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any whit benefit the godly? And seeing that he abideth in us by the Spirit, 'we are therefore the temples of God' (1 Cor. iii. 16); but what agreement hath the temple of God with idols ?? (2 Cor. vi. 16). And seeing that the blessed spirits and saints in heaven, while they lived here, abhorred all worship done unto themselves (Acts iii. 12, and xiv. 15; Rev. xix. 10, and xxii. 9), and spake against images, who can think it likely that the saints in heaven, and the angels, are delighted with their own images, whereunto men do bow their knees, uncover their heads, and give such other like honor ?
But that men might be instructed in religion, and put in mind of heavenly things and of their own salvation, the Lord commanded to preach the Gospel (Mark xvi. 15)-not to paint and instruct the laity by pictures; he also instituted sacraments, but he nowhere appointed images.
Furthermore, in every place which way soever we turn our eyes, we may see the lively and true creatures of God, which if they be marked, as is meet, they do much more effectually move the beholder than all the images or vain, unmovable, rotten, and dead pictures of all men whatsoever; of which the prophet spake truly, “They have eyes, and see not,' etc. (Psa. cxv. 5).
Therefore we approve the jndgment of Lactantius, an ancient writer, who says, “ Undoubtedly there is no religion where there is a picture.' And we affirm that the blessed bishop Epiphanius did well, who, finding on the church-doors a veil, that had painted on it the picture, as it might be, of Christ or some saint or other, he cut and took it away; for that, contrary to the authority of the Scriptnres, he had seen the picture of a man to hang in the Church of Christ: and therefore he charged that from henceforth no snch veils, which were contrary to religion, should be hung up in the Church of Christ, but that rather such scruple should be taken away which was unworthy of the Church of Christ and all faithful people. Moreover, we approve this sentence of St. Augustine, 'Let not the worship of men's works be a religion unto us; for the workmen themselves that make such things are better, whom yet we ought not to worship’(De Vera Religione, cap. 55).
CHAPTER V.—OF THE ADORATION, WORSHIP, AND INVOCATION OF GOD
THROUGH THE ONLY MEDIATOR JESUS CHRIST. We teach to adore and worship the true God alone. This honor we impart to none, according to the commandment of the Lord, “Thou shalt adore the Lord thy God, and him alone shalt thou worship,' or ‘him only shalt thou serve' (Matt. iv. 10). Surely all the prophets inveighed earnestly against the people of Israel whensoever they did adore and worship strange gods, and not the only true God.
But we teach that 'God is to be adored and worshiped,' as himself has taught us to worship him—to wit, “ in spirit and in truth' (John is. 24); not with any superstition, but with sincerity, according to his word, lest at any time he also say unto us, “Who hath required these things at your hands ?' (Isa. i. 12; Jer. vi. 20). For Paul also says, "God is not worshiped with men's hands, as though he needed any thing,' etc. (Acts xvii. 25).
We, in all dangers and casualties of life, call on him alone, and that by the mediation of the only Mediator, and our Intercessor, Jesus Christ. For it is expressly commanded us,‘Call upon me in the day of trouble: I will deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify me' (Psa. I. 15). More over, the Lord has made a most large promise, saying, “Whatsoever ye shall ask of my Father, he shall give it you' (John xvi. 23); and again,
Come unto me, all ye that labor and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest' (Matt. xi. 28). And seeing it is written, 'How shall they call upon him in whom they have not believed ?? (Rom. x. 14), and we do believe in God alone; therefore we call upon him only, and that through Christ. For there is one God,' says the apostle, "and one mediator between God and men, Christ Jesus' (1 Tim. ii. 5). Again, * If any man sin, we have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous,' etc. (1 John ii. 1).
Therefore we do neither adore, worship, nor pray unto the saints in heaven, or to other gods; neither do we acknowledge them for onr intercessors or mediators before the Father in heaven. For God and the mediator Christ do suffice us; neither do we impart unto others the honor due to God alone and to his Son, because he has plainly said, 'I will not give my glory to another' (Isa. xli. 8); and because Peter has said, There is no other name given unto men, whereby they must
CHAPTER III.-OF GOD; THE UNITY AND THE TRINITY. We believe and teach that God is one in essence or nature, snbsisting by himself, all-sufficient in himself, invisible, without a body, infinite, eternal, the Creator of all things both visible and invisible, the chief good, living, quickening and preserving all things, almighty and supremely wise, gentle or merciful, just and true.
And we detest the multitude of gods, because it is expressly written, “The Lord thy God is one God' (Deut. vi. 4). 'I am the Lord thy God; thou shalt have no strange gods before my face' (Exod. xx. 2, 3). 'I am the Lord, and there is none other; beside me there is no God. Am not I the Lord, and there is none other beside me alone ? a just God, and a Saviour; there is none beside me' (Isa. xlv. 5, 21). 'I the Lord, Jehovah, the merciful God, gracious and long-suffering, and abundant in goodness and truth,' etc. (Exod. xxxiv. 6).
