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at the feet of a Muscovite emperor," not of an Aus- | policy of these states will be guided by one system, and trian one.
Turn where he may, among all the of thai system the Emperor Nicholas will hold the heterogeneous populations of his territories, he key. meets with only disaffection and discontent. The
Such s the commencement of the change made accession of military force gained by the termina- in the European system, and the balance of power, tion of the Hungarian war may, indeed, be used by the overthrow of one heroic nation. What is nominally for the furtherance of the ambitious to be the end, it is not easy to foresee. The plans of Schwarzenberg in Germany; but they Times, which was so lately convinced that a comwill be used in reality for the furtherance of the bination founded on the charter of Count Stadion interests of the czar. Should he even emancipate “would raise the Austrian empire from its ashes,” himself from the effects of his Jesuit education and and which froin the evil counsels of his mother, and really trusted the Emperor of Russia would give the most wish to govern as a constitutional monarch, he effectual proof of his disinterested policy, by withwould find almost insuperable difficulties in his drawing his forces with the least possible delay, way. The complicated and artificial system of Austrian bureaucracy cannot be changed in a day. is now reduced to hope, or, to use its very words, Yet unless municipal institutions, after the model
to be of the Hungarian, be introduced, all the paper not without hopes that the Russian cabinet may disconstitutions that could be framed would be utterly claim those violent and despotic intentions which without value to attack the root of the evil. In are commonly attributed to it. Austria there were, in 1842, besides 30,000 cus
Can the Ethiopian change his skin, or the leoptom-house officers, no less than 140,000 persons ard his spots ? Whatever the system inay be of employed in the routine of the central government; which the Emperor Nicholas will hold the kev, there were also 100,000 of the same class enjoying
we may be sure that it will not be calculated to pensions; there were numerous extra hands for
promote the interests of civil, religious, or comspecial purposes; and new offices were being mercial freedom. Already we observe that duties daily created. Of municipal self-government there
on imports have been raised at Odessa. Russian was hardly a vestige. Would the czar,
influence in the Hungarian and Dalmatian ports whose counsels must unavoidably have great weight on the Adriatic will effectually prevent any change for some time to come, and who can scarcely be ex- from the Austrian restrictive system, which the pected to fortify the constitutional opponents of a success of the Hungarians would at once have return to the old system,
abolished. But this is not all the injury which permit the introduction of any real system of self- England may expect from Austria falling under
The districts we government? Why, we already see that, in Hun- the Suzeraineté of the czar. gary, the Austrian commissioners are everywhere have just mentioned furnish admirable sailors, the engaged in suppressing the existing municipal in- one element wanting to the Russian navy; and stitutions, the only basis upon which a powerful whether the war fleet which they may be used to empire could be reconstructed.
man be called Austrian or Russian, will matter But what is the tone of those who, in England, but little, as long as it is directed by the will of hounded on Welden and Haynau, Cossack and the czar. That, from this position, the Russian Calmuck, to the death struggle of the gallant Hun- intrigues against the integrity of Turkey may be garians ? “ The result,”
the Times, and says
carried on with greater efficacy than ever, it is
says it most truly,
superfluous to mention.
Such prospects cannot fail to excite the most is now dawning on the world.
serious reflections in the breasts, not merely of part which Austria is prepared to play in the affairs of Germany and of Central Europe is necessarily, every sincere lover of rational liberty, and of every though perhaps reluctantly, Russian.
one who considers the maintenance of a balance Certain it is that these events
have ad- of power an European necessity, but also of every vanced the power of Russia in Southern Germany one who knows how much the welfare of this to an unprecedented extent, and that she is destined country is influenced by its commercial relations to play whatever part she may think fit, or to direct with the rest of Europe, and what a rude shock the parts of others, in the next questions that may these may receive from an attempt at reviving the arise in that part of the continent.
continental system of Napoleon, or even from that In other words—a Protectorate of Russia in the natural decay of trade which attends a feeling of south of Germany, as well as in Austria and Hun- insecurity. Well may the Times ask upon what gary with a complete suppression of whatever principles the affairs of Europe are to be carried glimmerings of liberty may yet be left in Baden, on. What will restore that union and confidence Wirtemberg, and Bavaria, as well as, in all prob- between the governors and the governed, without ability, “ intervention" in the affairs of Switzer- which no state can be powerful, prosperous, or land!
