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compositions whereof the world knows singer or actress ever gave him more performed with ability and truth. unmixed delight. A propos to de
What a delicious night! light, however, you should hear Let us walk! Now that we are out Mozart's Marriage of Figaro by the of the roar of cads and the din of Germans. It is admirably cast; and carriages, let me recommend you never was there any thing wrought earnestly to see the Oberon, as played by mortal brain more delicious than by the Germans. It never will be so the music. You have seen it at the popular as Weber's Freischütz—the Italian Opera. No doubt the artists subject is not so good or so genial ; who sing in it are of the very highest but, nevertheless, it is a work of order of excellence. Yet your resurpassing genius. Performed with collection of them will not in the singers true to the music, and with least interfere with the fulness of choruses and an orchestra perfectly your enjoyment from the performcompetent to do their duty, the ance of the Germans. The pleasure opera wears a very different form, is of another, but not of a less exindeed, from what it did on the alted order. You ask about Fidelio. English stage. The sacrilegious im- Most beautiful-most grand it is; but pudence of the spoiled favourites of I confess in hearing it, my thoughts ihe London galleries was never more dwell on Schroeder Devrient, whom conspicuously displayed than upon Malibran even did not equal in the the production of overon at Covent impersonation of the heroine. No Garden. Poor Weber entreated the character on any stage was ever persingers, with tearful eyes, to be good formed with greater tenderness, enough to sing the music as he wrote truth, and power, than Fidelio by it, and not to deform his composi- Madame Devrient. Stockel Heintion by their unmeaning shakes and fetter sings the part correctly and abominable additions ; but in vain. ably; but it wants the soul which Mr. Braham, with lofty coolness, in- Devrient threw into it; and as an acformed the German that no English tress, Madame Heinfetter is very inaudience would tolerate his music if ferior. I wonder what has become it were not for the mode in which he of Devrient. It is strange that after sung it. Even then this was a foul having won such high favour in this libel. But since then the public taste terrestrial paradise of singers and in music has become infinitely more fiddlers, she has never been induced pure amongst all classes of the people. to pay us a second visit. She was Whatever Bunn and Laporte may be not handsome -- quite the reverse. as ministers of finance, decidedly in The eyes — the whole countenance the department of foreign affairs was ordinarily dull, but recollect they never were surpassed. We what fire and passion she could throw have for several years past had an into them on occasions when she rose opportunity, not only of hearing to the height of her great argument. the finest singers in the world, bu The face was only as a mask to a in the French phrase, assisting at mind of genius and beauty. Truth operas got up after a style of ele- to say, however, the only pretty gance with an ensemble—that was German actress I ever saw was Sonnever equalled in any other country. tag; and she, in my eyes, was pretty But nothing, perhaps, tended so enough to redeem the character of a much to refine and elevate the taste nation. of common audiences as the in- But here we are at the Club. Let troduction of Malibran to the Eng- us turn in and have a broiled bone lish stage. The Somnambula pro- and a glass of Lord Brougham's bably charmed John Bull more than favourite liquor-frigilun sine. any opera he ever heard, and no
DEAN GRAVES is the author of one of progress in the social circle. But the most satisfactory disquisitions on at Oxford and Cambridge, with the the Pentateuch in the theological exception of one or two halls and literature of England. He is one of colleges in each, the aristocracy and the few but able men who by the gentry are educated. In Dublin weight and extent of their acquisi- University, there are few of the tions have redeemed “the Silent higher orders, and a considerable Sister” of Dublin from the too severe proportion of the sons of small proanimadversions of Oxford and Cam- prietors, respectable tradesmen, and bridge. It is not to be wondered at, of the poorer clergy. Hence at this though it is often referred to, that moment, if we had not the poor men Dublin University gives forth so that come from Dublin, large diofew eminent divines. The fact is, cesses, as Chester for instance, would the University of Dublin is properly be destitute of their most laborious to be compared with the Scotch ministers. Many sons of poor paUniversities, and in no respect can it rents in this country are sent to be brought into comparison with the Dublin, and, receiving there an exmore favoured and truly noble insti- cellent education, they are qualified tutions of the Isis and the Cam. The to take orders in England. The aim and end of the Dublin University fact is, Oxford and Cambridge do not was to qualify and send forth a com- supply more than a half of the Engpetent body of clergy for Ireland, lish clergy. There are upwards of and by its success or its failure in 4000 Irish clergy in England at this this work its value is to be tested. moment, and a few hundreds from It has no such retreats as Oxford Scotch universities; and in the northand Cambridge, into which learned ern diocesses, there are very many and illustrious wits can retire and from St. Bees, and other similar incultivate exclusively a favourite pur
