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studied her part with sufficient application, and was, moreover, wanting in spirit and energy; besides, her intonation was not always true, and once the public gave vent to a slight hissing, by way of disapprobation. Mad. Richter was more successful; although evidently indisposed, she performed her task with great credit. Herr Marloff tried to do his best, and the more he studies the part of Skawrousky the better he will be able to sing it. Herr Brassin sang tolerably, and in the last act especially did ample justice to the music. The rest of the characters were assigned to those who were able to take them, and in general sung but indifferently. The chorus was in miserable condition, and at different times in danger of breaking down—in fact, the number was insufficient to give the required impression to those weighty and powerful choruses. The band reflected great credit on themselves and their able conductor Riccius. The scenery, decorations, &c, with the assistance of a little foreign help, were, if not magnificently, yet tastefully got up. The audience did not appear greatly satisfied with the performance, for it maintained throughout a chilly coldness, and at the conclusion each tried to rush out of the theatre, forgetting to recall any one, the opera having lasted from half-past six to half-past ten o'clock, which was too long a time for the Germans to hold out, whatever may be the attraction. I have said nothing of the music, which you may judge had hardly a chance. That it will please and delight after being heard a few times I have not a doubt. Not having room this time, I will tell you about the second Gewandhaus concert in my next contribution.
New YoRK.-^The transatlantic journals for some time past have proffered us but little in the way of information in musical matters. In fact, since Grisi and Mario left America there has been nothing like a sensation created; and Mademoiselle Rachel came in the very nick of time to "stir up" the Yankee sympathies, which were growing dormant for want of exercise. The_ success of the great French actress has been unparalleled for its universality everywhere. In the cases of Jenny Lind, Alboni, Sontag, and Grisi, there were always found murmurers and antagonists, who would have their own opinions and did not fear to censure openly. But Rachel literally has found no exceptive voice. All agree as to her transcendent genius, and all America throws itself at the feet of the mighty tragedienne, and pronounces criticism dumb. Even those who had seen her in Europe and were enraptured with her, are now, having seen her in America, more enraptured than ever. The visit of Rachel to the New Continent is likely to have an effect far beyond that of affording delight and astonishment. "Before I speak of music proper," writes the New York correspondent of Dwig/Ws Boston Journal (date Sept 29)," let me say a word as to the great artistic treat we New-Yorkers are enjoying in the presence of Rachel. Though I had heard her abroad, her performance here has most agreeably disappointed my recollections. And every time one sees her, the more her splendid acting is enjoyed. I am in great hopes that her visit will exercise a good effect on the American stage, and I am glad to see so many of our rising actors among the audience. Last night was the first of the low prices, and it fully answered expectation, the house being very well filled."—Signor (Mr. 1) Borrani has seceded from the Pyne-Harrison party, and Mr. Stretton, the English Tamburini (!!!) has arrived to take his place. Miss Louisa Pyne has received pressing and tempting offers to join the company about to be formed at the Lyceum Theatre, London, to open the new English National Opera. Mr. Harrison, on the contrary, has received no offer. Mrs. Alexander Gibbs is giving her Irish entertainment, called "The Emerald Isle," at the Apollo Rooms, Broadway.—The engagement for the new operatic establishment, about to be started at New York, under the title of "The Academy of Music," is thus alluded to in the Morning Timet:— "We have now definite information concerning the opening and prospects of the Academy of Music, and of the artists secured tor the company. Lagrange, Hensler, Brignoli, Morelli, and Amodio have been re-engaged, and the following new artists have been selected for Mr. Pyne by Signor Mario:—1. The celebrated soprano Castellan, from the London Covent Garden, for whom Meyerbeer wrote the part of Bertha, in the Prophite. This
lady, it will be remembered, began her career some ten years since, in Mexico, when a girl only nineteen. She afterwards passed through the United States, and made a powerful sensation as a concert-singer. She arrived in London in 1846, and rapidly rose to the high position she at present enjoys in Europe. 2. Signorina Aldini—a young, pretty and fresh contralto, twentytwo years of age—une blonde piquante, with a sympathetic voice and good method. She will appear in the Trovatore as Azucena, to Madame Lagrange's Leonora. 3. Signor Salviani—one of the most promising of tenors, thirty-two years of age. Voice powerful, and with true 'tenor' ring. Said to be a first-rate musician—possessing remarkable flexibility for Rossinian music, although his forte is of the Meyerbeerian style. He sung in the Proph&e last season in Florence, and, after Roger and Tamberlik (what of Mario?) is considered the best representative of this r6le. 4. Signor Caspani—a young basso with an extraordinary voice. Said to be in every respect superior to Susini." The American critics are not to be despised, although they might have formed unto themselves a higher standard than Susini.