secure ? The answer is not difficult. The soluThe opinion expressed by the Russian cabinet tion of the problem is to be found in recurring to will have the greatest influence over the fate of that the fundamental and imperishable principle of vast chain of states which reach from the sources of self-government; in maiotaining municipal instituthe Rhine and the Danube to her own frontiers. The tions wherever, as in Hungary, they do exist ;
and in reïntroducing them wherever they have agreed amongst the great courts, however, that fallen a sacrifice to the levelling spirit of modern they would hereafter settle the Swiss question in bureaucratic despotism. Without such institu- common, Russia withdrew for the time. But tions, all the Octroyée constitutions that may be Hungary subdued, now comes the affair of Switgranted are worth the parchment they are written zerland. It is a republic in the midst of Europe, on, and no more.
the refuge of republicans, with a free press, with But is there any probability that such measures most liberal institutions, and with the democratic will be resorted to by those into whose hands the party uppermost and governing its respective candestinies of Europe, at the present moment, seem tons.
Austria declares that the peace of Europe to be given ? We confess we are not sanguine. cannot be preserved as long as Switzerland reSometimes, however, out of an extremity of evil mains in this state ; and whilst some recommend good will rise; and the very financial embarrass- a conquest and military occupation, for the purments which have been brought upon the coun- pose of restoring the old aristocratic parties to tries thus ruled, may compel their rulers to pause power, others recommend a partition. Commerin a mad career. At all events it is necessary cial views of course blend with political ones. that the opinion of England should be loudly ex- For Switzerland not only harbors ideas of politipressed. So far from the friends of Hungary re- cal freedom, but practises commercial freedom laxing their exertions, they must now endeavor to also. An Austrian Zolverein of high duties save a futurity for her, by petitioning—by be- would be impossible as long as Switzerland reseeching our gracious queen, to use her utmost mains, as at present, open to British commodities. endeavors that the integrity of Hungary shall be Switzerland, therefore, is menaced with the guaranteed, and that her municipal institutions fate of Hungary ; and although the Swiss are shall be respected ; that Hungary may not be brave, they cannot, any more than the Hungari
a larger Poland ;” and that at least one ans, resist the united forces of Germany and germ of rational liberty may be preserved, what- Russia. But in this grave meditation of absorbever may be the vicissitudes of the Danubian ing a free country, it was hoped that France countries. The political horizon of Europe is would prove a willing accomplice. She had overcast and gloomy ; but we still hope that the shown herself obsequious in Rome, not very eximinister who so lately thwarted the designs of gent in Piedmont, and had betrayed no sympathy Russia in the Baltic, may, if duly supported by for either Hungarian or German resistance. But the voice of the country, be able to oppose some French statesmen, however conservative, pacific, resistance to them in eastern and central Europe. or monarchic, cannot consent to blot Switzerland
from the map of Europe, even at the price of From the Examiner, 1 Sept.
taking a share. It would be not only disgrace
ful, but highly impolitic, to allow Austria, es SWITZERLAND MENACED WITH THE FATE OF
pecially in such hands as she is at present, to HUNGARY.
advance her military outposts beyond Bregenz. A bar has arisen to prevent the perfect adhe- It would not do to play over again in Switzerland sion of the French president to that new holy the game of Italy. It would not do to allow the alliance of despotism whose armies and whose Austrians to occupy the Grisons, whilst France principles are now triumphant from the Straits was content with a counterpoise in the seizure of of Sicily to the Baltic. The French government | Geneva. itself had been lulled into the opinion that its cir- But what to do? The Austrians, with the cumspect conduct had won the approbation of the Russians at their back, menace Switzerland. courts of the East. During the last fortnight, Even the smallest of their demands will not be however, the ulterior views of Russia and of Aus- complied with by the Swiss, who will raise tria, hidden as long as the Hungarian struggle troops, and menace war. Is France at once to remained doubtful, have become more fully known; forbid the invasion of Switzerland ? and if so, is and we have reason to believe that France has re- France to undertake, as at Rome, the un-democeived cause for distrust and alarm.