We nevertheless believe and teach that the same infinite, one, and indivisible God is in person inseparably and without confusion distinguished into the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit: so, as the Father has begotten the Son from eternity, the Son is begotten in an inspeakable manner; and the Holy Spirit proceeds from them both, and that from eternity, and is to be worshiped with them both. So that there are not three Gods, but three persons, consubstantial, coeternal, and coequal; distinct, as touching their persons; and, in order, one going before another, yet without any inequality. For, as touching their nature or essence, they are so joined together that they are but one God; and the divine essence is common to the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit.'
For the Scripture has delivered unto us a manifest distinction of persons; the angel, among other things, saying thus to the Blessed Virgin, 'The Holy Spirit shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee; and that holy thing which shall be born shall be called the Son of God' (Luke i. 35). Also, in the baptism of Christ, a voice was heard from heaven, saying, “This is my beloved
* Lest any man should slander us, as though we did make the persons all existing together, but not all of the same essence, or else did make a God of divers natures joined together in one, you must understand this joining together so as that all the persons (though distinct one
from the other in properties) be yet but one and the same whole Godhead, or so that all "and every of the persons have the whole and absolute Godhead.
eternal, and omnipotent God. For David witnesses and says, 'The Lord is high above all nations, and his glory above the heavens. Who is like unto the Lord, who dwelleth on high, and yet humbleth himself to behold the things that are in heaven and earth ? (Psa. cxiii. 46). Again, he says, 'Thou hast foreseen all my ways; for there is not a word in my tongue which thou knowest not wholly, O Lord,' etc. (Psa. cxxxix. 3, 4). Paul also witnesses and says, “By him we live, move, and have our being' (Acts xvii. 28); and of him, and through him, and from him are all things' (Rom. xi. 36).
Therefore Augustine both truly and according to the Scripture said, in his book De Agone Christi, cap. 8, ‘The Lord said,“ Are not two sparrows sold for a farthing ? and one of them shall not fall to the ground without the will of your Father.” By speaking thus he would give us to understand whatsoever men count most vile, that also is gorerned by the almighty power of God. For the truth, which said that all the hairs of our head are numbered, says also that the birds of the air are fed by him, and the lilies of the field are clothed by him.'
We therefore condemn the Epicureans, who deny the providence of God, and all those who blaspheinously affirm that God is occupied abont the poles of heaven, and that he neither sees nor regards us or our affairs. The princely prophet David also condemned these men when he said, “O Lord, how long shall the wicked, how long shall the wicked triumph? They say the Lord doth not see, neither doth the God of Jacob regard it. Understand, ye unwise among the people; and ye fools, when will ye be wise? He that planted the ear, shall he not hear? and he that hath formed the eye, shall he not see?' (Psa. xciv. 3, 7-9).
Notwithstanding, we do not condemn the means whereby the providence of God works as though they were unprofitable; but we teach that we must apply ourselves unto them, so far as they are commended unto us in the Word of God. Wherefore we dislike the rash speeches of such as say that if all things are governed by the providence of God, then all our studies and endeavors are unprofitable; it shall be sntticient if we leave or permit all things to be governed by the providence of God; and we shall not need hereafter to behave or act with carefulness in any matter. For though Paul did confess that he did sail by the providence of God, who had said to him, Thou must testify of
me also at Rome' (Acts xxiii. 11); who, moreover, proinised and said, * There shall not so much as one soul perish, neither shall a hair fall from your heads' (Acts xxvii. 22, 34); yet, the mariners devising how they might find a way to escape, the same Paul says to the centurion and to the soldiers, ‘Unless these remain in the ship, ye can not be safe' (Acts xxvii. 31). For God, who has appointed every thing his end, he also has ordained the beginning and the means by which we must attain unto the end. The heathens ascribe things to blind fortune and uncertain chance; but St. James would not have us say, 'Today or to-morrow we will go into such a city, and there buy and sell; but he adds, 'For that which ye should say, If the Lord will, and if we live, we will do this or that’ (James iv. 13, 15). And Augustine says, * All those things which seem to vain men to be done advisedly in the world, they do but accomplish his word because they are not done by his commandment. And, in his exposition of the 148th Psalm, 'It seemed to be done by chance that Saul, seeking his father's asses, should light on the prophet Samuel;' but the Lord had before said to the prophet, ‘To-morrow I will send unto thee a man of the tribe of Benjamin,' etc. (1 Sam. ix. 16).
CHAPTER VII.—OF THE CREATION OF ALL THINGS; OF ANGELS, THE DEVIL,
AND MAN. This good and almighty God created all things, both visible and invisible, by his eternal Word, and preserves the same also by his eternal Spirit: as David witnesses, saying, “ By the word of the Lord were the heavens made, and all the host of them by the breath of his mouth' (Psa. xxxiii. 6); and, as the Scripture says, 'All things that the Lord created were very good' (Gen. i. 31), and made for the use and profit of man.
Now, we say, that all those things do proceed from one beginning: and therefore we detest the Manichees and the Marcionites, who did wickedly imagine two substances and natures, the one of good, the other of evil; and also two beginnings and two gods, one contrary to the other--a good and an evil.
Among all the creatures, the angels and men are most excellent. Touching angels, the Holy Scripture says, 'Who maketh his angels spirits, his ministers a flaming fire' (Psa. civ. 4); also, ' Are they not