Dresden.—Herr J. A. van Eyken, organist of Elberfeld, gave an organ concert, a short time since, in the Frauenkirche.
Posen.—Die Lustigen Wciber von Windsor, by Nicolai, will shortly be produced.
KoNiosBERO.—Mdlle. Anna Zerr is about to give a series of performance.
HERR GOLLMICK AT FRANKFORT.
The following interesting critique on a concert lately given at Frankfort, by Herr Adolph Gollmick, is quoted from the Muse, one of the leading art-journals of Germany :—
"An agreeable entertainment was presented to us a few days since by Herr Adolph Gollmick, in a performance of his own compositions, at a tnatinie which took place at the concertrooms of the "Mozart Haus." This young pianist—the son of the well-known musical writer—has for many years been resident in London, where he has earned an honourable reputation as a composer and a pianist. His style of playing is not only distinguished by brilliancy and execution, but is remarkable for a sentiment and expression which strike a chord in every heart. His compositions partake of the same character as his playing, and are full of variety and feeling.
"A quartette in G minor, for piano, violin, tenor, and violoncello, well merited the praise it received by its elegant and unassuming style, as well as the pure form and perfect harmony which characterise it throughout. We trace no recollection of former subjects in this composition, which may well be numbered among the best of its kind. In the morceaux de salon which Herr Gollmick introduced, we observed a lyric and fanciful individuality not to be met with in the ordinary compositions of this class. This is particularly the case with a capriccio, entitled 'Fairy Dell,' which attracted the attention of the numerous and brilliant company of ladies, as well as all the principal artists of Frankfort, who testified their applause in an unequivocal manner.
"We again had the pleasure of listening to an original composition by Herr Gollmick at the theatre after the rehearsal of Meliul's Josef in Egypt, when his Overture in E Minor was performed in excellent style. It is the production of a cheerful mind and accomplished musician. The original subject glides sylph-like through every movement: the rhythms are most piquants, and the concluding theme charming. The only fault we have to find with the overture is that it ends too abruptly, which may also be observed respecting the Quartett. It was no doubt Herr Gollmick's intention to be concise, wishing that his listeners should complain of the subjects being too short rather than protracted. Nevertheless, we ourselves would desire a more grateful extension of the finales, and we have the more pleasure in expressing this wish as we feel assured that in his next essay the talented composer will condescend to gratify our taste."
OPERAS ARRANGED AS QUARTETTS,
For Two Violins, Tenor, and Bass. To be sold at the reduced prices annexed:i
Boioldieu, Lo Petit Chaperon Rouge
dimarosa, Matriinonio Segretto, 2 bks.
Haydn, 7 last Words of Christ, Op. 48
„ Seasons, arranged by Neukoinm ...
Himmel, Fanchon, 2 bks
„ Lea Sylphes ... ...
Martin, L'Abore di Diana
Mehul, Joseph in Egypt, by Sprcngel ...
Mozart, ^'Enlevement du Serail ...
„ Zauberflate, 2 Parts .
„ La Clemenza di Tito 0 13 6 — 8 0 .. do. Zelmira, by Roessinger, 2 bks. ...each
. „ 6 favourite Overtures: viz., Don .Juan, Figaro, Titus, Zauberfldte, Entfuhrung,
Cosi fan tutto ...
Ov. to Op. L'lmprossario in Augustle
OPERAS AND OVERTURES ARRANGED AS DUETS,
FOR TWO VIOLINS. TO BE SOLD AT THE REDUCED PRICES ANNEXED.
„ Overture and select pieces from La Fiancee
„ Overture to ditto
„ Overture and eight pieces from La Muctte Bochsa (C. N), Air du Roi et la Ligue... Boieldieu, Airs from La Dame Blanche
„ Jean de Paris, by L. Wolff ...
Cherubini, Overture to Anacreon ... ... ...
„ Overture to L'Hotellerie Portugaiso Cimarosa, Overture to II Matrimonio Segretto
„ . Select Airs from ditto ...