cratizing of Switzerland ? She has had enough Fortunately, the great bone of contention be- of this in Rome; but dare she say to Austria and tween France and Austria, the position of Pied- Russia, Switzerland must remain as it is? mont, had been settled by the conclusion of the These are questions that seriously occupy the treaty before Görgey's submission. But the Ro- consideration of French statesmen. And they are man affair remained undetermined ; and in this, the more serious, because Prussia joins Austria it is now acknowledged, the French government and Russia in the demand to reduce Switzerland will be forced to assume an altogether new atti- to at least homogeneity with the conservative govtude. Now, too, in addition to the Roman affair, ernments around her A German republic might there has arisen another, as yet almost unnoticed have been tolerated up to this time ; but now it by the press, but very sure, at no great distance is of too dangerous an example, and great efforts of time, to swell into paramount importance. This will be made to blot out all such. The difficulty is, What is to be done with Switzerland ? lies in the attitude to be assumed by France, and
When the Russian troops lately approached the on that depends the future fate of Switzerland frontier, the Swiss raised an army. It being and the peace of Europe
From the National Era.
SPEECH OF RICHARD COBDEN.
Much will depend too, no doubt, on the conduct | extract from a proclamation issued at Pesth, dated of the British ministry. It will be appealed to July 19, and signed Haynau. Praying forgiveness by the Swiss, and defied, should it remonstrate, from your outraged feelings, I will read it: “Any by the powers of the East. If England and individual who shall
, either by word or action, or France think as one upon the question, it is de- dare to support the cause of the rebels ; any indi
by wearing any revolutionary signs or emblems, cided, and Switzerland saved. If they disagree, vidual who shall insult one of my soldiers, or those and act separately, the fate of Hungary is to be of our brave allies, either by words or blows; any feared for Switzerland.
individual who shall enter into criminal relations with the enemies of the crown, or who shall seek
to kindle the flame of rebellion by reports spread PEACE CONGRESS IN PARIS.
for a sinister purpose, or who shall be rash enough (We make up this article from several papers, but es to conceal arms, or not deliver them up within the pecially request the reader's attention to that from the delay fixed by my proclamation, shall be put to Times, upon Mr. Gurney's statement ;-which appears to death with the shortest possible delay, and on the have been overlooked by American reporters, ignorant of spot where the crime shall be committed, withthe weight of his authority. Let the Times continue its out distinction of condition or sex. [Loud cries battery, and the walls will fall.
of “Butchers! butchers !”] This was addressed In a future number we shall shew that the cost of gov- to the inhabitants of Pesth ; and, a few weeks afernment in France has been increasing, and continues 10 terwards, the same signature appears to a proclaincrease so fast as to make everything except disbanding mation addressed to the inhabitants of the counthe army hopeless against insolvency. The expense in- tries of the Theiss, from which I will also read a curred by the continental powers, in keeping down the short extract, and which I must declare to be the masses of their own people, is ruinous. And without policy of the devil. [Loud laughter.)
Take care these standing armies, peace would soon reign over Eu- not to incur my vengeance by revolutionary moverope.)
