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the general resurrection at the last day is spoken of) any such expression as the resurrection of the body, much less of the same body.
I say the general resurrection at the last day : because, where the re. surrection of some particular persons, presently upon our Saviour's re- , surrection, is mentioned, the words are *, The graves were opened, and many bodies of saints, which slept, arose, and came out of the graves after his resurrection, and went into the Holy City, and appeared to many : of which peculiar way of speaking of this resurrection, the passage itself gives a reason in these words, appeared to many, i. e. those who slept appeared, so as to be known to be risen. But this could not be known, unless they brought with them the evidence, that they were those who had been dead; whereof there were these two proofs, their graves were opened, and their bodies not only gone out of them, but appeared to be the same to those who had known them formerly alive, and knew them to be dead and buried. For if they had been those who had been dead · so long, that all who knew them once alive, were now gone, those to whom they appeared might have known them to be men; but could not have known they were risen from the dead, because they never knew they had been dead. All that by their appearing they could have known, was, that they were so many living strangers, of whose resurrection they knew nothing. It was necessary therefore, that they should come in such bodies, as might in make and size, &c. appear to be the same they had before, that they might be known to those of their acquaintance, whom they appeared to. And it is probable they were such as were newly dead, whose bodies were not yet dissolved and dissipated; and therefore, it is particularly said here, (differently from what is said of the ge. neral resurrection) that their bodies arose ; because they were the same that were then lying in their graves, the moment before they rose.
But your lordship endeavours to prove it must be the same body : and let us grant that your lordship, nay, and others too, think you have proved it must be the same body ; Will you therefore say, that he holds what is inconsistent with an article of faith, who having never seen this your lordship’s interpretation of the scripture, nor your reasons for the same body, in your sense of same body; or, if he has seen them, yet not understanding them, or not perceiving the force of them, believes what the scripture proposes to him, viz. That at the last day the dead shall be raised, without determining whether it shall be with the very same bo. dies or no?
I know your lordship pretends not to erect your particular interpretations of scripture into articles of faith. And if you do not, he that be. ' lieves the dead shall be raised, believes that article of faith which the scripture proposes ; and cannot be accused of holding any thing inconsistent with it, if it should happen, that what he holds, is inconsistent with another proposition, viz. That the dead shall be raised with the same bodies, in your lordship's sense, which I do not find proposed in Holy Writ as an article of faith.
But your lordship argues, It must be the same body; which, as you explain same body ť, is not the same individual particles of matter, which were united at the point of death ; nor the same particles of matter, that the sinner had at the time of the commission of his sins : * Matt. xxvii. 52, 53. . + 2d Ans.
but that it must be the same material substance which was vitally united to the soul here ; i. e, as I understand it, the same individual particles of matter, which were, some time or other during his life here, vitally united to his soul.
Your first argument to prove, that it must be the same body in this sense of the same body, is taken from these words of our Saviour, * All that are in the graves shall hear his voice, and shall come forth. + From whence your lordship argues, That these words, all that are in their graves, relate to no other substance than what was united to the soul in life; because a different substance cannot be said to be in the graves, and to come out of them. Which words of your lordship’s, if they prove any thing, prove that the soul too is lodged in the grave, and raised out of it at the last day. For your lordship says, Can a different substance be said to be in the graves, and come out of them? So that, according to this interpretation of these words of our Saviour, No other substance being raised, but what hears his voice; and no other sub. stance hearing his voice, but what being called, comes out of the grave; and no other substance coming out of the grave, but what was in the grave; any one must conclude, that the soul, unless it be in the grave, will make no part of the person that is raised ; unless, as your lordship argues against me I. You can make it out, that a substance which never was in the grave may come out of it, or that the soul is no substance.
But setting aside the substance of the soul, another thing that will make any one doubt, whether this your interpretation of our Saviour's words be necessarily to be received as their true sense, is, That it will not be very easily reconciled to your saying ||, you do not mean by the same body, The same individual particles which were united at the point of death. And yet, by this interpretation of our Saviour's words, you can mean no other particles but such as were united at the point of death; because you mean no other substance but what comes out of the grave; and no substante, no particles come out, you say, but what were in the grave ; and I think, your lordship will not say, that the particles that were separate from the body by perspiration before the point of death, were laid up in the grave.
