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196. Some persons may wish for more specific directions, as to the method of bringing the lower muscles into use, for producing sounds, and breathing: the following will suffice. Take the proper position, as above recommended, and place the hands on the hips, with the thumbs on the small of the back, and the fingers on the abdominal muscles before; grasp them tightly; i. e. try to press in the abdomen, and, at the same time, to burst off the hands, by an internal effort, in the use of the muscles to produce the vowel sounds of the following words, at, et, it, ot, ut; then leave off the t, giving the vowels the same sound as before: or imagine that you have a belt tied around you, just above the hip bones, and make such an effort as would be required to burst it off; do the

The first-indicates that the accented vow-same in breathing, persevere, and you will succeed: but do not make too much effort.

el is near the beginning of the word; as in ac-cent, em-pha-sis, in-dus-try, on-ward, upward: the second, that it is at, or near the end: as in ap-pre-hend, su-per-in-tend, in-divis-i-bil-i-ty. In music, the first represents the diminish; the second-the swell of the voice.

194. Accent-means either stress, or quantity of voice, on a certain letter, or letters in a word: it is made by concentrating the voice, on that particular place in the word, heavy, at first, then gliding into silence. There are Two ways of making it; first, by STRESS, when it occurs on short vowels, as, ink-stand: secondly, by QUANTITY, when it occurs on long ones; as, o-ver: i. e. when the word is short, we pronounce it with FORCE; and when it is long, with QUANTITT, and a little force too: thus, what we lack in length of sound, we make up by stress, or force, according to circumstances. These engravings present to the eye an idea of accent by stress, or a concentration of voice, with more or less abruptness.

195. The first use of accent-is to convert letters, or syllables-into words, expressive of our ideas; i. e. to fusten the letters together, so as to make a word-medium for manifesting our feelings and thoughts: and the second use is to aid us in acquiring a distinct articulation, and melody of speech, and song. Exs. 1. ACCENT BY STRESS OF VOICE. He am-pli-fies his ad-ver-tise-ment, di-min-ish-es its im-pe-tus, and op-e-rates on Varieties. 1. What was it-that made the ul-ti-mates. 2. The ac-cu-ra-cy of the man miserable, and what-alone can make cer-e-mo-ny is fig-u-ra-tive of the com-pe-him happy? 2. Diffidence is the mother of ten-cy of his up-right-ness: 3. The cat-e- safety; while self-confidence-often involves pil-lar for-gets the no-bil-i-ty of or-a-to-ry us in serious difficulties. 3. He is not rich, un-just-ly; 4. The math-e-mat-ics are su- who has much, but he who has enough, and per-in-tend-ed with af-fa-bil-i-ty, cor-res- is contented. 4. It is absurd-for parents to pond-ent to in-struc-tions. preach sobriety to their children, and yet inindulge in all kinds of excess. 5. Nature never says, what wisdom contradicts; for they are always in harmony. 6. Save something - against a day of trouble. 7. With such as repent, and turn from their evils, aud surrender their wills to the Lord's will, all things they ever saw, knew, or EXPE RIENCED, shall be made, in some way or other, to serve for good.

Notes. 1. Observe, there are but FIVE SHORT vowels our language; the examples above contain illustrations of all of them, in their alphabetical order; they are also found in these words--al, et, it, ot, ut; and to give them with purity, make as though you were going to pronounce the whole word, but leave off at the f. 2. This is a very important point in our subject; if you fajl in understanding accent, you cannot succeed in emphasis.

Anecdote. Holding One's Own. A very fat man was one day met by a person whom he owed, and accosted with How do you do?" Mr. Adipose replied, "Pretty well; I hold my own;"-"and mine too, to my sorrow," rejoined the creditor.

Proverbs. 1. A man under the influence of anger is beside himself. 2. Poverty, with honesty, is preferable to riches, acquired by dishonest means. 3. The wolf casts his hair, but never changes his ferocious disposition. 4. To wicked persons-the virtue of others-is always a subject of envy. 5. Flies-cannot enter a mouth that is shut. 6. No plea of expediency-should reconcile us to the commission of a base act. 7. Power, unjustly obtained, is of short duration. 8. Every mad-man-believes all other men mad. kind to himself. 10. The beginning of knowledge 9. The avaricious man-is kind to none; but least

is the fear of God. 11. Of all poverty, that of the mind-is the most deplorable. 12. He only is powerful, who governs himself,

Hail, to thee, filial love, source of delight,
Of everlasting joy! Heaven's grace supreme
Shines in the duteous homage of a child !
Religion, manifested, stands aloft,
Superior to the storms of wayward fate.
When children-suffer in a parent's cause,
And glory-in the lovely sacrifice,
'T's heavenly inspiration fills the breast→→→
And angels-waft their incense to the skies.

