reposed in such ministers, and that in pur-whom the exercise of the executive powers suit of a mere trifle. In order to obtain a of the state were intrusled. penny, they had risked a pound; both His lordship then proceeded to consider were lost, and now they had the comfort the state of the nation under these several to reflect, that they had contracted for a heads. In point of population, experience debt of 33 millions, which was saddling had proved beyond question, that our themselves and their posterity with a per- numbers were visibly on the decrease, petual land tax (for by the lands this bur- The great load of debt, and the conseden must be ultimately borne) of 4s. in quent difficulty of procuring a comfortable the pound.

livelihood, from the enhanced price of the The noble earl threatened a dissolution necessaries of life, had produced a spirit of the enquiry, on account of the improper of emigration; he perceived the decrease manner in which it was conducted. "Why of numbers in his own neighbourhood: he did not his lordship, or some other of the did not think it fair to draw conclusions King's servants, take a part in it? The from local effects, operating in this or that committee was as open to them, as to any neighbourhood, or district; but, he said, other noble lord. It was meant to be a he was fully justified, by the tardy and ungeneral, not a partial enquiry. The very successful manner the recruiting service title of it imported so much. Did not an had been carried on, to maintain his proenquiry into the state of the nation invite position as a general one. Recruits were every one of their lordships to contribute not to be had on almost any terms. Miand iake a share in it ? For his part, if the nisters said, the war was a popular war; it noble earl wished to dissolve the commit- might be so : if it was, it afforded an adtee, he had no personal reason, at least, to ditional proof of the truth of his assertion, wish for its continuance. He had gone that our numbers were on the decrease, through as many heads as came properly which was one of the most certain indiwithin his knowledge, habit of life, or ap- cations of the decline of national prosplication. He hoped some other lords perity. would take up the enquiry where he ended; Riches was the next test of the true state and that, particularly, those papers on the of any country. He heard a great deal table, relative to the navy, would be taken of the opulence of individuals. He was into consideration. As there was a Bill, daily a witness of the increasing luxury however, now before the other House, and dissipation of the times: but were containing a plan of conciliation with those marks of national prosperity ? He America, which must of course come be- believed not. If individuals were rich, fore their lordships in the course of the was not the state poor? Who could say ensuing week, he recommended to post- where the property was, in which every pone further proceedings in the committee man almost counted himself a partner? till that Bill should be disposed of. Was not a great part of this property ideal?

The Earl of Coventry said, the great Could those who were spending their forcharacteristic marks of national prosperity tunes in folly and debauchery, and either were population, riches, respect with fo- robbing the public or beggaring their own reign powers, the dignity of the crown, families, be said to be rich ? Certainly and union among ourselves. When any not: and he even had many doubts, as to of these were confessedly wanting, it was individual riches. He allowed, there were a demonstrative proof, that, let the cause a great many persons, perhaps more than originate where it might, the nation did at any other period, who carried on consinot enjoy that state of prosperity which derable mercantile and other trading busiwas deemed desirable. When they were ness : but was it because this or that man all wanting, it was no longer a doubt, but, could write his name on a slip of paper for besides radical causes, that the govern. 3,0001. that such men were to be deemed ment of the country was placed in impro- rich? By no means. It shewed no more, per hands ; particularly if the transition than that our credit was immense ; that was sudden, from a state of the greatest our very inability to pay furnished us with and most justly envied prosperity, to one the means of appearing opulent: but when the most humiliating and degrading. If it was considered, that more than a hun. no probable cause of such a sudden tran- dred millions of the standing property of sition was apparent, then the evils, of the nation was ideal, and only due from whatever magnitude or extent of effect, ourselves to ourselves, that paper in other might be fairly laid at the door of those to transactions was the chief medium of trade

and commerce; we had every reason to national prosperity, surely national pros believe, that not only the state was poor, perity was never at a lower ebb. but that even individuals were far from On the last point, that of union at home, being opulent: and if we should continue he said he believed, since the first esta to go on as we had for the last ten years; (blishment of government in this country, and, in consequence of such a career, we it never was more disunited. The other should be drove to rely solely on our real causes operating so strongly, he said it resources, instead of paper, he feared, so was impossible it could be otherwise ; and far from being an opulent, we should find now he was free to declare, he saw ng ourselves a most indigent and distressed means of saving us from certain destrucnation.