stitutions. It is, therefore, a very suit. It is more like the great providential arrangement that there schools of England --Eton, Rugby, are such facilities for a cheap clerical and Harrow-than like the uni- education. And it is not improbable versities of England. Oxford and that in Dublin a better preparatory Cambridge were meant to be bul. theological education can be had warks of the Protestant faith— foci than in Oxford. The Irish clergy in of a righteous literature--- nursing this country are not a learned body; mothers of profound minds, out of nor do they make many pretensions which were to come those ponderous to high learning; but as preachers, folios that ennoble the land, and en- and as laborious ministers, they are rich the language of our fathers. equal to any. Well have they answered these It has been found that the entire ends. Dublin, as we have said, was list of fellows in Dublin, from its not meant for this purpose. It was foundation to the present day, is not raised in order, primarily, to give a equal to that of the fellows of the solid and competent education to the English universities holding fellowIrish clergy; and we appeal with ships at this moment. confidence, if there be, as a whole, a Among the most distinguished and body of clergy with better profes- exemplary was Dean Graves, a man sional knowledge than those of Ire- whose memoir, written with filial yet land in any country in Europe. The faithful carnestness, is his best eucheap education acquired at Dublin, logy. His ablest production is, we as cheap as in Scotland, allows think, his work on the Pentateuch. the middle classes of society to send “ It was a well-timed and a welltheir children to that University, executed work. Few of our clergy and there to qualify themselves for were sufficiently acquainted with the
* The Whole Works of Richard Graves, D.D., late Dean of Ardagh, and Regius Professor of Divinity in the University of Dublin. Now first collected, with a Memoir of his Life and Writings. By his Son, Richard Hastings Graves, D.D., Rector of Brigown, diocese of Cloyne. In 4 vols. London, Whittaker and Co. Dublin, Curry, jun. and Co. 1840.
character of Judaism. Some of the of Chubb, Woolston, Collins, and minute parts of its ritual were little Bolingbroke, had overlooked. heeded, and the reasons of them unknown
these he replies effectively, but coolly. to many. About the time of the appear. The truth is, infidels have discovered ance of the work, infidels were generally nothing new against the gospels for seeking, as Paley expressed it, to wound Christianity through the sides of nearly a century. They had exJudaism. As an important outwork of
hausted their diseased hearts of all Christianity, it required prompt and able
their virus, and their misguided tadefence. This work has acquired, as it
lents of all their resources, long bedeserved, very general approbation, as a fore Owen and the filthy disciples of comprehensive, well-arranged, luminous, his school were born. All that is and interesting defence of divine revela- now done by the vilest and subtlest tion. The writer does not suffer bimself sceptics is to revive exploded cavils, to be led away to skirmish on weak or
resuscitate dormant and convicted doubtful points, but takes firm positions, calumnies ; and among those portions elucidates and defends great principles, bringing forward positive arguments in.
of the population where the Scripstead of dwelling on minute objections ;
tures are least studied, the stalest obgiring pre-eminence to all the leading jections appear most plausible, and and substantive truths, tbe moral beauty,
where the restraints of the divine the political wisdom of the whole insti. law are the least regarded, its evitution, instead of wasting his strength dence is naturally assailed with the by too frequent notice of smaller diffi- most ardent zeal. culties. The method he has adopted “ Even ignorance itself," observes for arranging the internal evidence with
the Dean, " will increase the confidence effect is most judicious, by detailing, of the objector. For in every extensive first, the main series of facts, the com.
scheme supported by historical evidence, mon history ; and then, after establish- doubts and difficulties float upon the ing their credibility by a very ingenious surface; their solutions cannot be found examination of minute circumstances, without a deeper search, and the exercise shewing how indisputably the miracu.
of sober inquiry and patient attention. Jous facts are connected with, and as it
To superficial inquirers every objection were dovetailed into, the whole history.” is new, and the answer to every objection In this work, known to every
is unknown. Hence old difficulties are
revived when their solutions are forscholar, the Dean follows the plan of
gotten, and the writers who discussed comparison between the written and
them sleep undisturbed in the deepest spoken word, which Paley so success- recesses ot our libraries." fully pursues in his Höre Pauline.