I do remember an apothecary,-
And hereabouts he dwells,-whom late I noted
In tatter'd weeds, with overwhelming brows,
Culling of simples; meagre were his looks,
And in his needy shop-a tortoise hung.
Sharp misery--had worn him to the bones:
An alligator stuff'd, and other skins

Of ill-shap'd fishes; and about his shelves
A beggarly account of empty boxes,
Green earthen pots, bladders, and musty seeds
Remnants of packthread, and old cakes of rose0,
Were thinly scatter'd, to make up a show.

197. Accent -is made, secondly, by QUANTITY; or prolongation of sound, with expulsive force, on long accented vowels; which may be represented either by this engraving indicative of a continuous equal movement of the voice; or, by this one, which shows the swell, continuous and diminish in combination; or, the unequal continuous. Exs. 1. The a-gent, with ar-dent aw-ful e-go-tism, i-dol-i-zed the o-di-ous oo-zy u-ni-form, which was fruit-ful in oi-li-ness, from the ou-ter-mosts. 2. The base-ment of the ar-mo-ry, awk-ward-ly e-qual to the i-rony of the o-li-o, was, to the moon-shine of the u-ni-verse, as an un-ob-tru-sive moi-e-ty of a Doun-cet-box.

Proverbs. 1. Men of limited attainmentsgenerally condemn every thing they cannot comprehend. 2. Wit-should flow spontaneously; it cannot be produced by study. 3. Buoyancy of spirit-greatly diminishes the pressure of misfortune. 4. The surest method of being deceived is -to consider ourselves more cunning than others. 5. Envious persons-always view, with an evil eye, the prosperity of others. 6. It is a

Proof of mediocrity of intellect―to be addicted to story-telling. 7. When we give way to passion, we do every thing amiss. 8. Truth-needs no disguise, nor does she want embellishment. 9. A mind diseased-cannot bear any thing harsh. 10. Never utter what is false, nor hesitate to speak what is true. 11. Trifles-often discover a character-more than actions of importance. 12. The Bible-is a perfect body of divinity.

Body and Mind. The science of hu

198. Prolongation of Sound. Let the pupil take a lesson of the ferryman. A travel-man nature is valuable, as an introduction er arrives at the brink of a wide river, to the science of the Divine nature; for which he wishes to cross; one ferry-man is man-was made "in the image, and after on the other side, and, by chance, one is on the likeness," of his Maker: a knowledge this side: the traveler halloos, in the com- of the former-facilitates that of the latter; mon speaking voice, using principally the and to know, revere, and humbly adore, is chest; of course his voice soon becomes dis- the first duty of man. To obtain just and sipated. He is informed that his call cannot impartial views of human nature, we must not disconnect the object of our study, and be heard: listen to me, says this son of na- consider the mind, body, and actions, each ture; "O- ―ver, 0 -ver, Oby itself, but the whole man together; which ver:" making each accented vowel two sec- may be contemplated under two different onds long: try it and see; extending your aspects, of spirit and matter; on the eye and mind at a distance; which will aid body-shines the sun of nature, and on the the prolongation. -that better light, which is the true light: here, is a real man, having essence, form, and use, which is clad in the habili ments of beauty, and majesty; meeting as now, and which will meet us hereafter, as a purely spiritual being, in every possible stage of his future existence.

MIND

199. In exercising on accent, for a time at least, go to extremes, and make the accented vowels as prominent to the ear, as the following ones are to the eye; a-bAse. ment, im-pE-ri-ous, I-dol-ize, O-ver-throw, bea U-ti-ful, OIl-mill, OU-ter-most. Ex. 1. The lu-na-tic a-bode at the ca-the-dral, till the an-nun-ci-u-tion, that the an-te-dilu-vi-ans--had con-vey'd the hy-dro-pho-bia to Di-a-na of the E-phe-sians. 2. The patri-ots and ma-trons of the rev-o-lu-tion, by their har-mo-ni-ous co-op-e-ra-tion, dethron'd the ty-rants that were ru-ling our peo-ple with an un-ho-ly rod of i-ron.