ments. Not being able in such a case to find out the guilty party, I shall be compelled to punish the
whole district. If, on the territory occupied by my One of the most striking speeches made before army, or in its rear, any attempt shall be committhe congress was the following :
ted against my soldiers, or if any of the convoys should be stopped, or a courier, or the transport
of provisions prevented, an immediate punishment I have the honor to submit to your consideration shall be inflicted on the guilty commune ; it shall a motion condemnatory of loans for warlike pur- become the prey to flames, and levelled to the ground, poses. My object is to promote peace by with to serve as a frightful example to other communes.” holding the sinews of war. I propose that this (Renewed cries of“ Butchers! butchers !”] I ask congress shall make an appeal to the consciences you, whilst your flesh creeps, and your hair bristles of all those who have money to lend. (Hear, hear.) with horror at these quotations, Has war borrowed I do not allude to a few bankers who appear before any of the charities of Christianity? Have modern the world as loan-contractors. They are the agents warriors repudiated the practices of the barbarians only for collecting funds from smaller capitalists. of antiquity? For my part I can see no difference It is from the savings and accumulations of the between Attila and Haynau, between the Goth of merchants, manufacturers, traders, agriculturists, the fifth and the Goth of the nineteenth century. and annuitants, of civilized Europe, that warlike But we address ourselves to those who by their governments can alone supply their necessities ; loans really hire and pay the men who commit and to them we will appeal, by every motive of these atrocities, and we say : “It is you who give self-interest and humanity, not to lend their sup- strength to the arm which murders innocent women port to a barbarous system, which obstructs com- and helpless old age; it is you who supply the torch merce, uproots industry, annihilates capital and which reduces to ashes peaceful and inoffensive villabor, and revels amidst the tears and blood of lages, and on your souls will rest the burden of their fellow-creatures. We will do more ; we will these crimes against humanity.” I shall be told in
every possible way expose the character and ob- that it is useless to make an appeal to the sensibiljects, and exhibit to the world the true state of the ities of men, who, with money lying unproductive resources of every government which endeavors to at the bottom of their pockets, are thinking of nothcontract a loan for warlike purposes. The time is ing but five per cent.
1 will undertake to prove, gone by when barbarous nations, devoted to war. though I shall not weary you now with an argucould conquer civilized Europe, unless, indeed, the ment on the subject, that peace will offer a far betlatter will be so very complacent as to lend the ter field of battle, and that she will afford a much money necessary for its own subjugation. (Hear, more profitable investment for the accumulation, hear.) War has become an expensive luxury. It than in partnership with Haynau and Co. This is no longer a question of bows and arrows, swords discussion will be raised again and again in variand shields. (Cheers.) Battles are now decided ous places. The Congress of Nations will make by artillery, and every discharge of a cannon costs the tour of the civilized world. You, Frenchmen from twelve to fifteen francs. I wish, with all my and Frenchwomen, who have received with so heart, it was ten times as much. (Loud applause.] much enthusiasm your English visiters, in whose The consequence is, that when countries behind the name I thank you ; who have known so well how rest of Europe in civilization enter upon hostilities, to honor the noble zeal in the cause of humanity they are obliged to draw upon the resources of more which has prompted your American guests to cross civilized states in other words, to raise a loan. the great Atlantic, who have welcomed the presAnd how is the money thus borrowed from the ence of Germans, Belgians, Dutchmen, and the savings of honest industry expended? What is representatives of other nations, in this hall-you war in our day? Has it learned any of the chari- have imparted to the Peace Congress a great ties of peace ? Let us see. I hold in my hand an moral power, which its members will endeavor to
use for the benefit of humanity. We shall leave all joined together, without distinction of country; you with renewed hopes and courage, confident we have all been united in one common feeling durthat we have only to persevere resolutely but le- ing our three days' communion. The good work gally, and always in a moral sense, and, step by cannot go back-it must advance-it must be acstep, we shall propagate the sublime idea which complished. Cheers.] The course of the future now reigns in this hall, till it embraces within its may be judged of by the sound of the footsteps influence all the nations of the earth. [Loud and of the past ! (Hear, hear.] In the course of that long-continued applause.]
day's discussion, a reminiscence had been handed There is no statesman in Enrope more respected up to one of the speakers, that this is the anniver
of the dreadful massacre of St. Batholomew. than Richard Cobden, nor yet one who better rep- The reverend gentleman who was speaking turned resents the “good time coming." His presence away from the thought of that sanguinary scene, and aid, upon the occasion under notice, have es- with the pious horror natural to his sacred calling. tablished the peace movement as
a great fact.” But I, who may boast of firmer nerve, I take up What was once but an idea, has, through such the remembrance. Yes, it was on this day, two auspices, become a life; the word has become hundred and seventy-seven years ago, that Paris
was roused from slumber by the sound of that dread flesh.
