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these enterprises, the celebrated Caius Secundus Pliny availed Beloor Mountains, and reached the celebrated Lithinos Pyrgos, or himself, in his Natural History. He also knew how to dip with “ Stone Tower,” a station whose site is still a doubtful question considerable discernment into the writings of the Greeks; but among geographers. From this station to the frontier of Serica he appears not to have considered it necessary to consult the was a seven months' hard and perilous journey. The description work of Strabo. From the information he had obtained in this which Ptolemy gives of Serica corresponds more exactly to China way, he assigned to the different quarters of the world then than any other country; and his account of the manners and known the following magnitudes :-To Europe, one-third; to customs of the inhabitants identifies it still more. Moreover, Asia, one-fourth; and to Africa one-fifth of the whole.
the staple commodity of this overland trade was silk, for which Marinus of Tyre, who preceded Ptolemy, was distinguished China has been celebrated from time immemorial. Ptolemy for his geographical knowledge. He took advantage of all appears to have had a considerable knowledge of Hindostan or ancient and contemporary writers to compose a complete treatise India, both within and beyond the Ganges; a knowledge said on the subject of geography and maps; and he even prepared to be superior to that of the moderns till within the limits of new editions of his books, corrected and improved in proportion the present century. With regard to Africa, this statement as he obtained more exact information; but it is to be regretted may just be reversed. But, on the whole, his work must be that these have not reached us. At last appeared, about the considered a singular monument of industry, and a valuable middle of the second century, the famous Ptolemy, who lived at book of reference in all matters relating to the ancient geoAlexandria in Egypt, and taught astronomy there. His system graphy of the world. of astronomy and geography, which stood unimpeached for about twelve centuries, and received the name of the Ptolemaic system from its author, was not superseded till Copernicus appeared ;
LESSONS IN FRENCH.–V. and notwithstanding his errors, due more to the ignorance of
SECTION I. FRENCH PRONUNCIATION (continued). mankind than to himself, his name is still revered as a geographer and astronomical observer. His work entitled the
III. NAME AND SOUND OF THE VOWELS. “Megale Syntaxis, or Great Construction," is a monument of his 38. É, é, ACUTE.--Name, ay; sound, like the letters ay in the labour and his learning. He examined the ratio of the length English word pray. of the gromon or style of the sun-dial to its shadow at the
EXAMPLES. equinoxes and the solstices; he calculated eclipses; he investi FRENCH. PRONUN, ENGLISH FRENCH. PRONUN. ENGLISH. gated the calculations founded on the difference of climate, and Arrivé Ar-eev-ay Arrived. Obligé O-ble-zhay Obliged. carefully consulted the reports of travellers and navigators. Elevé Ayl-vay Raised. Précéder Pray-say-day To proceed. He reduced his information and observations into a regular Eté Ay-tay Summer. Prémédité Pray. may - Prem edi.
dee-tay tated. system, and expressed the positions of places by longitude and Flagorné Flah-gorn-ay Wheedled. latitude, after the manner of Hipparchus. His great work
L Forgó For-zhay Forged. Trouvé Troo-vay Found.
Joué Zhoo-ay Sported. consists nearly of an elementary picture of the earth, in which
Vérité Vay-ree-tay Truth.
Mérite May-reet Worth. i its figure and size, and the positions of places on its surface, are determined. It contains only a very short outline of the 39. E, è, GRAVE.-Name, ai; sound, like the letters ai in division of countries, with scarcely any historical notice. It is the English word stair. supposed that a detailed account was added to this outline, but
EXAMPLES. it has not reached us. His geography is contained in eight | FRENCH. PRONUN. ENGLISH. FRENCH. PRONUN. ENGLISH. books, and is certainly more scientific than any previous work Chère Shair Cheer. Madère Mad-air Madeira. on the subject. He taught how to determine the longitude by Colère Ko-lair Passionate. Manière Man-yair Manner. lanar eclipses, and by this method ascertained that of many
Elève Ay-laiv Pupil. Mère Mair
Fièvre Feai-vr' Fever. Modèle Mo-dail Pattern. places with tolerable accuracy.
