclamation was not the result of horror ; places which he should demolish : though his expression has no tincture of it ; but of he cannot but acknowledge, that the cutting the unexpected glimpse of a crown! The up women very naturally follows slaying prophet's answer is plainly calculated to their young men, and dashing their children, satisfy the astonishment he had excited. A which goes just before. And he should dog bears not, in Scripture, the character of have taken notice, that the very first evil he a cruel, but of a despicable animal; nor does mentions that Hazael should do to them, is he who is shocked with its barbarity call it a setting their strongholds on fire (Gousset, Great deed.”—David Vindicated. Comment. Linguæ Hebraicæ, p. 216). Houb.–13 2537 7739, servus tuus canis.

Houb.-12 crna, juvenes eorum. Id Nos, non canis, sed homuncio, ne canis plus vocabulum suo 1 malè mutilatum. Codices diceret Latinè, quàm Hebraicè. . : , ),

Ver. 14. nantes eorum, scriptum habent dit'n171, duo Codices Orat.

: Ver. 13.


μοι, Ζωή ζήση.

? Au. Ver.-So he departed from Elisha, 220 730 57720 777 nm ? What said Elisha to thee? And he an

and came to his master : who said to him, και είπεν Αζαήλ, Τίς έστιν ο δούλός σου, ο κύων swered, He told me that thou shouldest ο τεθνηκώς, ότι ποιήσει το ρημα τούτο; κ.τ.λ. surely recover.

Au. Ver.-13 And Hazael said, But what, That thou shouldest surely recover. is thy servant a dog, that he should do this notes on ver. 10. great thing? And Elisha answered, The Booth.—That thou mayest assuredly reLord hath shewed me that thou shalt be king cover. over Syria.

Ver. 15. Dr. A. Clarke.But what, is thy servant a dog, that he should do this great thing ?) i ba? nasan ng nine 177

?? by the general run of commentators. It is

: generally understood that Hazael was struck with horror at the prediction ; that these

και εγένετο τη επαύριον, και έλαβε το cruelties were most alien from his mind; μαχβάρ και έβαψεν εν τω ύδατι, και περιέβαλεν that he then felt distressed and offended at επί το πρόσωπον αυτού, και απέθανε και the imputation of such evils to him ; and yet, εβασίλευσεν 'Αζαήλ αντ' αυτού. so little did he know his own heart, that when

Au. Ver.-15 And it came to pass on the he got power, and had opportunity, he did morrow, that he took a thick cloth, and the whole with a willing heart and a ready dipped it in water, and spread it on his hand. On the contrary, I think he was face, so that he died: and Hazael reigned delighted at the prospect; and his question in his stead. rather implies a doubt whether a person so

Ged.-But, on the next day, having taken inconsiderable as he is shall ever have it in a fly-net dipped in water, and put it upon his power to do such great, not such evil his face, he died : and Hazael reigned in his things; for, in his sight, they had no turpi- stead. tude. The Hebrew text stands thus : “ But In rendering this verse I have departed what ! thy servant, this dog! that he should from all the ancient versions, and most do this great work!” Or, “Can such a modern interpreters. They ascribe this poor worthless fellow, such a dead dog [o action to Hazael, and make him smother the KUWV Ó teOrnkws, Sept.) perform such mighty king. I am convinced that the text admits actions ? thou fillest me with surprise.” |of no such meaning. Ben-hadad, encouraged

וַיְהִי וַיִּטְבְּל [? בַּמֵיִם וַיִּפְרְשׂ עַל־פָּנָיו וַיָּמָת וַיִּמְלֹךְ believe this verse to be wrongly interpreted חֲזָהָאֵל תַּחְתָּיו :

וּבִשְׁנַת חָמֵשׁ לְיוֹרָם בֶּן־אַחְאָב מֶלֶךְ of a violent renedy to allay the lucat of his יִשְׂרָאֵל וִיהוֹשָׁפָט מֶלֶךְ יְהוּדָה מָלָךְ יְהוֹרָם בֶּן־יְהוֹשָׁפָט מֶלֶךְ יְהוּדָה :

by the reported answer of Elishah, makes use

Ver. 16. a heat } fever ; and claps on his face a wet net. This

? stops the perspiration ; and he dies in consequence. So Booth.

