« ElőzőTovább »
3. When phosphorus is converted into phosphoric acid, by combustion in oxygen gas, every grain of phosphorus consumes 4^ cubic inches of oxygen. Hence phosphoric acid is composed of 100 phosphorus united to 150*5 oxygen. Phosphorous acid contains just half the oxygen present in phosphoric acicr,'or it is a compound of 100 phosphorus and 75"25 oxygen.
4. When phosphorus is slowly burnt in the air, the liquid produced is a mixture of phosphoric and phosphorous acids. When phosphorus is burnt in rare air at a moderate heat, the solid acid produces phosphorous acid.
5. The specific gravity of sulphurous acid gas is 2*193, that of air being 1-00G, and 100 cubic inches of it under the usual temperature and pressure weigh 66-89 grains. It is composed of equal weights of oxygen and sulphur. When oxygen gas is converted into sulphurous acid gas the bulk is not altered.
6. The specific gravity of sulphureted hydrogen gas is 1 '177, that, of air being l'OOO: 100 cubic inches of it, under the common temperature and pressure, weigh 35 "89 grains. It is composed of 100 parts, by weight, of hydrogen, and 1509 of sulphur.
7. Sulphuric acid, free from water, does not appear possible to be formed. Dry sulphurous acid gas and nitrous acid gases have no action on each other.
8. The liquid compound of sulphur and chlorine, which I discovered about eight years ago, is composed of 33 sulphur and 67 chlorine.
9. Water has the property of combining in definite proportions with a great number of bodies, and it has a considerable effect on their properties. In this manner it combines with the earths, alkalies, and most of the metallic oxides.
Method of taking Iron-moulds out of Cotton.—Cottons of all kinds are apt to receive a dirty yellowish, or orange stain, from iron, which, if allowed to remain, gradually corrodes the cloth and forms a hole, At first these stains are easily removed by means of muriatic acid, or any other diluted acid (except vinegar); but, after they have remained for some lime, acids have no effect upon them. It may, therefore, be useful to know a method of removing these moulds in such inveterate cases.
The iron in them is in the state of red oxide; and it appears, from various facts, that the red oxide of iron has a much greater affinity for cotton cloth than the black oxide. The object in view, therefore, should be to bring the iron in the mould to the state of black oxide; after which, muriatic acid will easily remove it. There are two methods of doing this, both of which in the present case answer the purpose completely. The first is to touch the mould with the yellow liquid formed by boiling a mixture of potash and sulphur in water, called hydrogureted sulphuret of potash by chemists. The mould becomes immediately black, and the action of diluted muriatic acid immediately effaces it. The second method is to daub the mould
over with ink so as to make it quite black. After this, muriatic acid takes it out, as in the former case.
Composition of Azote.—Professor Berzelius has announced, in a letter to a celebrated chemist in London, that he has satisfied himself, by a mode of calculation which he has not explained, that azote is a compound of 44'6 of an unknown inflammable gas, and 55-4 of oxygen gas, /
Pure Alumina.—Mr. Webster lately picked up a very curious mineral upon the beach between Brighthelmstone and Beachy Head. It is a white substance, similar in appearance to a mass of tobaccopipe-clay5 but when examined by Dr. Wollaston was found to consist of pure alumina.
New Patents.—David Thomas, of Bristol; for a new and improved method of burning animal bones lor the purpose of extracting the grease or fat property therefrom, and likewise for extracting the spirituous quality therefrom, and for reducing the remainder, or dry parts of bones, into a substance sufficiently prepared for being ground inio ivory black. Dated March 30, 1813.
James Timmins, of Birmingham; for an improved method of making and erecting hot-houses, and all horticultural buildings, and also the making of pine-pits, cucumber-lights, sashes, and church; windows. Dated April 7, 1813,
Dr. Robert Wall, of Glasgow, has a work in the press on the History, Nature, and Treatment, of Chincough, illustrated by a variety of cases and dissections; to which will be subjoined, an Inquiry into the relative Mortality of the principal Diseases of Children in Glasgow during the last thirty years, and the number who have died at various periods under ten years of age.
The expediency of the measure of preventing inoculation for smallpox by an act of the legislature, is again about to be agitated, by a bill presented to the House of Lords, by the Earl of Boringdon, to restrict the propagation of that disease. When this bill was presented, on Monday, the 21st of June, it was observed by Lord Boringdon, "though this country had all the honor of the discovery of Vaccination, yet, from the prejudices existing against it, of all the countries of Europe, this had probably derived the least benefit from the practice. While in other parts of Europe the small-pox had been nearly exterminated, during the last year not fewer than 1200 deaths by small-pox had occurred within the bills of mortality." The object of this bill is not to prohibit small-pox inoculation, but to subject it to such regulations as may prevent the diffusion of the contagion.