Varieties. 1. Can we be a friend, and an enemy-at the same time? 2. Every one should be considered innocent, till he is proved guilty. 3. It is not sufficient that you are heard, you must be heard with pleasure. 4. There is a great difference between poetry and rhymetry; the former grows, the latter -is made. 5. If your money is your God, it will plague you like the Devil. 6. Order

Anecdote. Raising Rent. "Sir, I intend to raise your rent," said a land-holder-is one, in revelation, man, creation, and -to one of his tenants to which he replied, the universe; each-respects the other, and "I am very much obliged to you, for I is a resemblance of it. cannot raise it myself."

Notes. 1. As vowels are either long or short, different degroes of length do not affect any one of the long ones, so far as the quality of the sound concerned; the e in de-vise, and the o, in do-main-are the same as to length, (not force,) as they are in de-cent, do-tard; thus we have long ac-cented vowels, and long un-accented ones. 2. We make accent by quantity, when the accented vowels are long, and by st. when they are short. 3. The short vowels are of the same length, but not so the long ones. "Blessed is the man, Who hears the voice of nature; who, retired From bustling life, can feel the gladdening beam, The hope, that breathes of Paradise. Thy deeds, Sweet Peace, are music-to the exulting mind; Thy prayer, like incense-wafted on the gale Of morning spreads ambrosia, as the cloud Of spicy sweets-perfumes the whispering breeze, That scents Arabia's wild.”

Man-is dear to man; the poorest poor
Long for some moments, in a weary life,
When they can know, and feel, that they have bee
Themselves the fathers, and the dealers out
Of some small blessings-have been kind to suc
As needed kindness ;—for this single cause,
That we have all of us-a human heart.

Such pleasure-is to one kind being known,
My neighbor, when, with punctual care, each week,
Duly as Friday comes, though press'd herself
By her own wants, she, from her store of med
Takes one unsparing handful for the scrip
Of this old mendicant; and, from her door,
Returning with exhilarated heart,

Sits by her fire, and builds her hopes in heaven

200. Accent. The intentions of the mind--are manifested by the accent of the voice, as are those of a tailor, when he makes a gentleman's coat; or of a mantuamaker, when she makes a lady's gown; there is a meaning, an end, in all. The three great categories of knowledge are end, cause and effect; reflection and experience will convince those who would be wise, that the end or purpose, is the first thing,-the cause or medium, the second, and the effect, or ultimation of the co-operation of end and cause, the third thing. Now the feeling, or affection, is the first thing; the thought-is the second thing: and the action-the third thing: the affection and the vowel sound are connected, the thought and the consonant, and all become manifest, when the word is properly made, by the application of accent, and enunciation.

201. Now, as the affectuous part of the mind operates, especially, on those lower nerves and muscles, that are combined to produce the vowel sounds, and the intellectual part of the mind co-operates with the lungs, to form the consonant sounds, and the two unite to make the word, by the use of the accent, through the agency of which, feelings and thoughts are conveyed, it will be perceived, that whenever there is a change of the seat of accent, there may be a corresponding change of the meaning of the word: or rather, a change of feeling produces a change of thought, and the two produce a corresponding change in the seat of accent: as-august, au-gust; prod-uce, pro-duce; gal lant, gal-lant.

202. Change of the seat of accent according to sense. They bom-bard the town, with bom-bards, and ce-ment their cannon with cem-ent, and call upon their col-leagues to col-league together, col-lect their soldiers, and offer up their collects. He com-ments upon their com-ments, while they com-merce about the com-merce, and com-mon-place their common-place business. The com-pact was entered into in a com-pact manner, while the soldiers com-plot together in a com-plot, and com-port themselves with a becoming comport. The farmer com-posts his fields with excellent com-post, and out of the com-pound he com-pounds a fruitful soil; which, when com-press'd, makes a very fine com-press for the grain.

My birthday! what a different sound
That word had-in my youthful ears!
And how, each time-the day came round,
Less, and less white-its mark appears!
When first-our scanty years are told,
It seems like pastime-to grow old.
And as youth-counts the shining links,
That time-around him binds so fast,
Pleased with the task, he little thinks,
How hard that chain will press-al last.