: ? Booth.-According to Josephus, this king 'Εν έτει πέμπτώ τω Ιωράμ υιο'Αχαάβ βασιλεί was greatly beloved by his subjects; and if | Ισραήλ, και Ιωσαφάτ βασιλεί Ιούδα, έβασίλHazael had murdered him, would he have ευσεν Ιωράμ υιός Ιωσαφάτ βασιλεύς Ιούδα. been raised to the throne? We are not in- Au. Ver.-16 And in the fifth year of formed that Ben-hadad had any children; Joram the son of Ahab king of Israel, and Hazael might succeed him by the choice Jehoshaphat being then king of Judah, Jeof the people.

horam the son of Jehoshaphat king of Gesen.— 1972 m. (r. 177 no. 1) coarse cloth, Judah began to reign (Heb., reigned. 892. i. e., of a coarse texture, perh. hair cloth, Began to reign in consort with his father). cilicium, 2 Kings viii. 15.—The idea of kwvw- See notes on ver. 17, and on i, 17. Telov, fly-net, proposed by J. D. Michaëlis,

Bp. Patrick.16 All the seeming contradoes ot seem adapted to the context. dictions between this verse and chap. i. 17,

Prof. Lee.—197?, carpet, or other coarse and chap. iii. 1, are thus briefly reconciled by cloth. We find a similar thing recorded in Huetius:-Jehoram beginning to reign with the Persian history, entitled, Kholusat El his father Jehoshaphat in his seventeenth year, Akhbar. (In my copy, p. 162, verso). and Joram king of Israel in his eighteenth, The words are these, The Malik ordered that the first year of Joram king of Israel will fall they should place a carpet on Abdallah's out in the second year of Jehoram, king of mouth, so that his life was cut off.

Judah : whose father dying in the twentyMaurer.—no 737?5 72!?) et sumsit second year of his reign, Jehoram, king of Hasael velum culicare (sec. al. stragulum), Judah, began to reign alone in the fifth year immersit in aquam, et expandit in ejus (regis) of Joram king of Israel (see Demonstr. faciem cet. h. e., tum Hasael ope reticuli Evang. propos. iv. p. 204). (straguli) madefacti regem suffocavit. Ita

Ken.—16 This verse, when exactly reninterpretes numero plurimi. “At, inquit dered, is, And in the fifth year of Joram, Schulzius, falso parricidii reus agitur Hasael, the son of Ahab, king of Israel, and of qui certe sub commatis nostri initium Sub- Jehoshaphat, king of Judah, Jehoram, the jectum propositionis neutiquam esse potest, son of Jehoshaphat king of Judah, began to alias enim nomen ejus non sub finem, sed reign. In my General Dissertation, p. 14, sub initium versus nostri ponendum fuisset notice was taken of the confusion here inneque etiam patet ratio, cur stragulam troduced (as Vignoles, Jackson, and other (otpõua vertit Theodoretus Hebræum 1239 chronologers have remarked) by the interveteribus interpretibus usus) aquis intingi et polation of three Hebrew words, signifying et madefieri oportuisset, si Hasael ejus injectu Jehosaphati regis Jude. "Tis certain, that suffocandi regis consiliuin cepisset.” Verum Jehoshaphat reigned twenty-five years; and enim vero, qui sub finem commatis 14 sub- that Jehoram his son reigned but eight years ; jectum est, is utique etiam sub initium (1 Kings xxii. 42; 2 Kings viii. 17; 2 Chron. commatis 15, subjectum esse poterit! Atqui xx. 31; and xxi. 5 ;) so that he could not subjectum verbi DN vs. 14. est Hasæl. have reigned during his father's life, without Quod autem attinet ad reticulum (stragu- being king twenty years and eight years. I lum ?) madefactum, notissima res est, pannos also specified several copies of the Vulgate, aqua intinctos multo solidiores et aëri im- both written and printed, which are free pervios fieri.

Ex quo intelligitur, argu- from this interpolation. It was observed menta illa e diverso allata nullius

esse likewise, that these words are wanting in momenti.

Ceterum Schulzius hanc nobis two Heb. MSS.; and lastly, that the proposuit interpretationem : postridie vero Hexaplar Syr. MS., above 1000 years old, rex læto Hasaelis nuntio confirmatus stragu- made from the Greek (now preserved at lam sumtam aquis intinxit et faciei suæ Paris), has not these words, though they are maxime sine dubio sudanti obvelavit, ut re- found in the Vat. and Alexand. MSS. So frigerio levaretur, ita vero evaporatione Luther, Dathe, Bp. Horsley, Clarke, Ged., nimis cito impedita mortuus est.

Booth., Maurer.