A very studious part of the policy He vindicates the Pentateuch from
of infidels in every country is to conthe charges of Warburton, and shews
found Christianity and Popery, and that a clear idea of a future state of
to visit the corruptions of the latter rewards and punishments was un
on the fair fame of the former. It is folded to the minds of the patriarchs
worth inquiry, and would form a and their progeny. This work will
most interesting volume, how far the be coeval with the English tongue ; only representation of Christianity its temper, its caution, its ingenuity, in the minds of a majority of infidels and its thorough good sense, combine has been Popery.* To see the style to place it high in the category of and unmeasured invective of the inliterary and theological excellencies.
fidels, we have merely to dip into His next production is also possess- Boulange. ed of very considerable value. Its title is, The Apostles and Evangelists
Morality,” says the impudent scep
tic, “ under which I comprebend the were not Enthusiasts. Much of this
science of policy, is almost totally negwork is intended as a reply to the
lected in European education, The wide and extravagant assertion of
only morality which is taught to ChristM. Belanger, who seems to have hit
ians is that enthusiastic, impracticable, out of his tortured and depraved in- contradictory, uncertain, morality which genuity a few cavils which the wits we see contained in the Gospel, which
We believe the French infidels never saw Christianity in its purity; and while we do not either palliate their blasphemies or exculpate their infidelity, we do not hesitate, nevertheless, to allege, that it indicates a healthier mind to reject than to receive the Romish superstition, “ Corruptio optimi pessima."
is only fitted to degrade the spirit, to he demonstrates to satisfaction that render virtue hateful, to form abject the reception of the Gospel by the slaves, to break the spring of the soul; apostles was not the stimulus of a or, if it is emplanted in warm tempers,
precipitate impulse, the rash resolve it produces nothing but fanatics, capable of overturning the foundations of so
of a day, but the fruit of irresistible
evidence, the deduction of incontrociety. Yet, in spite of the inutility and the perverseness of that morality in which
vertible facts. They saw miracles Christianity rears men, its defenders performed by their divine master presume, that without religion one can. that essentially required two elenot preserve good morals ; but what is to ments in their production,-almighty preserve good morals in the language of power and superhuman benevolence. Christians? It is to pray without ceas. These two entered into the generation ing, to frequent churches, to do penance, of every miracle. The power proved to live in abstraction and retirement.
they could not be the work of man ; What good can result to society from
the benevolence proved they could not such practices as these, which one can observe without having the shadow of
originate from the powers of evil. virtue ?"
Both conspired to testify that there
was the finger of God. In this extract one can see at once
therefore, credentials such as sane that the sceptic is commenting not on
minds and honest hearts could not Christianity, but on Popery. He
resist -- which bore in their bosom lays hold on that dreadful supersti
the claims of Christianity to the retion, concocted by the depraved in- ception of mankind. The conversion genuity of man, and decked out by of the apostles was the just fruit of the sacrilegious plunder of a holy just evidence—the very natural refaith, and whatever he substantiates sult of the proofs submitted. The against it,- and a thousand charges apostles, therefore, were not fanatics yet a thousand times worse can be in receiving Christianity. They would substantiated— he concludes to be
have been fools if they had rejected proved against the religion of the it. And it may be a question worth Son of God. It is true, however,
the notice of infidels, whether of the in the sceptic onslaught on Popery,
two is the fanatic, the apostle, whose they trample on some of the sweet
character is constructed on such facts blossoms of the rod of Jesse, as, for and proofs as the Bible teems with, instance,
or the sceptic, whose character is
formed by an obstinate resistance to “ To love our neighbour as ourselves; evidence more powerful than the to love our enemies, to resist evil, are
quickening of the dead ? the fruits of fanaticism.” It may be
The Dean takes up and discusses asserted that fanaticisin and enthusiasm are the foundation of the morality of
with great simplicity and force, the Christ. The virtues which he recom
amount of sobriety embodied in the mends tend to isolate men from each
apostles' reception of the fact of other, to plunge them into a gloomy hu
Christ's resurrection from the dead : mour, to render them pernicious to their fellow-creatures."