Anecdote. When Lieutenant O Brien was blown up, in the Edgar, and thrown on board the Admiral, all black and wet, he said to the commander, with pleasantry, “I hope sir, you will excuse my dirty appear. ance; for I left the ship in so great a hurry, that I had not time to change my dress."

Proverbs. 1. Every thing great-is composed of minute particles. 2. Nothing-bears a stronger resemblance to a mad-man than a drunkard. 3. Pleasure, purchased by pain, is always injurious. 4. The act is to be judged of, by the intention of the person, who does it. 5. Theory, without practice, however plausible, seldom tends to a successful issue. 6. Reflect well, before you say yes, or no. 7. Be cautious-in giv ing advice, and consider-before you follow it. 8. A man, fond of disputing, will, in time, have few friends to dispute with. 9. Young people are apt to think themselves wise enough; as drunkards-think themselves sober enough. 10. Injustice-cannot exist without agents. 11. No great loss, but some small gain. 12. No smoke, without some fire.

Reading Discourses. As the reading of written discourses is so common, it is very desirable, that the speaker should unite the advantages of written, or printed composi tion, with extemporaneous speaking; which can be done by mastering the principles of this system; then, though the essay be & month, or a year old, the orator may give it all the appearance and freshness of oral dis course. Many public men have injured their health by slavishly reading their discourses, instead of speaking them; there being such an inseparable connection between thinking and breathing, that the effort to read, especially from a manuscript, tends to the use of the thorax, or lungs. If wo were taught to read by ear, instead of by sight, there would be no difficulty in this exercise: there must be a revolution-in regard to teaching and learning this important art, or sad will continue to be the consequences.

Varieties. 1. Were the Texians right, in rebelling against Mexico? 2. If woman taught the philosophy of love, who would not learn? 3. Do not yield to misfortunes; but resist them, with unceasing firmness. 4. Procrastination-is the thief of time. 5. No one is qualified to command, who has not learned to obey. 6. A laugh-costs too much, if purchased at the expense of propriety. 7. Words, fitly spoken from a life of love, are exceedingly sweet, and profitable to all.

Beware, ye slaves of vice and infamy, Beware choose not religion's sacred name, To sanctify your crimes-your falsehood shield Profane not your Creator's boundless power, Or lest his vengeance-fall upon, and crush ye

It is an awful height-of human pride, When we dare-robe ourselves in sanctity, While all is dark impiety within! This, surely, is the aggregate of sin, The last to be forgiven-by heaven, or man.

203. The subject of accent, being of pri- | Proverbs. 1. Beware of reading, without mary importance, should be dwelt upon, till thinking of the subject. 2. A man rarely deceives its principles, and their application, are per- another but once. 3. A good paymaster is lord of fectly familiar. Remember, it is the principal another man's purse. 4. He is most secure from external means, of making words-out of let- danger, who, even when conscious of safety, is ters and syllables: comparatively, it is the on his guard. 5. The pitcher may go often to the thread with which we make the garments well, and be broken at last. 6. A good companion, for our thoughts, and thus manifest the ob- makes good company. 7. Let every one choose, jects which the mind has in view in clothing no reason. 9. Your looking-glass-will tell you according to his own fancy. 8. A comparison—ig them in different ways, and making them what none of your friends will. 10. The human alive with feeling. The mental power of ac-heart wants something to be kind to. cent, is in the will, or voluntary principle, and the physical force is from the combined action of the lower muscles, in connection with the diaphragm; hence, it may be perceived, that in simply expelling vowel sounds, as always insisted upon, we at the same time, acquire the power of making the accent; for expulsion-is accent, radical, or stress. If you do not master accent, you cannot succeed in becoming an elocutionist.

11. Many

hands make light work. 12. Ask your purge what you shall buy.