But your lordship, I find, has an answer to this, viz. ♡ That by comparing this with other places, you find that the words sof our Saviour above quoted] are to be understood of the substance of the body, to which the soul was united, and not to (I suppose your lordship writ, of) these individual particles, i. e. those individual particles that are in the grave at the resurrection. For so they must be read, to make your lord. ship's sense entire, and to the purpose of your answer here : and then, methinks, this last sense of our Saviour's words given by your lordship, wholly overturns the sense which we have given of them above, where from those words you press the belief of the resurrection of the same body, by this strong argument, that a substance could not, upon hearing. the voice of Christ, come out of the grave, which was never in the grave. There (as far as I can understand your words) your lordship argues, that our Saviour's words are to be understood of the particles in the grave, unless, as your lordship says, one can make it out, that a sub. stance which never was in the grave, may come out of it. And here your
* John v. 28, 29.
+ 2d Ans. · #ib.
lordship expressly says, That our Saviour's words are to be understood of the substance of that body, to which the soul was (at any time united, and not to those individual particies that are in the grave. Which put together, seems to me to say, That our Saviour's words are to be understood of those particles only that are in the grave, and not of those particles only which are in the grave, but of others also, which have at any time been vitally united to the soul, but never were in the grave,
The next text your lordship brings to make the resurrection of the same body, in your sense, an article of faith, are these words of St. Paul ; * For we must all appear before the judgment-seat of Christ, that every one may receive the things done in his body, according to that he hath done, whether it be good or bad. To which your lordship subjoins + this question : Can these words be understood of any other material sub. stance, but that body in which these things were done ? Answer. A man may suspend his determining the meaning of the apostle to be, that a sinner shall suffer for his sins in the very same body wherein he committed them: because St. Paul does not say he shall have the very same body when he suffers, that he had when he sinned. The apostle says indeed, done in his body. The body he had, and did things in, at five or fifteen, was, no doubt, his body, as much as that, which he did things in at fifty, was his body, though his body were not the very same body at those different ages : and so will the body, which he shall have after the resurrection, be his body, though it be not the very same with that, which he had at sive, or fifteen, or fifty. He that at threescore is broke on the wheel, for a murder he committed at twenty, is punished for what he did in his body, though the body he has, i, e. his body at. threescore, be not the same, i. e. made up of the same individual particles of matter, that that body was, which he had forty years before. When your lordship has resolved with yourself, what that same immu. table he is, which at the last judgment shall receive the things done in his body, your lordship will easily see, that the body he had when an embryo in the womb, when a child playing in coats, when a man mar. rying a wife, and when bed-rid dying of a consumption, and at last, which he shall have after his resurrection, are each of them his body, though neither of them be the same body, the one with the other.
But farther, to your lordship's question, Can these words be understood. of any other material substance, but that body in which these things were done ? I answer, These words of St. Paul may be understood of another material substance, than that body in which these things were done, because your lordship teaches me, and gives me a strong reason so to understand them. Your lordship says, I That you do not say the same particles of matter, which the sinner had at the very time of the commission of his sins, shall be raised at the last day. And your lordship gives this reason for it : | For then a long sinner must have a vast body, considering the continued spending of particles by perspiration. Now, my lord, if the apostle's words, as your lordship would argue, cannot be understood of any other material substance, but that body in which these things were done ; and no body, upon the removal or change of some of the particles that at any time make it up, is the same material sub.
stance, or the same body: it will, I think, thence follow, that either the sinner must have all the same individual particles vitally united to his soul when he is raised, that he had vitally united to his soul when he sinned ; or else Șt. Paul's words here cannot be understood to mean the same body in which the things were done. For if there were other par. ticles of matter in the body, wherein the things were done, than in that which is raised, that which is raised cannot be the same body in which they were done ; unless that alone, which has just all the same individual particles when any action is done, being the same body wherein it was done, that also, which has not the same individual particles wherein that action was done, can be the same body wherein it was done ; which is in effect to make the same body sometimes to be the same, and sometimes not the same.