tion, but taking the adviee given by As to the dignity of the crown, and the Manly in the play of the Provoked Hus. personal ease of the sovereign, he had pband, to his friend sir Francis Wronghead. every reason to believe this would be found in the midst of the knight's distress, he wanting. There was towards the close of applies for advice to Manly, who tells him, the last session a very considerable sunt “ Sir Francis, the road which brought of money granted to discharge the arrears you here will lead you back to the place of the Civil List, and a much more consi- from which you set out.” Now, said his derable augmentation made to his Majes- lordship, I cannot help thinking that the ty's income. He believed, that the money wisest way for us to recover from the disgranted by parliament, served to relieve tress brought on this country by the fatal some persons about St. James's, and an- effects of the Ainerican war, is to tread swered other purposes; but further the back step by step every one motion we generosity of parliament neither appeared have made respecting it. nor was felt; and thus the money intended The question was put, that the chair for the fairest, most honourable, and noblest man do leave the ehair: Contents, 66: purposes, was employed to others of a very Non-contents, 28. different and pernicious nature.

As soon as the House was resumed, the On national character, or the respect duke of Richmond moved the following which we bore with foreign nations, that,

Resolutions. he had every reason to believe, was still in a more marked contradiction to what the expences of the Navy, Army, and Ord

1. That it appears to this House, that was generally understood to denote na. tional prosperity. The truth was, that nance, as voted by parliament, and taken we had been for some years insulted and has not exceeded 3,371,000l. per annum,

on an average of years of profound peace, contemned by almost every power in Eu- under the following heads : rope, with whom we had any thing to do. The United Provinces, who were our an


£. cient, and, in some respects, our natural | 16,000 seamen, at 52. per ann. per allies, bad not only refused us all aid, but Ordinary of the navy, upon an average,

832,000 had actually from the commencement of from 1764, to 1772, inclusive......... 410,000 the present contest, given every assistance Ship-building taken upon an arerage, they could to our revolted subjects in

from 1766, to 1770, inclusive

284,000 America. Another great power on the Annual increase of navy debt on 16,000

seamen, taken on an average of continent, Prussia, had, on account of a

1765, 1766, 1767, 1769, 1769

111,000 state demand, due ever since the late inglorious peace, refused a passage to the Total of Navy Espence..... 1,637,000 foreign troops taken into our pay; by

ARMY. which the most favourite measures of our

Guards, garrisons, plantations, &c. ministers, as far as that circumstance could


1,000,000 be supposed to operate, were defeated. Chelsea and half pay, &C............. 230,000 France, our natural rival and enemy, had Staff

, widows, &c.........

15,000 carried on a trade with our colonies, and Extraordinaries of the army, on an ave

rage, from 1768, to 1775

269,000 had supplied them with all kinds of military stores; by which particular assistance,

Total of Army Expence...... 1,514,000 more than any other circumstance whatever, our colonies had been enabled to

ORDNANCE. resist the most vigorous exertions of the

Ordinary .......

170,000 Extraordinary.....

50.000 whole force of this country. If respect with foreign powers was an evidence of Total of Ordnance Expence...... 220,000 [VOL. XIX. ]

[3 C)

Ditto ............
Ditto... ..........




1,637,000 Guards and garrisons

659,200 Total of Establishment for Navy,

Forces in the plantations

723,132 Army, and Ordnance, on an average

Difference of British and Irish pay. 42,530 of years profound peace......... 3,371,000 Generals and staff

11,505 Chelsea hospital

107,512 2. That the expences of the Navy, Half.pay,

97,575 Army, and Ordnance for the year 1775, Reduced horse.guards.....

850 Pensions to widows.

608 exceeded the peace establishment, in a

Augmentation of land forces.......... 89,063 sum not less than 1,783,2251, under the Ditto......

15,072 following heads:

80,984 Navy.

7,938 Seamen 18,000, at 521. per ann. per


137,448 936,000 Highlanders, 2 batt.

47,400 Ordiuary 414,6806 Hanoverians, 1776

46,838 Ship-building, and Greenwich hospital 303,379 | Hessians

381,887 Increase of Navy debt.......... 812,479 Ditto artillery

13,973 Ditto levy money

4,244 Total of Navy Expence...... 2,496,538 Hanau regiment

19,006 Artillery of ditto.....

3,383 ARMY. Brunswickers

121,475 Guards and garrisons 627,689 1 regiment of Waldeck

16,483 Forces in the plantations...

386,186 Extraordinaries incurred 1776, and Difference of pay at Minorca and Gib.

voted 1777

1,200,602 raltar Generals and staff


Total of Army Expence...... 3,829,008 Chelsea hospital

'122,221 Half-pay


ORDNANCE. Reduced horse-guards.. 870 Ordinary

249,655 Widows 628 Extraordinaries

272,705 Augmentation of 4,383 men, land forces 67,706 Difference of British and Irish pay for

Total of Ordnance Expence...... 522,360 dragoons 9,536 Vote of Credit.....