Collection of favourite Pieces from Operas and Ballets,'
Nos. 1 to 13 each
Dalayrac, Overture to Nina ...
Gliick, Overture to Alceste ... ...
„ to Iphigenie en Aulide
„ to Orpheus and Armida Grety, Overture to La Caravanne ...
■ „ Overture to Panurge
Kaucr, Airs from Nymph of the Danube, 2 books
Martini, Overture to Cosa llara
MeTml, Overture to Jeunc Henry Chasse
„ Overture to L' Irato
■ „ Overture to TJne Folie
Mozart, Overture to Don Juan
„ Overture to Figaro
- „ Overture to La Clemenza di Tito
„ ZauberflOte ... ... ...
„ Overture to ditto
Nicolo, Overture to La Ruse Inutile
- „ Overture to Le Medecin Turc
„ Three Duets from ditto...
Nicolo, 3 Duets from the Opera Leonicc, by Gasse
„ Overture to do. ... ...
„ Duets from the Opera Los Confidences ...
„ Airs from Michael Augelo
Overture to Lea Deux Contesses
Paer, do. to Achilles
„ do. to Agnese
„ Overture to Elisabetta ...
„ Airs from do., arranged by Kufmer ...
„ 11 Turco in Italia, 2 books
„ Italiani in Algieri
„ Another edition, 2 books
„ do. Select Airs from, arranged by Kuffncr
„ La Gazza Ladra, 2 books
„ another edition ... ... ...
„ do. arranged by Roessinger, 2 books ...
„ Overture to Ricciardo e Zoraide
„ Tancrcdi, arranged by do., 2 books
„ Torwaldo and Dorlisea ...
„ Zelmira, favourite Airs from ... ...
Spontini, Overture to Olympia ...
Theatre Journal from various Operas
Vogel, Overture to Demophon ...
Weber, Euryantho ... ... ... ...
„ Freischiitz, arranged by Kuffncr
„ do., arranged by Hcnning (complete) ...
Weigl, Die Schwcizer Familie
Winter, Opfcrfest, 12 Duets Concert ...
ELEMENTARY WORKS BY AUGUSTE PANSERON,
USED IN THE CONSERVATOIRE, AT PARIS.
Orpheus, 6 Choruses for 4 Men's Voicos, Nos. 1 and 3 5 0
Do., No. 4 6 0
Recreations Vocales, for 3 or 4 Voices, 2 Nos 2s. and 3 0
Messe en Solos, ded. to Lablache 25 0
Solfege du Pianisto ..'. 45 o
Do. du Violiniste ... ... ... ... ... 42 0
24 Morceaux a 4 Mains extmits du Solfege du Pianisto ... 25 0 Solfege Concertant for 2, 3, and 4 Voices ... ... ... 60 0
Six Choruses, in 2 bks. together ... 15 0
Solfegcs for 2 Voices ... ... 25 0
Methode de Vocalisation, en 2 Parties, pour Soprano et Tenor... 86 0
— do. Pt. 2, containing Solfeggi for Soprano and Tenor, separately 21 0
Twelvo Etudes specialcs pour Soprano et Tenor... 25 0
25 Vocalises pour Mezzo-soprano ... ... 25 0
M6thode de Vocalization, en 2 Phrties, pour Basse-taille,
Baryton et Contralto 36 0
—do. Part 2, containing Solfeggi, for Bass, Baritone, and Con-
Solfege pour Basse-taille et Barytone, 2 pts ...
25 Vocalises pour Basse-taille, Bar. et Cont.
12 Etudes spdcialcs ponr Basse et Bar.
ABC Musical, ou Petit Solfege, compose tout cxpres pour sa
—do. sans ace, edition typographique ...
Suite de l'A B C Musical
Solfege d'Enscinble, containing Duets, Trios, Quartetts,
Choruses, &c. 8 parts ea. ... ... ... ... ...
Soltege d'Artiste, 2 parts ... ...
Panseron's Works, 8vo. editions:—
Suite de l'A BC
Solfoge Concertant, 2, 3, and 4 Voices ... ...
Do. for 2 Voices ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
Do. pour Basse-taille et Baryton
Solfege d'Eusciublc, 3 parts
BOOSEY AND SONS, 28, HOLLES-STREET, LONDON.