Jardinière Zhahr-deen. Gardener. Père Pair
Father. According to Ptolemy, the limits of the world were Thule on the north, and the Prassum Promontorium on the south, the
Ratière Rat-yair Rat-trap. former being, most probably, some part of Norway, and the 40. Ê, ê, CIRCUMFLEX.—Name, ai; sound, like the letters latter some unknown point south-west of Madagascar. Its ai in the English word stair. limits on the west were the Fortunate Isles, now the Canaries; E has a longer and broader sound than è. The mouth must and on the east, Thinæ in Sinæ or China. He rejected the be opened wider in pronouncing the former than the latter. In theory of all preceding geographers, who represented the world ordinary reading and common conversation, the difference as surrounded by an impassable ocean on all sides; and he between ê and è is hardly perceptible. Still there is a differ. replaced it by an indefinite expanse of unknown land. He rejected ence; just the difference between pronouncing e like the letters the true reports of circumnavigation of Africa, and extended its ai in the English word stair with the mouth half opened, and limits southward beyond all reasonable bounds.
pronouncing the same letters in the same word with the mouth With Europe, Ptolemy was tolerably well acquainted; and well opened, and also prolonging the sound. Practice will he described Germany and Sarmatia with some degree of accu- demonstrate this. racy. He knew the Ems, the Weser, the Elbe, the Oder, and
EXAMPLES. the Vistula. He calls Jutland the Cimbric Chersonese or
FRENCH. PRONUN. ENGLISH. FRENCH. PRONUN. ENGLISH. Peninsula, and the Baltic, the Sarmatic Ocean ; but he failed
A beast. Forêt For-rai Forest. in his account of this inland sea. He was better acquainted Crème Kraim Cream. Même Maim The same. with the south of Russia in Europe, with the Tanais, the Borys. | Crêpe Kraip Crape. Prêcher Prai-shay To preach. thenes, and the Euxine, or Black Sea. In his description of the Dépêche Day-paish Dispatch. Prêt Prai Ready.
Aitr' Mediterranean there are many errors; but his account is more Etre
Extrême Eks-traim accurate with them all than that of any previous geographer.
Extreme. | Tête
Head. In regard to Asia, his knowledge was obscure and unsatisfactory,
SECTION X.-PLURALS OF PRONOUNS, ETC. though some features can be still identified with fact. Here he described the “Golden Chersonese," and the Magnus Sinus, or.
1. The plural form of the pronouns le, him or it; la, her or it, Great Bay of India. These appear to have been the Indo- is les, them, for both genders. Its place is also before the verb. Chinese countries of Ava, Pegu, and Malacca, with their adjacent Vonz les avez. Les avez-vous ? You have them. Have you them? gulfs or bays; and Thing, which he places at this remote Nous ne les avons pas,
We have them not. corner, is supposed to be Siam, rather than any place in China. 2. The plural of the article, preceded by the preposition de, of
The Serica of Ptolemy in the north of Asia is supposed, with or from, is des for both genders. good reason, to be China, which was reached by great trading caravans, which proceeded from Byzantium (or Constantinople),
Des livres, des plumes, Of or from the books, of the pens. across Asia Minor, crossing the Euphrates at Hierapolis, and
Des frères, des sœurs,
Oj or from the brothers, of the sisters. passing through Media, by way of Ecbatana to Hecatompylos, 3. The same form of the article is placed before plural nouns the capital of Parthia. Their next route was through Hyrcania, / used in a partitive sense (Sect. IV. 1]. Aria, Margiana, and Bactria, whence they ascended the table-land J'ai des habits,
I have clothes. of the interior of Asia, passed over the Montes Comedorum, or ! Vous avez des maisons,
You have houses,
met wypady also to plural nouns right or wrong? 8. I am right, I am not wrong. 9. Has the
tinman my silver candlesticks or yours? 10. He has neither W. wwwa wo books,
your silver candlesticks nor mine. 11. What has he? 12. He Yo not good pencils. has the cabinet-maker's wooden tables. 13. Has he your maho. . .., .. wertives mon, ton, son,
gany chairs ? 14. No, Sir, he has my white marble tables. 15. . . , len, has, her; nos, our ;
Have you these tables or those ? 16. I have neither these nor with zerdera.
those, I have the cabinet-maker's. 17. Have you good pencil.
cases ? 1 brother, my sisters.
18. No, Sir, but I have good pencils. 19. Has the u nooler, our pene.
traveller iron guns? 20. Yes. Sir, he has mine, yours, and his.
21. Has he not your brother's ? 22. He has not my brother's. no non. le mienne, etc. Sect. 23. Has the workman my iron hammers ? 24. Yes, Sir, he has
them. 25. Has my brother your pens or my cousin's ? 26. He Pem.
has mine and yours. 27. Have you the children's clothes? 28. 14'ims, les tienges, the ne Yes, Madam, I have them. 29. Have you your sister's hat?