Dr. A. Clarke. These words, And of Je-verba omittantur; quanquam non difficile hoshaphat, king of Judah, are wanting in fuit, ut tria verba, quæ lineâ inferiore rethree of Kennicott's and De Rossi's MSS., currunt, oculo Scribæ aberrante, fuerint in the Complutensian and Aldine editions of iterata in linea superiore. Superest explithe Septuagint, in the Peshito Syriac, in the candum, quomodo Joram, filius Achab, regParisian ptaplar Syriac, the Arabic, and naverit annis quinque, antequam regnaret in many copies of the Vulgate, collated by Joram, filius Josaphat. Edm. Calmet, turDr. Kennicott and De Rossi, both printed bam sequens, ita interpretatur, regnavit annis and manuscript; to which may be added quinque, antequàm Joram, filius Josaphat, two MSS. in my own library, one of the solus regnaret, existimans, fuisse Joram, fourteenth, the other of the eleventh century, filium Josaphat, in regni societatem vocatum, and in what I judge to be the Editio Princeps de qua societate altum silet pagina sacra, ut of the Vulgate. And it is worthy of remark mirum sit eam adhiberi, annis regnorum that in this latter work, after the fifteenth computandis. Sed neque, si Joram cum verse, ending with Quo mortuo regnavit patre Josaphat regnavit, nodus solvitur. Azahel pro eo, the following words are Nam si fuit Joram rex factus anno patris in a smaller character, Anno quinto Joram Josaphat decimo sexto, ut credit Edm. filii Achab regis Israel, regnavit Joram filius Josa- Calmet, nec sic quidem demonstratur, quophat rer Juda Triginta, &c. We have modo Joram, filius Achab, regnaverit, antealready seen that it is supposed that Jeho- quam Joram, filius Josaphat, regnaret solus, shaphat associated his son with him in the annis tantum quinque. Quippe Josaphat kingdom; and that the fifth year in this regnavit viginti quinque annos. Ab anno place only regards Joram king of Israel, and decimo sexto regni Josaphat, usque ad annum not Jehoshaphat king of Judah. See the ejusdem vigesimum quintum, intercedunt notes on chap. i. 17.

anni novem.

Ergo regnaverit Joram, filius Houb. 16 Anno quinto Joram, filii Josaphat, comite patre, Achab, in Israel regnantis, regnavit in Judam Utitur Edm. Calmet his annis novem, ut rex Joram, filius Josaphat, regis Juda.

explicet, quomodo Joram, filius Achab, reg16 Dow17", et Josaphat, regis naverit anno secundo regni Joram, filii Juda. Hæc omittunt Syrus et Arabs, et Josaphat, ut cap. i. 17, narratur. Nempe, Græci Intt. in Editione Complutensi, inquit

, regnavit filius Achab, anno secundo multi etiam Latini Codices. Certe habet

postquam Joram, filius Josaphat, fuerat in id manifestam repugnantiam, ut


regnandi societatem vocatus, sive anno dequintus regni Joram, filii Achab, fuerit idem cimo octavo regni Josaphat; nec videt se in annus quintus regni Josaphat. Capite iii. alios induci laqueos. Nunc enim quomodo versu 1, dictum est illum Joram initium planum faciet, filium Achab regnasse annis regnandi fecisse anno regni Josaphat decimo quinque, antequam filius Josaphat, solus octavo, et ipsa ex historia perspicuum est, regnaret? Nam ab anno Josaphat regnantis Josaphat regem multo ante, quam illum decimo octavo, usque ad vicesimum quintum Joram, regnare cæpisse. Vim faciunt ver

quo Joram, filius Josaphat, solus regnavit, bis sacris, qui sic convertunt, anno quinto intercedunt anni septem, non autem quinque. Joram, filii Achab, regnaverat autem Josa- Ergo hæc male consociantur, et facilius est phat in Judam, regnavit Joram, filius Josa

errasse Scribas, quam Sacrum Scriptorem phat. Nam talis scribendi forma peregrina computasse annos, nunc ab eo, tempore, quo est, et sine altero exemplo. Quod si con- filius Josaphat solus regnavit, nunc ab eo, vertas, regnabat etiam Josaphat in Judam, quo, patre consorte, regnavit, ubi præsertim vel dum regnabat Josaphat, regnavit Joram, de isto regni consortio nihil quidquam mequasi Josaphat filium suum Joram fecisset morant Sacri Scriptores. Vide quæ diximus regni socium, non minus vim facies his ad caput i. 17. Vide etiam præfationem de verbis, 1771.7 TÁO DbW17", quæ significant, et regnandi initio utroque Joram filii Achab, Josaphat regis Juda, non autem, Josaphat et Joram, filii Josaphat. regnabat in Judam. Ergo sapientius hæc

Ver. 17. verba omittuntur ex autoritate Codicum multorum. Nos tamen tollimus tantum Au. Ver.-17 Thirty and two years old nomen 1601.7", legimusque 71172 -sp, reg- was he when he began to reign; and he navit in Judam, ne sine necessitate hæc duo reigned eight years in Jerusalem.