bell which bore the name of the cloche d'argent. One of the most pleasing incidents of the con- Massacre was on foot, seeking with keen eye for gress was the following. Mr. Coquerel (member its victim-man was busy in slaying man. That of the National Assembly) rose, and said slaughter was called for by mingled passion of the
worst description. Hatred of all kinds was there That he wished to draw the attention of the urging on the slayer-hatred of a religious, a politmeeting to the interesting circumstances connected ical, a personal character! And yet, on the anniverwith the volume which he held in his hand. [The sary of that same day of horror, and in that very gentleman here held up a little black-bound book.] city where blood was fiowing like water, has God It was an essay on the best means of bringing about this day given a rendezvous unto men of peace, a state of general peace in Europe, with the double where wild tumult is transformed into order, and motto of Beati Pacifici, and Cedunt arma toga. The animosity into love! [Immense cheering.) The date of this little work was 1693, and the author stain of blood is blotted out, and in its place beams was the celebrated William Penn, one of the found forth a ray of holy light. (Renewed cheers.] All ers of the Society of Friends. (Immense cheering.] distinctions are removed, and Papist and Huguenot There was every presumption in favor of the opin- meet together in friendly communion! (Cheers, ion that this was the very copy that had been orig. which prevented the speaker for some time from inally presented by the author to Queen Mary of proceeding.) Who, that thinks of these amazing England, as on each cover were to be seen the changes, can doubt of the progress that has been royal initials of her majesty. The volume had made? But whoever denies the force of progress been the day before presented by M. A. Barbier must deny God, since progress is the boon of Provto the person then speaking, in order that it might idence, and emanates from the great Being above! be preserved in the library of the Protestant (Cheers.] I feel gratitude for the change that has church of the Oratoire, as a memorial of the first been effected, and, pointing solemnly to the past, I meeting of the Peace Congress at Paris. [Loud say, Let this day be ever held memorable— let the cheers.)
24th August, 1572, be remembered only for the Mr. Coquerel is a very influential person in purpose of being compared with the 24th August, Paris, as is indicated by the fact, that although a 1849; and when we think of this latter, and ponder Protestant pastor, he is also a representant du peu- -the advocacy of the principles of peace-let us
over the high purpose to which it has been devoted ple. He was particularly valuable to the congress, not be so wanting in reliance on Providence as 10 on account of his perfect acquaintance with both doubt for one moment of the eventual success of our the English and French tongues. The president holy cause. [Immense cheering followed this anicould not speak a sentence of English ; nor, in fact, mated address.) could Girardin or Garnier.
The chief interest of the congress did not reside Victor Hugo's closing speech was worthy the
in what are called its "
proceedings.” They cerauthor of "Notre Dame." The following indif
tainly were interesting, but not enough so to warferent translation of it is from Galignani :
rant a voyage across the Atlantic. We could My address (said he) shall be short, and yet I have heard as good addresses, and better, in Washhave to bid you adieu! How resolve to do so? | ington or New York. What was worth crossing Here during three days have questions of the deep- the ocean for was the sight of English, French, est import been discussed, examined, probed to the American, Dutch, Belgian, and German people bottom; and, during those discussions, counsels have been given to governments which they will mingling together in perfect illustration " liberté, do well to profit by. "If these three days' sittings égalité, and fraternité.” The fusion did us all are attended with no other result, they will be the good. It melted down many a national prejudice, means of sowing in the minds of those present and moulded into beautiful shapes some of the best germs of cordiality, which must ripen in good fruit. feelings of our nature. It was not a strife of na(Hear, hear.] England, France, Belgium, Europe tion against nation as to which should exhibit the and America, would all be drawn closer by these
greatest amount of cunning and power, but a noble sittings. (Hear, hear.) Yet the moment to part and joyous rivalry as to which should exhibit the has arrived ; but I can feel that we are strongly united in heart. [Applause.) But before parting
most good feeling and Christian sympathy; and I may be permitted to congratulate you and myself the French people seemed to be delighted that we on the result of our proceedings. We have been had chosen for such a convention, their brilliant metropolis. The government, even, received us / reflection to those who feel an interest in the extenwith open hand, and gave us every facility we sion of the international communication. could ask. We were allowed to come here from Another incident still more striking was the England, six hundred strong, without presenting following :a single passport, or opening a single portmanteau. M. Lacrosse, the minister of public works, issued On our arrival we were notified, by the minister a circular to the members of the Peace Congress, of public works, that every public building and inviting them to visit the palaces of Versailles and institution would be freely opened to us, on pre- St. Cloud, upon which occasion it was stated that sentation of our congressional cards. The cele- the celebrated water works would play, and the brated Fountains of Versailles were set in oper- an honor which, it was intimated, was only con
cascade at St. Cloud would be illuminated at night, ation, at great expense, for our special benefit ; ferred upon the visits of sovereigns. and the famous Cascade of St. Cloud was not only
In compliance with this invitation, about 1000 set in operation, but magnificently illuminated. delegates to the congress started by the railway to To crown all, De Tocqueville, minister of foreign Versailles, on Monday morning, at 9 o'clock. affairs, invited every member of the congress to a Upon their arrival they were immediately consoiree at his official residence, where we met near- ducted over the palace, every portion of which was ly all of his official colleagues, and several foreign
thrown open for their inspection. At half past 12 ambassadors. It was pleasant to see among the upwards of 700 of the company sat down 10 an el
egant déjeuner in the celebrated Tennis-court, so latter our distinguished countryman, Mr. Rush.