1,000,000 Hanoverians voted 1776, for service of


4,153,214 1775



3,829,008 Extraordinaries voted 1776, incurred


522,360 1775............


Total Navy, Army, and Ordnance ex-
Total of Army Expence...... 2,206,457 pence

Deduct the peace establishment......... 3,371,000

228,059 The excess of expence in 1776, over Extra, voted 1776, incurred 1775 223,171 and above the ordinary peace estab

Jishment, was

6,133,589 Total of Ordnance Expence.. 451,230

4. That the expences of the Navy, Army

2,206,457 Navy

2,496,538 Army, and Ordnance, for the year 1777,

will exceed the peace establishment in a Total Nary, Army, and Ordnance Ex

sum not less than 6,977,9851. under the pences

5,154,225 following heads : Deduct the peace establishment......... 3,371,000

Navy. The excess of expence in the year 1775,

Seamen 45,000, at 52l. per ann. per over and above the ordinary peace

2,340,000 establishment, was .....

Ordinary and Greenwich hospital 405,805 1,783,225 Ship-building

465,500 3. That the expences of the Navy, Army, and Ordnance for the year 1776, Total of Navy Expence (exclusive of exceeded the peace establishment, in a

navy debt)

3,211,305 sum not less than 6,133,5821. under the

ARMY. following heads :




Guards and garrisons

648,009 Navy. Generals and staff

11,473 Seamen, 21,000, at 521. per ann, per

Forces in the plantations....

949,720 1,456,000 Difference in British and Irish pay... 47,178 Ordinary 426,904 Foreign troops

571,566 Ship-building 339,151 Artillery to ditto

31,205 Greenwich hospital..... 5,000 Half-pay

94,371 Increase of Navy debt..

1,926,159 | Chelsea...................................... 105,279 Widows

970 Total of Navy Expence...... 4,153,214 Additional foreign troops.................. 96,034 Old German claims...


man ......


Total of Army Expence (exclusive of

ORDNANCE, extraordinaries). 2,597,025 Ordinary

382,816 Vote of Credit ......

1,000,000 ORDNANCE.

320,111 Ordinary ....

Navy expence...... 4,005,895

2,842,557 Extraordinary



Total expence for navy, army and
Total of Ordnance ....



From whence deducting the usual peace
Part of Vote of Credit............


3,371,000 Navy expence..

3,211,305 Army


The excess already voted for 1778, is... 4,860,268 Ordnance


In the above account is not included

the navy debt, nor the extraordina7,222,224

ries of the army and ordnance; those Tlie increase of the navy debt, and the

three articles, in 1776, when there extraordinaries of the army for this

were 32,000 seamen, and upwards of year, not being as yet laid before

16,000 land forces less than in the parliament, are not included in the

present year, amounted to 3,339,3071, abore account. In the year 1776,

And as these expences generally inwhen there were 17,000 seamen, and

crease in some degree of proportion several thousand land forces less tban

with the number of men employed, it in 1777, these two articles amounted

is probable they will, for the present to 3,126,7611. If in the present year

3,126,761 they should not exceed that sum......

year, amount to a sum not less than 4,200,000 The total expence for navy, army, and

Which will make the excess, for the ordnance, will be ........

year 1778, amount to.......

9,060,268 Deduct peace establishment... 3,371,000 Excess of expence in the year 1777,

6. That from the experience of past over and above the ordinary peace

times, that whenever peace shall be reestablishment

6,977,985 stored, great expences must necessarily be

still incurred. That the charge of paying 5. That the expences of the Navy, the troops till they can be brought home, Army, and Ordnance, for the year 1778, and before they can be disbanded, and will exceed the peace establishment, in a particularly the foreign troops, for some sum not less than 4,860,268.. exclusive of which this nation is to pay even for 12 of navy debt, and extraordinaries of army months after they are returned into their and ordnance, and including those arti- own country ; the expence of re-conveycles, in a sum not less than 9 millions. ing our army, artillery and stores, across

the Atlantic, and sending the foreigners Navy.

to Germany, and the arrears and demands 60,000 seamen, at 521. per ann. per

of various sorts, will create an excess of

3,120,000 Ordinary of the navy and Greenwich

expence in the years immediately followhospital

397,200 ing a peace, little short of what it will be Ship-building

488,695 in the last year of the war. From whence

it appears, that if peace was this day reTotal Navy Expence, (exclusive of "Davy debt)

stored, the cost of the present war would 4,005,895

be as follows:
Excess in 1775,

1,783,225 Army.


6,133,582 Guards and garrisons ....