“If,” says the Dean, “we contemplate
their situation and conduct at this im. Such is the style in which infidelity
portant crisis, it will appear that enthu. rejoices to make its appearance.
siasm must have been wholly excluded
from their minds. Suppose for a moThere is nothing new in all they ad- ment that, by some unaccountable means, duce. Celsus, Porphyry, Julian, they had been worked up into an enthuand others, have reiterated, again siastic belief of miracles they had never and again, those very charges of en- seen, and of divine perfections which thusiasm, fanaticism, and other isms existed only in their fond imagination, which have been replied to again and
bow utterly impossible that such a delu. again. Their resuscitation is proof
sion should have survived their crucified only of the wickedness of the sceptic's
Lord. They had, as they confess, folheart.
lowed him as a temporal Messiah, who The whole of Dean Graves' dis
would prove by miracles his claim to the
throne of David, who would be received cussion of the character, and faith, by the assembled thousands of Israel, and conduct of the apostles, is replete rescue them from the Roman yoke, and with judicious and useful reflections.
subjugate to their power the remotest In the opening chapter of this work, nations of the earth. But the event ex. hibited the total reverse of this their of his unbelief sunk before the premaster seized, bound, accused, declaring sentation of the evidence he desired, his kingdoin was not of this world, and and living faith and irrepressible joy submitting without reply or resistance to
broke forth, My Lord and my God! insult and outrage. They saw him per
“ We think no fairer opportunity secuted by the priests and rulers; they
could have occurred of testing the heard the populace clamour for his condemnation, till the Roman governor pro
views and principles of the apostles nounced his ignominious doom ; and they
than the election of an apostle in the bebeld him expire on the cross, dying room of Judas, and the course they the death of the accursed, and lodged in pursued in the future management the depths of the grave. Every fond hope of the church. If the apostles had seemed to be thus for ever blasted; every at all thirsted for a monopoly of ambitious thought was crushed ; every power and privilege, they would have prejudice of their religion, their educa. themselves selected the man, and intion, outraged.”
formed the multitude that amid mys
tic lights and supernatural voices " It is now time for us to ask, Was they had pitched on this man. Inthe faith of the apostles in the resur- stead of this they assemble the disrection of Christ from the dead the ciples, amounting to one hundred and product of enthusiasm, or the slow twenty, and proposed to consent to and deliberate result of certainty and any man to be an equal who posfact ?
sessed the competent knowledge, and * Does it seem enthusiasm which led had enjoyed those personal evidences them not merely to doubt, but to re- which would enable him to attest the ject the evidence of the women, who facts on which the whole structure said they had seen a vision of angels, of Christianity was based; and after and that Jesus was alive? Was it solemn and calm prayer for healike the conduct of enthusiastic zea- venly guidance, one of the two selots that two of the apostles, on lected by the disciples was chosen. finding his body removed from its Another opportunity of self-elevasepulchre, should retire wondering, tion and aggrandisement occurred, but not believing? When two came at which fanatics would have grasped. and declared they had seen him alive, Converts sold their goods and laid the and the rest would not believe them, proceeds at the feet of the apostles. can we say this was a predisposing This placed the apostles in a very enthusiasm? If they had cherished trying position. They shewed, howa wild and visionary hope of his re- ever, that the Gospel was inwrought surrection from the dead, their heated and quickening in their hearts. They senses would have magnified fancies neither pressed this act of self-denial into facts, entertained every shadow as a duty upon others, nor reserved as reality, and jumped at predeter for themselves the administration of mined conclusions without just pre- it. Every act of the sacred college, mises. But all is the reverse of this. it might be shewn, was disinterested, Doubt and disbelief, almost amount- pure, and magnanimous. No men ing to scepticism, had preoccupied ever displayed so untainted conduct and foreclosed their minds; and the - none were ever placed in circumslow, cool, and gradual process of the stances of severer trial —and none reception of the fact, is to our minds ever so truly triumphed." irresistible evidence of its truth. The Dean proceeds to investigate, Surely it was not enthusiasm to be- by a similar process, and under the lieve that Christ had risen when they directions of the same sound canons saw him .eat and drink before them; of criticism, the conduct of St. Paul. when they heard him say, and shew, On the epistles of that illustrious
Behold my hands and my feet, that apostle he speaks with calm, but it is I myself; handle me and see, for searching faithfulness. Ile shews a spirit hath not flesh and bones as that the warmth of thought and ye see me have.' There was the very riches of expression that pervade the opposite of enthusiasm in Thomas epistles of St. Paul are the just emawhen he said, 'Except I shall see in nations of a heart replete with the his hands the prints of the nails, and holiest feelings, impressed with the thrust my hand into his side, I will deepest and most touching motives, not believe;' and when the obduracy and in no respect capable of being