Published by Jouhbooset, of 27, Notting Hill-square, in tho parish of Kensington, at the oflico of Booszv & Sons, 2S. Holies-street. Sold also by Beid, 1j, john-Btroct, Great Portland-street; Allm, Warwick-lane; Vickebs, Holy woll-Btreet; Keith. Pbowse, & Co., 48, Cheapside; G. Scheumiakn, 86, Nowgatostroot; Uabky Mir, 11, Holbom-bara. Agouts for Scotliind, Patekson & Soub, Edinburgh; for Ireland, H. Bussell, Dublin; and all Music-sellers.
Printed by William Spkbcer Johhson, "Nassau Steam Press,'
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"MR and MRS. PAGET (RAM., and Pupil of Signor
•i-V-l Garcia), Vocalists, Bass and Contralto.— Communications relative to Concerts and Oratorios to be addressed. At1, era tone, Warwickshire.
Mrs. Paget is opeu to an engagement with a London concert party on a tour, on moderate terms.
"The lady possesses a magnificent voice, deep and sonorous, yet withal capable of much sweetness and flexibility, more like that of Miss Hawse than any other English singer we know."—Birmingluxm Journal.
44 Mrs. Paget possesses a delicious contralto, pure and rich."—Liverpool Courier, September 5.
K F. B. JEWSON, begs to acquaint his friends and
pupils, that he has returned to Town for the season, 21, Manchesterstreet, Manchester-square. 32nd October, 1855.
MIS 8 BLANCHE CAP ILL—(Voice, Contralto), Professor of Music and Singing, 47, Alfred-street, River-terrace, Islington, where letters respecting pupils or engagements may be addressed.
PRIVATE INSTRUCTION IN THE ART OF POETICAL ELOCUTION, as adapted to the several purposes of Speaking, Beading, and Singing, by the Rev. Hugh Hutton, MA. Select Classes for the study of the elder English Poets, and the practice of General Elocution,—Address —No. 2, Provost-road, Haverstock-hlll.
TRAVIS'S AMATEUR ORGAN 1ST.—The high patron.ige and unprecedented success of this truly elegant work has caused several imitations. The musical public, are, therefore, most respectfully solicited to order TRAVIS'S AMATEUR ORGANIST, in three volumes, neatly bound, 18s. each; or in 18 books, price 3s. each. In the press, and will be shortly published, Travis's Anthems for Amateur Organists. Leoni Lee, 48, Albemarle-street.
MYDDELTON HALL, Upper Street, Islington.—The spacious and elegant concert room, now building, and capable of holding nearly 1,000 persons, will be opened early in December with a Grand Concert, under the direction of Mr. Wesley. After the opening it may be hired for Concerts, Lectures, Ac For terms of that and the various other ooms of the Hall, apply to Mr. Newbon, 8, Church-row, Upper Street, Islington.
PIANOFORTES.—OETZM ANN and PLUMB beg to inform Music-sellers and Professors that in consequence of their having made great improvements in the manufacture of their instruments, substituting machinery for manual labour, and taking advantage of the new Patent Steam Drying processes, are enabled to offer to the Trade superior Pianofortes in Grands, Semi-Grands, and Cottages, in all variety of woods and designs, at considerable reduced prices. Illustrated Lists sent on application, or a visit to their Manufactory will prove the great advantage secured. 56, Groat Russell-street, Bloomsbury. Manufactory, Chcnies-street, Tottenham-court-road. Alexander and Co. 's Harmoniums at trade prices.
UPWARDS OF 500 VOLS. OF MUSIC, elegantly bound in Calf, from tho Library of the late W. W. Hope, Esq., including the Works of Kreutser, Dalayrac, GlUck, Winter, Haydn, Mozart, Handel, Nicolo, Boieldieu, Spontini, Auber, Gretry. etc, etc MS. and printed Operas of tbe 17th and 18tn centuries from the Library of Louis XIV.. by Lully, Desmarais, Destouches, Campra, Bertin, Bourgeois, etc., etc. For a Catalogue, apply to Joseph Toller. Bookseller, Kettering.
GUXDO.—A splendid Picture by this master, in a fine state, "The Grecian Daughter," size 3 ft. by 2ft. 10 in., iu an elegant gilt frame, from Mr. Hope's collection.