204. Change of the seat of accent. On her en-trance, she was en-tranced at being es-cort-ed by a grand es-cort: I es-say to make an es-say to ex-ile the ex-iles: ex-port the ex-ports, with-out ex-tract-ing the extracts for the ex-tract-ors: the ab-ject fel-lows ab-ject the gifts, and the ab-sent minded absent themselves from the party: he ab-stracts the ab-stracts and at-trib-utes the at-tri-butes to others: I lay the ac-cent on the ac-cent-ed vowel, and af-fix the af-fix to the final syllable, and make aug-ment in the right place and aug-ment the word in Au-gust, and thus make the idea au-gust.

or-tho-e-py, ar-is-toc-ra-cy, ac-cept-a-ble, Ar-e-op-a-gus, ac-ces-s

Notes. 1. Be careful in placing the accent on the right syllable: ad-ver-tise-ment, al-lies, corn-pen-sate, in-qui-ry, de-co-rus, ry, up-right-ly: for if you place the accent on the wrong vowel, you partially pervert the meaning, or render it ridiculous: as, saw an august spectacle in August. 2. In singing, accent is always made by stress: and the first note of each full measure accent-ed.

I

Lacontes. Labor is honorable in all, from the king on the throne to the mendicant in the street; and let him or her, who is ashamed to toil for themselves, or the benefit of their race, be more ashamed to consume the industry and labor of others, for which they do not render an equivalent.

The rose had been washed, just washed in a shower,
Which Mary-to Anna-conveyed;

The plentiful moisture-encumbered the flower,
And weighed down its beautiful head,

The cup was all filled, and the leaves were all wet,
And it seemed, to a fanciful view,

To weep for the buds-it had left with regret,

On the flourishing bush-where it grew.

I hastily seized it, unfit as it was

For a nosegay, so dripping and drowned And swinging it rudely, too rudely, alas! 1 snapped it,--it fell to the ground.

And much, I exclaimed, is the pitiless part,
Some act by the delicate mind,
Regardless of wringing—and breaking a heart,
Already to sorrow resigned.

This elegant rose, had I shaken it less,

Might have bloomed with its owner awhile: And the tear, that is wiped, with a little address, May be followed, perhaps, by a smile.

Anecdote. Blundering on the Truth. An ignorant fellow, who was about to be married, resolved to make himself perfect in the responses of the marriage service; but, by mistake, he committed the office of buptism for those of riper years: so, when the clergyman asked him, in the church,

Wilt thou have this woman to thy wedded wife?" The bridegroom answered, in a very solemn tone; "I renounce them all." The astonished minister said- I think you are a fool :-to which he replied, “* All this I steadfastly believe,"

**

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Analogies. As, in the succession of the seasons, each, by the invariable laws of nature, affects the productions of what is next in course; so, in human life, every period of our age,-according as it is well or ill spent, influences the happiness of that which is to follow. Virtuous youth-- generally brings forward accomplished and flourishing without uneasiness, into respectable and manhood; and such manhood passes off, out of its regular course, disorder takes tranquil old age. When nature is turned place-in the moral, just as in the vegetable World. If the spring-put forth no blossoms, in summer-there will be no beauty, and in the autumn-no fruit. If youth-be trifled away without improvement, manhood will be the beginnings of life-have been vanity,— contemptible and old age-miserable. If its latter end can be no other than vexation of spirit.

Varieties. I. Is there any such thing as time and space, in the world of mind? 2. Any book that is worth reading once, is worth reading twice. 3. Most misfortunes -may be turned into blessings, by watching the tide of affairs. 4. When the wicked are in power, innocence and integrity are sure to be persecuted. 5. Give people proper books, and teach them how to read them, and they will educate themselves. 6. Unlimited powers-should not be trusted in the hands of any one, who is not endowed with perfection, more than human. 7. The truths of the Bible are the seeds of order; and as is the reception, such will be the produce.

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Faults-in the life, breed errors in the brain,
And these, reciprocally, those again :
The mind, and conduct-mutually imprint,
And stamp their image-in each other's mina

205. To accomplish the objects in view, | Proverbs. 1. Instead of saying "I can't," say the development and perfection of the voice "I will." 2. Acquire knowledge that may be for reading, speaking and singing, a great useful. 3. If possible, remove your own dificulvariety of exercises and examples, are intro- ties. 4. Husband your time, and waste neither duced, containing sense and nonsense; and that, nor your money. 5. Try to exert a good attention can be given to both kinds, accord-influence, wherever you are. 6. A little stone can ing to their uses. Let it be remembered, that make a great bruise. 7. Unwearied diligence the forty-four sounds of the language are the the point will gain. 8. Cultivate good domestic fountains, from which are to flow every stream habits. 9. Some rather reflect truth than practice of elocution and music: and these are con- 11. Winter finds what Summer conceals. 12. Two tinually before us. No one can succeed in of a trade seldom agree. silently reading, or thinking over the subjects: practice is the great thing; therefore, frequently repeat the sounds, read by vowels, spell by sounds, and exercise in accent and emphasis, with all the other modifications.

it. 10. Man is a mi-cro-cosm, or little world.