fraught with historical associations. The residue I shall have another letter to send you upon the of the company, on account of the inadequacy of congress, and so will close this, lest I weary you. the building to their accommodation, were com
Tavistock. pelled to seek refreshment in the various cafés in
the town. P.S. Lamartine was not present at the congress, on account of his illness. Beranger was
After the repast was concluded, the company also absent from indisposition, but sent in a letter were reconducted to the palace, where they were approving our movement. While at Versailles,
received by the commandant and a guard of honor. the English members complimented their Amer
Upon their arrival on the terrace, at the entrance ican brethren by giving them a déjeuner a la four- of the gardens, they were surprised at finding chette, and presenting each of us, on the occasion, nearly 30,000 spectators, who had assembled from with a copy of the New Testament, in French Paris, Versailles, and other places. The conRichard Cubden presided over the ceremonies, and gress halted for a short time upon the terrace, and addresses were made, in acknowledgment of the gave several hearty English cheers for France. honors, by W. Allen, D. D., Rev. James F. Clark, which were responded to by cheers from the Elihu Burritt, and Henry Clapp, jun.
French, accompanied by shouts of “ Vive la
saluted during the day. The commandant, mountFrom the Independent.
ed on horseback, then conducted the congress over The English papers are filled with the details the gardens, to visit the fountains. of the Peace Congress. We have no room for At 5 o'clock the congress took their leave of the reports of speeches beyond what have already Versailles amidst mutual cheering between thembeen furnished by our English correspondent. selves and the French, and proceeded by railway But there were several incidents in connection with to St. Cloud, where they were conducted over the this movement worthy of being chronicled as indi- palace and grounds by the officers of the palcating the state of public feeling towards it. One ace, the French populace being rigidly excluded of these is thus spoken of in the London Daily from any spot which could intercept the view of News of August 28 :
At nightfall, “ La Grande CasThe greater number of the gentlemen from Eng
cade" was illuminated in the most magnificent land and America left London by special train on
manner for two hours, a military band playing vathe morning of Tuesday, the 21st inst. The party, rious overtures, quadrilles, and waltzes during the numbering between 700 and 800, found two special period. Between 8 and 9 the company took their steamers waiting at Folkestone, to convey them to departure amidst mutual salutations, being conBoulogne, where they arrived at three and half ducted out of the grounds by the chief officer in past three, P. M. In consequence of the kind and active interven- avenue of trees leading from the palace to the
charge of the palace, the road through the long tion of the President of the Chamber of Commerce, Monsieur Alexandre Adam, the usual passport for-town being lighted by flambeaux, held by soldiers malities were dispensed with on this occasion, and at short intervals. The spectators at St. Cloud the custom-house authorities allowed the whole of were nearly as numerous as those at Versailles. the luggage to be landed and conveyed to the rail- It was intimated in the early part of the day way station without being examined. This last that it was the intention of the President to have concession is almost without precedent. Although met the deputation at St. Cloud, but in the evenit is generally extended to ambassadors and distin: ing the congress were informed that the state of guished official personages travelling as such, it probably has never before been made for a large his health would not permit of his carrying out number of private individuals landing at the same his original intention. time; and the circumstance offers a subject for much ;
On the following morning the greater part of