30. I have my cousin's, f. 31. Is anything the matter with sear, les leurs, thera.
your brother? 32. He is cold and hungry. 33. Have you Olet and mine.
horses ? 34. Yes, Sir, I have two horses. 35. I have two
horse-hair mattresses and one wool mattress. . ..monstento Liv et, cette have ces for
AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES-FEMININE OF ADJECTIVES. - mass -med i ese men, these roma.
1. The adjective in French, whatever may be its place, * constest ronoun relui. ... this or that, makes agrees in gender and number with the noun which it qualifies " e h . Ize ammr: form, celle, merely takes the '$ 15 (1) (2)
2. Adjectives ending with e mute, i.e., not accented, retain esters 2. Jenz ie Y, andesticks and those of your that termination for the feminine. Brothers.
'n garçon aimable,
An amiable boy. sagedies Scoiles de os Por ciles nd those of our
Cae fille aimable,
An amiable girl. olyhours
3. Adjectives not ending in e mute take e for the feminine. RESME JE B.CUPLES.
to garçon diligent,
A diligent boy. me tere - mes beaux Has your Srother my horses!
A diligent girl. ne rotes mes siens. He us nether yours ner hus.
4. EXCEPTIONS.-Adjectives ending in el, eil, en, et, on, as, 4 x Rus Voisins?
Huse we sur Reyhbours
, ani es, double the last consonant and take e for the feminine. . sur toile Tos lumes ou Susy nstur your pens urn cou
| Masc. Fem.
s u r those of the COUSUIR Essentiei, essentielle, essential. | Sujet, sujette, subject. - smules mu celles le She has other me norm wuusu's, Vermeil, vermeille, vermillion. Bon, bonne, good. JURSLAN ile a los sendes site las herren
Ancien, ancienne, ancient. | Bas,
lor. S US O marteaux Hanese immers
i 5. Adjectives ending in f change the f into ve; those ending d e pe marionux. You are no mars .
in r change that letter into se for the feminine. . Smyous.
Y lure pretty punaris. V l Jos nauts Hanou sldren's clothes
ta habit neuf,
A new coat. . . wait les enfants. I t not the diret's doties.
toe robe neuve,
A ner dress. Po po dapous les cames True love the mos huis.
In homme heureux,
Une femme heureuse,
A happy woman,
6 The adjectives beau, handsome ; fou, foolish; mou, soft; • v y
2cuveau. Mene; view, old; become, bel, fol, mol, nouvel, and sky Chaudell, Jile Musel, m., ten.
veil, before a noun masculine commencing with a vowel or anh Yarore, m., nurbu.
mute; the last consonant of the latter form is doubled, and e N ow, li ih sko b uti Matulas, m., mult muss. dded, for the feminine. Ex.: Belle, folle, nouvelle, vieille. Wher
Mulleure, ill. f., bet 7. Additional rules and exceptions will be found in § 15 of Meu blism, .,
Part II. .. alle udlaukios, U tos Ouvriers, word. S. CONJIGATION OF THE PRESENT OF THE INDICATIVE Voyageur, m., traveller
OF ETRE, TO BE.
Art thou ?
Sommes-nous ? Are we? ! W enn du laves 9. The
Vous etes, You are.
Etes-vous ? Are you? Lil l evou 10. Hrve run pas nos meil
I's sout, m., They aro.
Are they? l ' on HOM, V Wulluurw plumes
Elles sont, f., They are.
Sont-elles ? Are they?
RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.
all do ore 13. vee-rous un garçon diligent et Have you a diligent boy and a diliI lu b Illluu
gent girl? tulis su bana Jeune fille diligente? 1 . A lam wa JW 1 (ui, Hoa gurou est diligent, mais ma My boy is diligent, but my daughter
sille est paresseuse. (R. 5.) is idle. Il lulle. T e ob della lo ha bewak
Tutte costume est-elle ancienne ? Is this custom ancient 1 0 . Jardu ki won 21 Jo
v ite coutume n'est pas ancienne, This custom is not ancient, it is & Tous wie est pouvelle (R. 6.)
new. Now Monelowin
wol w mus Yvere pluwe, I, est-elle bonne ou Is your pen good or bad ?
alsa de ma soeur n'est pas si My sister's house is not so good as de que la vita
h ow the young
the the place of adjectives sce Sect. XIII., and Sect. VI. 5.
2. Start from the same position, and, after each backward Bean, bel, belle, hand- Fille, f., daughter. | Parasol, m., parasol. movement, bring the wand over the head and down in front to Habit, m., coat. Petit, -e, small.
the knees. Bon, m., good.