Royal College of Surgeons.—We whose names are hereunto subscribed, deeply impressed with the many fatal instances of the smallpox, which have lately happened, and which daily occur, in the metropolis, and in various towns of the kingdom: convinced that such events are, in a great degree, consequences of the support and propagation of that disease by inoculation: and, fully satisfied of the safety, and the security, of vaccination: from a consequent sense of duty to the community, do, hereby, engage ourselves, to each other, and to the public, not to inoculate the small-pox, unless, for some special reason, after vaccination; but to pursue, and to the utmost of our power promote, the practice of vaccination.
And, further, we do recommend to all the members of the College, of correspondent opinions and sentiments of duty, to enter into similar engagements.
Thompson Fokster, Master.
Everard Home, I ~
I!,- a > Governors.
William Blizaru, J
The project of Lucet for the cure of insanity, now before the public (as far as the projector allows, his assumed secret to transpire), under the patronage of the Dukes of Kenl, &c. &c. and Dr. Harness, with some other gentlemen not of the medical profession, will be duly noticed as it proceeds. In its present state, the Editors of this Journal can say but little on it; but in its progress it will be noticed to the fullest extent it may deserve. ...
A very singular fraud has been practised for some time past in some of the retail shops in London. Artificial pepper-corns, both white and black, are mixed with real pepper-corns, and this fraudulent mixture sold as genuine pepper. The mode of detecting the cheat is easy. Throw a handful of the suspected pepper-corns into water: the artificial corns fall to powder, or are partially dissolved; while the true pepper-corns remain whole. These fraudulent peppercorns are made of peasemeat. The fraud should be publicly known, because such a mixture, if used instead of real pepper, may prove, in many cases of household economy, exceedingly prejudicial to those who ignorantly make use of it,
• Quantity of rain from the 26th of May to the 25th of June, -^ of fin inch.
This interval has been remarkably dry; the mercury has been 23 day* steadily at 30 or above; the prevailing winds have blown from the N. and NE.; and the temperature has been low. Some catarrhal affections, instances of inflammatory angina, and pneumonic inflammation, have occurred in private practice; but the records of public dispensaries indicate that this interval has been unusually free from disease. Printfs Street, Cavendish Square,
90 Dr. Prout on Injecting the Blood- Vessels.
made upon the most difficult organ to inject, viz. the eye (of the ox) were attended with considerable success, the vascularity of most of its transparent parts having been plainly demonstrated.
The coloring particles of injections, it is obvious, should be opake, but to be opake they must be solid ;* and solids of every kind, however finely comminuted, will not, as before observed, enter the vessels of transparent parts; and even supposing a fluid could be obtained, holding a sufficient quantity of coloring matter in solution, yet it cannot be fixed by the common means; for I have reason to believe, from some experiments, that a solution of isinglass, of such a strength as just to gelatinize when cold, will not enter them. Injections, therefore, capable of penetrating these infinitely fine vessels, must, in the first place, be fluid as water; and, secondly, like water be inert with respect to animal matter, otherwise they will act on the parts, and, by destroying their organization, defeat their own purpose.
The great difficulty of finding fluids possessed of these properties, and at the same time holding coloring matter enough in solution, was the grand objection which first presented itself when the above-mentioned plan originally occurred to me:,almost all the metallic salts, some of which are otherwise well adapted for the purpose, are necessarily excluded from their well-known properties of acting on animal matters: the two which promised most fairly, were the prussiate of potass, and a solution of the red sulphate of iron,
* Mercury perhaps is, strictly speaking, the only opake fluid, and this accordingly is often employed for minute injections; the impossibility of fixing it, however, added to its weight, and the strong attraction of its particles for each other, by which they coalesce into globule-:, and thus block up or burst the minute vessels, very much limit its use. I doubt much also if oils, from their strong antipathy to the watery fluids of the parts, can be made to enter them; and if they could, perhaps there is no method of coloring them so as to render them sufficiently effective. I may here mention a method of common minute injection, which I have employed with considerable success when the parts are capable of bearing the requisite temperature without being injured; this consists in using, instead of size, the serum of blood, or, what is perhaps belter, the whites of eggs, a little diluted with water; the coloring matter is to be added to these in the usual proportions and thoroughly mixed, and the part when injected to be thrown into water nearly boiling hot, so as to coagulate the albumen. The easiest way of breaking down the whites of eggs and rendering them smooth, is to force them by means of a syringe through a piece of linen three or four times thick; this repeated once or twice will render them perfectly smooth.