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tinction were mafi'acred in cold blood; above a hundred and forty soldiers fell in the field; a large proportion, where the number of combatants were few, and the heat of the contest

Almagro, though so feeble that he could not bear the motion of a horse, had insisted on being carried in a litter to an emi. nence which overlooked the field of battle, From thence, in the utmost agitation of mind, he viewed the various movements of both parties, and at last beheld the total defeat of his own troops, with all the passionate indignation of a veteran leader long accustomed to victory. He endeavoured to save himself by flight, but was taken prisoner, and guarded with the Itrictest vigilance. o)

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The Indians, instead of executing the resolution which they had formed, retired quietly after the battle was over; and in the history of the New World, there is not a more striking instance of the wonderful ascendant which the Spaniards had acquired over its inhabitants, than that after seeing one of the contending parties ruined and dispersed, and the other weakened and fatigued, they had not courage to fall upon their enemies, when fortune presented an opportunity of attacking them with fach advantage. p)


o) Zarate, lib. ii. c. II. 12. Vega , p. II. lib, ij. c. 36-38.

Herrera, dec. 6. lib. jii, c. IO - 12. lib. iv, c, 1-6. p) Zarate , lib. iii, , 11, Vega , p. II, lib, il, 6, 38.

New expeditions,

Cuzco was pillaged by the victorious troops, who found there a considerable booty, confifting partly of the gleanings of the Indian trea.. fures, and partly of the wealth amassed by their antagonists from the spoils of Peiu and Chili. But fo far did this, and whatever the bounty of their leader could add to it, fall below the high ideas of the recompence which they conceived to be due to their merit, that Ferdinand Pizarro, unable to gratify such extravagant expectations, had recourse to the fame expedient which his brother had employed on a similar occasion, and endeavoured to find occupation for this turbulent affuming spirit, in order to prevent it from breaking out into open nuutiny. With this view, he encouraged his most active officers to attempt the discovery and reduction of various provinces which had not hitherto submitted to the Spaniards. To every standard erected by the leaders who undertook any of those new expeditions, volunteers resorted with the ardour and hope peculiar to the age. Several of Almagro's soldiers joined them, and thus Pizarro had the fatisfaction of being delivered both from the importunity of his discontented friends, and the dread of his ancient enemies. 9)

9) Zarate, lib. iji. Cap 1%, Gomara Hist, c. 141. Herrera, dec.

6. lib. iy. C. 7


Almagro tried, condemned, and put to death.

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Almagro himself remained for several months in cuftody, under all the anguish of fufpence. For although his doom was determined by the Pizarros from the moment that he fell into their hands, prudence constrained them to defer gratifying their vengeance , until the foldiers who had served under him, as well as several of their own followers in whom they could not prefectly confide , had left Cuzco. As soon as they set out upon their different expeditions, Almagro was impeached of treason, formally tried, and condemned to die. The sentence aftonished him, and though he had often braved death with undaunted fpirit in the field , its approach under this ignominious forms appalled him so much, that he had recourse to abject fupplications, unworthy of his former fame. He befought the Pizarros to remember the ancient friendship between their brother and him, and how much he had contributed to the profperity of their family; he reminded them of the humanity with which , in opposition to the repeated remonftrances of his own most attached friends, he had spared their lives when he had them in his power; he conjured them to pity his age and infirmities, and to suffer him to pass the wretched remainder of his days in bewailing his crimes, and in making his peace with Heaven. The intreaties, fays a Spanish

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historian', of a man so much beloved, touched maoy an unfeeling heart, and drew tears from many a hard eye. But the brothers remained inflexible. As soon as Almagro knew his fate to be inevitable, he met it with the dignity and fortitude of a veteran. He was strangled in a prison, and afterwards publickly beheaded. (1538.) He suffered in the seventy-fifth year of his age, and left one fon by an Indian woman of Panama , whom, though at that time a prisoner in Lima, he named as successor to his government, pursuant to a power which the emperor had granted him, r)

81 th

Deliberations of the court of Spain concerning the fate of


As, during the civil diffentions in Peru all intercourse with Spain was suspended, the detail of the extraordinary transactions there did not foon reach the court. Unfortunately for the victorious faction, the first intelligence was broaght thither by fome of Almagro's officers, who left the country upon the ruin of their cause, and they related what had happened, with every circumstance unfavourable to Pizarro and his brothers.

Their ambition, their breach of the most solemn engagements, their violence and cruelty were painted with all the malignity and exaggeration of party-hatred. Ferdinand

1) Zarate, lib. iii. c. 12. Gomara Hift. c. 141. Vega, p. II.

lib. ii, c. 39, Herrera, dec, 6. lia, iv. c. 9. lib. v. Ca 1.

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Pizarro, who arrived soon after and appeared
in court with extraordinary fplendor, endeavour-
ed to efface the impression which their ac-
cusations had made, and to justify his brother
and himself by representing Almagro as the age
greffor. The emperor and his ministers though
they could not pronounce which of the contend-
ing factions was moft criminal, clearly discern-
ed the fatal tendency of their dissentions. It
was obvious, that while the leaders, entrusted
with the conduct of two infant colonies, em-
ployed the'arms which should have been turned
againft the common enemy, in destroying one
another, all attention to the publick good must
cease, and there was reason to dread that the
Indians might improve the advantage which the
disunion of the Spaniards presented to them,
and extirpate both the victors and vanquished.
But the evil was more apparent than the re.
medy. Where the information which had been
received was so defective and suspicious, and
the scene of action so remote, it was almost
impossible to chalk out the line of conduct that
ought to be followed; and before any plan that
should be approved of in Spain could be carried
into execution; the situation of the parties,
and the circumstances of affairs, might alter fo
entirely as to render its effect extremely per-

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