Heureux, -80, happy. Paresseux, -se, idle. 3. Hold the wand over the head as before; then bring it Content, -e, pleased. Ici, here.
Porcelaine, f., china. down on each side alternately, by lowering one hand and raising Cravate, I., crarat. Meilleur, -e, better. Que, than,
the other, until the wand is in a perpendicular position. ReDame, I., lady. Neuf, -ve, new. Vieux, vieille, old.
member still that the elbows must not be bent. Encrier, n., inkstand. Parapluie, m., um- Vif, vive, quick, lively.
4. Now hold the wand in an upright position in front of Excellent, -e, excellent, brella.
you, the hands near the middle, and about six inches apart; EXERCISE 19.
the arms extended forward as nearly straight as possible. 1. Cette dame est-elle contente ? 2. Non, Monsieur, cette Keeping the legs and arms stiff, move the wand from side to dame n'est pas contente. 3. Votre fille est-elle vive? 4. Mon side as far as you can reach, the upper part of the body partly fils est très vif et ma fille est paresseuse. 5. N'a-t-elle pas tort? turning at each movement. 6. Elle n'a pas raison. 7. Votre cousine est-elle heureuse ? 8. 5. Standing erect, with the right hand put the wand out at Oui, Madame, elle est bonne, belle, et heureuse. 9. A-t-elle des a right angle in front of you, one end resting on the floor; the amis. 10. Oui, Monsieur, elle a des parents et des amis. 11. body and the wand being both perpendicular, and the right arm A-t-elle une robe neuve et de vieux souliers ? 12. Elle a de in the horizontal position, the left hand resting on the hip. vieux souliers et une vieille robe. 13. Votre frère n'a-t-il Now, from this position, step out with the right leg as far as pas un bel habit? (R. 6.) 14. Il a un bel habit et une bonne you can reach, the foot passing behind the wand. The elbow cravate. 15. Avez-vous de bonne viande, Monsieur ? 16. J'ai must not be bent, and the wand must remain unmoved. Return de la viande excellente. 17. Cette viande-ci est-elle meilleure to the erect position, the wand still held forward, and repeat que celle-là ? 18. Celle-ci est meilleurc que celle-là. 19. Votre these movements ten times in succession. This is called ami a-t-il le bel encrier de porcelaine? 20. Son encrier est beau, “ charging,” and is good exercise for the legs and the lower mais il n'est pas de porcelaine. 21. Quelqu'un a-t-il faim? 22. part of the body. Personne n'a faim. 23. Les généraux sont-ils ici ? 24. Les 6. Go through the same movements as in the last exercise, généraux et les maréchaux sont ici. 25. J'ai vos parasols et with the exception that the wand is held forward with the left Tos parapluies, et ceux de vos enfants.
hand, the charge being made with the left leg. EXERCISE 20.
7. Stand erect and hold the wand out straight before you 1. Is your little sister pleased ? 2. Yes, Madam, she is
at arm's length, in a perpendicular position, the left hand resting
on the hip. Now step out with the right foot to the wand, and pleased. 3. Is that little girl handsome? 4. That little girl
back to the other foot, five times in succession, without bending is not handsome, but she is good. 5. Have you good cloth and
the knee. Take the wand in the left hand, and advance the left good silk? 6. My cloth and* silk are here. 7. Is your sister
foot in the same manner. happy 8. My sister is good and happy. 9. Has that physi.
8. Holding the wand as before, step backward as far as you cian's sister friends? 10. No, Madam, she has no friends. 11.
can with the right foot, in this case bending the left knee; then Is your meat good ? 12. My meat is good, but my cheese is better. 13. Has the bookseller a handsome china inkstand ?
return to the erect position, and repeat the movement ten times.
The same afterwards with the left foot. 14. He has a fine silver inkstand and a pair of leather shoes. 15. Have you my silk parasols ? 16. I have your cotton.
1 9. Carry the right foot forward to the wand, and then backumbrellas. 17. Is your brother's coat handsome ? 18. My
ward as far as you can reach, without stopping. Do this ten
times in succession, and then the same with the left foot. brother has a handsome coat and an old silk cravat. 19. Have
10. Holding the upper end of the wand in both hands, one you relations and friends ? 20. I have no relations, but I have friends. 21. Is that handsome lady wrong? 22. That hand.
| above the other, the arms straight out, step the right foot forward
to the wand and the left backward as far as possible. Now some lady is not wrong. 23. Have you handsome china ? 24.
change the position of the feet at a single jump, and do this ten Our china is handsome and good. 25. It is better than yours.
successive times. 26. Is not that little girl hungry? 27. That handsome little
These examples of the Wand exercises will be sufficient. girl is neither hungry nor thirsty. 28. What is the matter with her? 29. She has neither relations nor friends. 30. Is
They may be greatly varied, and two persons, each with a wand, This gold watch good ? 31. This one is good, but that one is
may go through exercises similar in character to the Ring move
ments described in the previous paper. better, 32. Have you it? 33. I have it, but I have not your sister's. 34. I have neither yours nor mine, I have your
THE DUMB BELLS. mother's.