1777, probably upwards of 6,977,985 Forces in the plantations


1778, probably upwards of 9,000,000 Half-pay

90,939 Reduced horse.guards


23,894,792, Chelsea hospital

105,431 And if peace is not concluded till the Widows


end of this year, 1778, probably the Generals and staff 11,473 further sum of ...

9,000,000 Difference of British and Irish pay... 52,923 Foreigu troops..... 652,852

£.32,894,792 Artillery to foreign troops

27,379 Augmentation of 15,016 British forces 286,632 Ditto of 1,032 British land forces at

The said Resolutions were all negatived. Gibraltar

18,895 Total Army Expence, (exclusive of

Petition from the County of Norfolk to extraordinaries)

2,842,557 the Commons, against raising Men and

Money without Consent of Parliament.]

man .......

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Feb. 17. A Petition of several of the , inaccessible strength with which America gentlemen, freeholders, and others, of the abounds, has been compelled by necescounty of Norfolk, and of the city of Nor- sity to march back to an open town, wich, was presented to the House, and which they are obliged to fortify for winread: setting forth:

ter quarters at an enormous expence; the “ That your petitioners observe, with continent of America is, it seems, to be the utmost concern and surprize, that ex- conquered by defeated and defensive ar. traordinary endeavours are used in this mies. It is a project we cannot comprecounty, and in many other parts of the hend. Sixty thousand soldiers, a force of kingdom, to raise men and money for his artillery (if we are to judge by the charge) Majesty's service by free gifts and contri- such as never has been sent out of this butions, not given and granted in a parlia- kingdom, 60,000 seamen voted, more than mentary course, which unusual and strain. an hundred armed ships employed in this ed efforts (concerning the very legality of special service, an unheard-of expence in which they conceive doubts may justly every sort of military supply, have, after be entertained) while parliament actually three years struggle, brought things to sits, and at a time when his Majesty is in such a state, that, instead of quieting our apparent peace with all the powers in civil troubles, we are threatened with a Europe, strongly indicate some violent foreign war, for which, after such an abun. distemper in the state, to which its ordi- dance (for we cannot call it profusion) of nary powers and means of supply are not parliamentary grants increasing daily, and sufficient. We most humbly apprehend, with the most exuberant recruiting funds, that if a war with any of the neighbouring we are called upon to piece-out the definations threatens to break out, nothing ciency of public wealth by private contribucan give more encouragement to it than tions; a nation of such power as this, reduc. the taking such measures as tend to prove ed to such a state, must lose its reason and this kingdom to be as much exhausted in its feelings, together with its glory, if it could its strength at the very commencement of acquiesce in its condition. It is not in our foreign hostilities, as it has been at the choice to suppose that it can have hapclose of the longest and most wasteful pened without a fault somewhere : in wars, Your petitioners have been also the generals and armies the fault cannot called upon, in a manner equally alarming, he; if their known and tried characters did by persons of great power and rank in his not forbid all suspicions of them, yet his Majesty's service, to raise men and money Majesty's most gracious speeches from the for supporting the constitutional autho. throne make it improper for us to entertain rity of Great Britain. We hope and the least doubt of their courage and con. trust that constitutional authority is safe duct; but his Majesty has not forbid us to and well supported in the affections of entertain doubts of the wisdom, care, and a loyal and a free people; we know of prudence of those who conduct his affairs ; no attack upon, or resistance to the ope- and we trist, that the House of Commons, ration of the laws in this county, or in whose duty calls, and whose competence this kingilom. Impaired, as we may be, and constitution enables them to come to in power of reputation abroad, we have the bottom of those evils, will seriously enhowever peace at home ; but in the thira quire into the causes of our present calateen once flourishing and obedient colo- mitous situation, for we greatly fear that nies of Great Britain, his Majesty has we, with the rest of your constituents, no authority or other government to be have been hitherto greatly deceived and supported. A misrepresentation of our | deluded, with regard to the nature, the unhappy situation would be a mockery of cause, and the importance of the Ameria our distress. An empire is lost. A great can troubles, as well as concerning the continent in arms is tq be conquered or means of quieting them, both legal and abandoned. One whole British army of coercive: else we should not have the veteran troops has surrendered prisoners misfortune to see acts of parlianient of war to the sudden levies of a new na- i made only to be sent back to be repealtion : another, abandoning a province ed ; armies sent out to inforce them, which had been over-run in the last cam- only to be returned to us as prisoners paign, and after two engagements in the under capitulation; and, to speak with field successful without advantage, bay- the filial confidence of free subjects, we ing marched out to take a view of an plainly declare ourselves unwilling to com, enemy posted in one of those places of mit any more of our national glory te

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