עַד הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה אָז תִּפְעַע לִבְנָה

.he was completely king of Judah 2 Chron בָּעֵת הַהִיא:

See notes on ver. 16.

And to his children. Bp. Patrick.-17 Part of which was his Houb.19 732373 is nos, ut daret ei lufather, as I now observe, and the rest by cernam in filiis suis, vel per filios suos. Hæc himself, Dr. Lightfoot observing three oratio recte procedit.

Tamen plerique dates of the beginning of his reign gives Veteres, 1969, et filiis ejus, quæ etiam scripthis account of it:— The first was when he tura bona est; itaque eam habent tres was made viceroy with his father, at the Codices Orat. nec non alii duo, manu tantum time he went out of the land for the reco- priori. very of Ramoth-gilead. The second was Dathe.Pro 127 o ó, Vulgatus, Chaldæus when his father went upon his expedition et quadraginta fere codd. Kennicotti habent with Jehoram, king of Israel, against Moab 12732. Hanc igitur lectionem tot testibus (chap. iii. of this book), from which time, he probatam sum secutus. thinks, the beginning of his reign is fixed Maurer. 19 Plurimi libri et nonnulli here, and in 2 Chron. xxi. 20. For after veterum pro 127? exhibent 122, quod recithis time, Jehoshaphat was little at Jeru-piendum duxerunt Schulzius, Dathius, alii. salem, but abroad either in his own land Nihil muto. 127 cum is appositione co(which he perambulated that he might hæret, nisi est: apud filios ejus. Ceterum reduce the people to the true religion), or in cf. ad 1 Reg. xi. 36. Moab, to bring them into subjection (2 Chr.

Ver. 22. xix. 20). And lastly, at his father's death

. xxi. 1 (see Harm. of the Evang. Prolegom., sect. 6). So that the clearest solution of the difficulty mentioned in the foregoing verse

- έως της ημέρας ταύτης τότε ήθέτησε is this (as Dr. Alix, a great man in this Aoßvà év kaipộ ékeivo. learning, and all others, hath observed to Au, Ver.- 23 Yet Edom revolted from me), that Jehoram had three beginnings of under the hand of Judah (and so fulfilled, his reign. One in the seventeenth year of Gen. xxvii. 40) unto this day. Then Libnah Jehoshaphat, when his father designed him revolted at the same time. to be king; the second in the twenty-third

Then. year of his father, when he was crowned ; Houb.— 22 TH1781 ora, eo die, tunc... and the last when his father (after he had Crediderim, fuisse N ex 11 malè iteratum. reigned five-and-twenty years) died; and he Nam excluditur 1x per hæc verba 1°77 m2, reigned alone a little more than four years. eo tempore ; verius tamen legatur yeni et Thus Solomon was made king before his rebellavit ; posito 1, pro . father died, and again after his death, as Abarbinel observes (see 1 Kings ii. 12).

Ver. 25. Dr. A. Clarke.— Ile reigned eight years in a oni na nivovou now?

) of Joram, king of Israel. He reigned three years with Jehoshaphat his father, and five

: years alone; i. e., from A.m. 3112 to 3119, έν έτει δωδεκάτω τω Ιωράμ υιό Αχαάβ according to Archbishop Usher.

βασιλεί Ισραήλ εβασίλευσεν 'Οχοζίας υιός

'Iwpán. Ver. 19.

Au. Ver.-25 In the twelfth year of 73 ?

Joram the son of Ahab king of Israel did : ebp maz? Ahaziah (called Azariah, 2 Chron. xxii. 6,

and Jehoahaz, 2 Chron. xxi. 17, and xxv. 23] καθώς είπε δούναι αυτό λύχνον και τοις | the son of Jehoram king of Judah begin to υιοίς αυτού πάσας τας ημέρας.


reign. Au. Ver.--19 Yet the LORD would not In the twelfth year of Joram. destroy Judah for David his servant's sake, Pool.-Object. It was in the eleventh year as he promised him to give him alway a light of Joram, chap. ix. 29. Answ. Either, first, [Heb., candle or lamp), and to his children. He began to reign in the confines of Joram's

Pool.- Alway, Heb., all days, until the eleventh and twelfth year, in the very end of coming of the Messiah.

his eleventh year, or towards the beginning

אַחְאָב מֶלֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל מָלַךְ אֲחַזְיָהוּ בֶן־ Jerusalem

Beginning with the fifth year
יְהוֹרָם מֶלֶךְ יְהוּדָה:

כַּאֲשֶׁר אָמַר-לוֹ לָתֵת לֹוֹ גִיר

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