We now come to Dumb Bell exercises, which are a well-known
and very ancient means of physical culture. The best modern OUR HOLIDAY.-III.
gymnasts, however, have introduced an important change in the
practice with dumb bells. Formerly it was the custom to emGYMNASTIC EXERCISES.-II.
ploy the heaviest bells that could be used by the learner, and RETURNING to exercises which may be practised without the to put him only through a small variety of motions with them. aid of a companion, we have next to mention a class of light Now the most approved system is founded on the use of a light gymnastics known as the
dumb bell, with which the pupil is taught to perform a great
variety of active and graceful movements, calculated to advance WAND EXERCISES.
the flexibility as well as the strength of all the muscles of the These are especially beneficial in inducing flexibility of the body. Some gymnasts maintain that the dumbbell should shoulder-joint, and form a useful preparation for more arduous range only between two pounds and five pounds in weight, acinovements at a later stage of the learner's progress.
cording to the strength of the learner; but Dr. Dio Lewis, who The wand is a smooth stick, one inch in diameter and four takes the lead as a recent authority in gymnastics, and who feet long, with the ends rounded. For very young persons a has had a very long and wide experience, is of opinion that bells length of three feet is sufficient. The following are among the weighing two pounds are heavy enough for any man, provided exercises to be practised with this instrument.
he wishes to attain to something more than the strength required 1. Grasp the wand with the hands at either end, as seen in for lifting heavy weights. He recommends that, as the dumb Fig. 5; the attitude being perfectly erect, and the chest thrown bells should be of considerable size, they should be made of forward. Now, without bending the elbows, bring the wand down wood; and wooden dumb bells only are used in his own gymbehind you as far as you can, then raise it again to the original nasium at Boston, U.S. The handle should be at least half an position above the head, and repeat these movements twenty inch longer than the width of the hand, and of such a size as times in succession.
can be easily grasped, with a slight swell in the middle.
Before describing the light dumb-bell exercises, we will, how• The article, the possessive and demonstrative adjective, are ever, say a few words as to the use of the heavier metal bells, repeated before every noun. Mon frère et ma scur, my brother and with which some of our readers may be already provided. The mater,
object of their use is chiefly to strengthen the muscles of the
1 were the head with the right 12 m s 3 the other bell rest on 5 32. Jeng teat; change the position
. vs the bells still in these pogi. r ii se far as possible, and, when
I was reached its limit, sink
se to the perpendicular again,
i then stretch back the other 23 in the same way. Repeat these movements five times.
8. Standing erect, arms down, carry them to the horizontal position in front; then above the head as seen in Fig. 8. Now down to the horizontal again, and then to the floor, as seen in the dotted lines in the figure. Repeat these movements ten times, and without bending the knees or the elbows.
Here we must leave the dumb bells; but, as in the case of the other exercises, the examples which we have now given will be sufficient to suggest numerous variations and additions to
the learner. s zother kind of exercise, which will give xezers than any of those to which we
DIAS CLUBS. ei vood; they should be about eighteen sis pering in form, from three to four inches
in diameter at the thickest end, and the other forming a convenient handle for the grasp. The weight of the clubs should be just such as will allow the learner to use them with toler. able freedom; for anything like a violent or undue strain upon the muscles is to be avoided in our gymnastic training.
We need not give a detuiled list of Indian club exercises. Many of those performed with the dumb bells, etc., can be practised to equal advantage with the clubs, and the learner who has studied the rules and movements we have already given, will know how to proceed with these implements. It will assist him, however, to have before him the two illustrations given on this page. Fig. 7 indicates the proper position of the body from which all the exer. cises should be commenced, the clubs being used either in perpendicular or horizontal positions, or sometimes in both
simultaneously, as in the cut. the ai o movement which may be practised D e re freedom with the clubs, the dotted ng she e ts Having reached the back, bring e
she clubs hanging downward ; then ps to that shown in the illustration. lai and arching the body as much
2 the club exercises, as in all others, - Xote dend the knees or the elbows unless
S ent contemplated renders it abso