THE ANEMONIC UNION.—Messrs. Baumann, Nioholson. Harper, Lazarus, H. Nicholson, C. Harper, with Hiss Julia Bleadon, have returned to town from their provincial tour. Applications respecting future engagements maybe made to Mr. Alfred Nicholson, 11, Princes-street, Leicester' square.
PIANOFORTES, Manufactured by ROBERT COCKS and CO., London, for Sale or Hite, price from 22 guineas upwards, warranted to stand all climates. "These piauofortos are remarkable for the beauty and equality of their tone, and the facility of their touch, and their extremely elegant exterior."—Mimical World, List of prices and drawings, gratis, postage free.— London: Robert Coclu aud Co., New Burlington-street, Pianoforte Manufacturers and Publishers to the Queen. . . . - ...
EWER AND CO., 390, Oxford-street, have published the following pieces for tenor and pianoforte:
s. d. Joachim (op. 0). Hebrew melodies. (Impressions of Byron's poems) .. SO
(op. 10). Variations on an original air .. .. ..40
Kalliwoda (op. 186). Six Nocturnes, in two books each .. ..20
Mendelssohn. Six Lioder ohne "Worte, arranged by L, Hetaah.. .. 4 0
Vicuxtemps (op 30). Elegy .. .. ..to
The same arranged for violoncello and Piano .. 3 8
Third Edition, just published. Price Three Shillings.
C ANTIC A ECCLESIASTIC A. By Dr. IonB. Acorn-
AT GOODRICH'S CIGAR, TOBACCO, and SNUK STORES (established 17S0), 407, Oxford-street, London, near Soho-squarc. Box, containing 14 fine Sisal Cigars, for Is. 9d., post free, 27 stamps. None are genuine unless signed "H. N. Goodrich."—A large stock of the moat approved Brands.
THE MORNING AND EVENING SERVICES OF CHURCH OP ENGLAND in Vocal Scoru, with an organ accompaniment, dedicated to the Rev. J. H. Henderson, M.A., late Precentor of Ely Cathedral, composed by Geo. J. Skelton, organist and Erector of the choir at the parish Church, Hull. Price to subscribers, 6s. 8d. IS copies charged as 9. Tho profits devoted to the fund for the completion of the organ. Subscribers' names received by tho principal music-sellers in London; the book and music-sellers, and the composer, 9, Story-street, Hull. Tho Tc Deum, etc., may be had separately.
THE NINETY-FIRST EDITION.—HAMILTON'S MODERN INSTRUCTIONS for the Pianoforte, is.; Hamilton's Mod,em Instructions lor Singing, 9th edition, 2s ; Hamilton's 1 rlctionary nf 3,5( 9 Jroatcal Terms, 45th edition, Is.; Clarke's Catechism o( tbe Rudiments of M»rtic. auk edition, 8s. London, Robert Cocks and Co.,t«, Now Buriington-.Jrset/fW^f aj music-sellers and book-sellers. W A^Sa Iwjl'iw i
REVIEW OP THE HISTORY OF MUSIC
(Continued from page 671).
There can be no doubt that the virtuosos generally, and those of the violin especially, the Oorellis, Geminianis, Tartinis, Pugnaiiis, and others, have contributed much to the progress of composition. But, with the exception of Corelli, they have contributed only in an indirect way, less through their works than through the fact that they perfected and enlarged the mechanism of the instruments destined at a later time to be used in the orchestra. By limiting themselves to the speciality of each instrument, removing a multitude of material obstacles, and increasing the sum of the technical possibilities of execution, they paved the way to grand instrumental music; they rendered arable the immeasurable field which was first and so successfully cultivated by Emanuel Bach, Boccherini, and Haydn.
We must give a precise explanation of what we understand by grand instrumental music. The two interests which we have found in the opera also divide instrumental music into two essentially distinct branches. There is the concert kind, in which the attention of the hearer is directed to one principal part, that, namely, of the solo-player ; and there is a music in which the composer claims the chief attention for himself, that is, for the organic whole of a serious work, wrought out in all its parts. This is the grand instrumental music, considered as a kind, which we shall have occasion to define better in the sequel.
For some time, composition and execution were seen to support each other and to advance abreast. It could not always remain so ; for though the roads ran parallel, the goals were placed at very unequal distances. As soon as the science of composition had reached its highest point, it forsook the line of ascent, which with the last century reached its termination, and turned back upon itself, thenceforth imperceptibly descending. Execution, having still an immeasurable career before it, went on, ixpon its side progressing. Hence the unavoidable sequel in our day, that musical art in a certain respect has had to re-travel the whole route which it had in another respect accomplished.