Your lordship thinks it suffices to make the same body, to have not all, but no other particles of matter, but such as were some time or other vi. tally united to the soul before : but such a body, made up of part of the particles some time or other vitally united to the soul, is no more the same body wherein the actions were done in the distant parts of the long sinner's life, than that is the same body in which a quarter, or half, or three quarters of the same particles, that made it up, are wanting. For example, A sinner has acted here in his body an hundred years; he is raised at the last day, but with what body ? The same, says your lordship, that he acted in; because St. Paul says, he must receive the things done in his body. What therefore must his body at the resurrection consist of? Must it consist of all the particles of matter that have ever been vitally united to his soul? For they, in succession, have all of them made up his body wherein he did these things: No, says your lordship, * that would make his body too vast; it suffices to make the same body in which the things were done, that it consists of some of the particles, and no other, but such as were, some time during his life, vitally united to his soul. But according to this account, his body at the resurrection being, as your lordship seems to limit it, near the same size it was in some part of his life, it will be no more the same body in which the things were done in the distant parts of his life, than that is the same body, in which half or three quarters, or more of the individual mat. ter that then made it up, is now wanting. For example, Let his body at fifty years old consist of a million of parts : five hundred thousand at least of those parts will be different from those which made up his body at ten years, and at an hundred. So that to take the numerical parti. cles, that made up his body at fifty, or any other season of his life, or to gather them promiscuously out of those which at different times have successively been vitally united to his soul, they will no more make the same body, which was his, wherein some of his actions were done, than that is the same body, which has but half the same particles : and yet all your lordship’s arguments here for the same body, is, because St. Paul says it must be his body, in which these things were done; which it could not be, if any other substance were joined to it, i. e. if any other particles of matter made up the body, which were not vitally united to the soul when the action was done,
Again, your lordship says, * « That you do not say the same individual particles [shall make up the body at the resurrection] which were united at the point of death, for there must be a great alteration in them in a lingering disease, as if a fat man falls into a consumption.' Because, it is likely, your lordship thinks these particles of a decrepit, wasted, withered body, would be too few, or unfit to make such a plump, strong, vigorous, well-sized body, as it has pleased your lordship to proportion out in your thoughts to men at the resurrection ; and therefore some small portion of the particles formerly united vitally to that man's soul, shall be reassumed to make up his body to the bulk your lordship judges convenient ; but the greatest part of them shall be left out, to avoid the making his body more vast than your lordship thinks will be fit, as appears by these your lordship’s words immediately following, viz. t • That you do not say the same particles the siriner had at the very time of commission of his sins; for then a long sinner must have a vast body.'
But then, pray, my lord, what must an embryo do, who dying within a few hours after his body was vitally united to his soul, has no parti. cles of matter which were formerly vitally united to it, to make up his body of that size and proportion which your lordship seems to require in bodies at the resurrection ? Or must we believe he shall remain con. tent with that small pittance of matter, and that yet imperfect body to eternity, because it is an article of faith to believe the resurrection of the very same body, i.e. made up of only such particles as have been vitally united to the soul ? For if it be so, as your lordship says, I That life is the result of the union of soul and body,' it will follow, that the body of an embryo dying in the womb may be very little, not the thousandth part of any ordinary man. For since from the first conception and beginning of formation it has life, and · life is the result of the union of the soul with the body ;' an embryo, that shall die either by the untimely death of the mother, or by any other accident, presently after it has life, must, according to your lordship's doctrine, remain a man not an inch long to eternity ; because there are not particles of matter, fomerly united to his soul, to make him bigger, and no other can be made use of to that purpose: though what greater congruity the soul hath with any particles of matter which were once vitally united to it, but are now so no longer, than it hath with particles of matter which it was never united to would be hard to determine, if that should be demanded.
By these and not a few other the like consequences, one may see what service they do to religion, and the Christian doctrine, who raise ques. tions, and make articles of faith about the resurrection of the same body, where the scripture says nothing of the same body; or if it does, it is with no small reprimard || to those who make such an inquiry. But some men will say, How are the dead raised up ? and with what body do they come? Thou fool, that which thou sowest, is not quickened, except it die. And that which thou sowest, thou sowest not that body that shall be, but bare grain, it may chance of wheat, or of some other grain. 'But God giveth it a body, as it hath pleased him.' Words, I should think, sufficient to deter us from determining any thing for or against the same body's being raised at the last day. It suffices, that all
* 2d Answ,
# Ibid, ": | Cor. xv. 35. &c.