206. They con-cert a plan to get up a concert, and as they con-cord the con-cords of the notes, they con-crete the con-crete tones with such admirable con-duct, as to con-duct the whole to the satisfaction of the audience. He con-fects the sugar with delicious con-fects, although he con-fines his efforts to the confines of the room; and without con-fic-ting in any serious con-flict, he con-serves the conserves in such a way as to con-sort with his con-sort without con-test-ing with any serious con-test, I will con-text the con-text, so as to con-tract the con-tract-ing in a strong con-tract, the con-vent, so as to con-vent its inmates, while they con-verse in familiar con

verse.

207. Among the more difficult acquisitions, is the ability to prolong sounds in strongly marked accented and emphatic words, involving the kindlier feelings of our nature; to succeed in which, practice single long vowel sounds separate words, and also in short and long phrases; as ale; are; a ―ll; ee—1; i—le; old; oo――――ze; mute; puss; oi- -1; our; also, old armed chair; wheel to the right; roll the flames and join the muse; glowing hope; praise the lofty dome.

Notes. 1. The attempt is not made any where, to give

a

fect notation of the manner in which one is to read; and wome words are more or less emphatic, that are printed in common type; while certain words, which are not very important as to meaning, are printed in italics. 2. Never mind the rough appearance of the examples; but make them smooth in your delivery.

Anecdote. Self-love. The first consideration of a knave is-how to help himself; and the second, how to do it with an appearance of helping others. Dionysius. the ty rant, stripped the statue of Jupiter Olympus, of a robe of massy gold, and substituted a cloak of wool, saying-" Gold is too cold in winter, and too heavy in the summer-it behooves us to take care of Jupiter.".

When was public virtue to be found,
Where private was not 1

Can he love the whole,

Who loves no part?

He-be a nation's friend,

Who, in truth, is the friend of no man there?

self the connecting link, or medium, between Important. Let the orator consider him the mental and natural world: i. e. that the spiritual world is progressing down into the

material world; and that all his muscles and vocal powers are the proper organs, thro' which it is to flow. Hence, the necessity of developing and training, perfectly, those mediums of communication, that every thing in the matter, may tell, effectually, in the manner. Much, very much depends upon. the state of his own mind; for, according to that

will be the influence shed abroad on the minds of others. Conceive yourself the rep

resentative of a vast concourse of associated minds, and be the true representative of your constituents.

Varieties. 1. Are fictitious writings beneficial? 2. E-go-tism (or self-commendation,) is always disgusting, and should be carefully avoided. 3. A man cannot call a better physician than himself, if he will take all the good advice he gives to others. 4. Why is the human mind like a garden? because you can sow what seeds you please in it. 5. Good and bad fortune are necessary, to prepare us to meet the contingencies of life. 6. Be not too much afraid of offending others, by telling the truth: nor stoop to flattery nor meanness, to gain their favor. 7. The whole outward creation, with its every particular and movement, is but a theatre and scene of effects, brought forth into existence, and mov. ed by interior spiritual causes, proper to the spiritual world.

To the curious eye
A little monitor-presents her page

Of choice instruction, with her snowy bella-
The lily of the vale. She, not affect
The public walk, nor gaze of mid-day sunt
She-to no state or dignity aspires,
But, silent and alone, puts on her suit,
And sheds her lasting per-fume, but for which
We had not known-there was a thing-so sweet
Hid-in the gloomy shade. So, when the blast
Her sister tribes confounds, and, to the earth
Stoops their high heads, that vainly were exposed,
She feels it not, but flourishes anew,

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Still sheltered and secure. And so the storm,
That makes the huge elm couch, and rends the oak,
The humble lily spares. A thousand blows,
That shake the lofty monarch, on his throne,
We lesser folks feel not. Keen are the pains
Advancement often brings. To be cure,
Be humble; to be happy, be content,

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