Chronology, still corresponding with the general course of progress in the eighteenth century, brings us finally to the most illustrious prince of music, the master and forerunner of the man who was to unite so many dynasties in one universal monarchy. Every one of my readers will have guessed that I mean Haydn. We speak not here of the sublime old man, the composer of the Creation, for this Haydn was a disciple of Mozart, who at an earlier time had been his pupiL We speak of Haydn in his younger years, to whom, young as he was, belonged the glory of being called the father of instrumental music. This title, so well deserved in many ways, demands an historical explanation, without which the justice done to Haydn by his contemporaries and by posterity must to my readers seem extravagant.
In speaking of the organ and the clavichord, we have already alluded to what Bach and Handel had done for these instruments. But there are also several overtures of Handel which are commendable as orchestral compositions. Good instrumental ir/Ac, then, existed even before Haydn. Certainly; but either tins music was nothing but an appendage to public worship, or, if it was secular, it kept for the most part within the limits of the fugued style. The finest overtures of Handel are almost only in so far valuable as they remain fugues; and this ia saying enough, since they lack every sort of dramatic character, such as is required by the opera or oratorio, which they precede. In the clavichord pieces of Bach, one feels still more the want of graceful and expressive melodies, if he excepts the melodies of the contra-dances, AUemandes, Correnti, Oigues, Sarabands and Minuets, which the great contrapuntist incorporated into his learning when he was just in his indulgent humour towards human foibles. For the rest, these pieces appear destined for all time to form the breviary of composers and the manual of pianists; and for this very reason they will penetrate into the sphere of musical enjoyment in which a trim world seeks its
own. Even for chamber music they would* be too difficult' and too serious.
Instrumental music must have had another mission than to be studied and admired only with closed doors ; already had it known how to acquire for itself some popularity, and endeavoured to keep even pace with the opera. This ambition seemed, too, in the beginning, under the auspices of Corelli, to succeed; but it went utterly to wreck through the unskilfuluess of the followers of this happy master. Corelli's sonatas are, in their kind, what the vocal music of Scarlatti was in its kind; they were almost classical works, and they stood far above the orchestra and chamber music which followed and prevailed until the time of Boccherini and Haydn. This epoch was a true interregnum of good instrumental music; its mtseraWe and quite forgotten productions prove both the impotence of the composers, and the erroneousness of the principles on which they depend.
The Italians had laid it down as a principle that instrumental music, in its very nature, must be subordinate to vocal music—= a view which at that time was not and could not be disputed. Where both co-operate, the first must necessarily be subject to the second ; the instrumentists, skilful as they may have been, had not yet reached so independent a position that they could rival the singers. On the other hand the contrapuntal music, even in the land where it had been most successfully cultivated, had even less to show in the department of instrumental music A fugued chorus of Handel, a motet of Bach, were fax superior to the finest things which these masters had written for the organ, the clavichord, and the orchestra. In short, in the concert music, the human voice remained ever the most beautiful and most expressive of all instruments. From these facta it has been, not without some show of reason, concluded that instrumental music, without vocal accompaniment and relying on its own resources, is only a surrogate of vocal music; and that fur this reason the instrumentists, like servants without masters, like the lackeys in comedy, had to assume the manners of th\s absent master and to model their style of composition and of execution after the arias, duets, and choruses in the opera ; in a word, that they had to imitate the singers, so far as their feebler means permitted. Such were the maxims prevailing in Italy and consequently in all Europe, as one may see from all that is said upou this subject in the books of the eighteenth century, and especially in Bousseau's dictionary, the most respectable organ of the ultramontane views. The first consequence of this theory was, that every composer who felt any talent had his attention turned from this uuhonoured and subordinate department, and that the instrumental music fell into the hands of people who were personally convinced of their own mediocrity. The second consequence was, that this mediocrity in a department, to which discouragement or timidity drove' them, still sank below itself. In this way the theory seemed only too well justified by practice.
Even to this day imitation of the vocal style is recommended^ both to those who compose and to those who execute conceit solos. Why not, since here the instrumentist takes the place of the singer \ Under the fingers of a virtuoso, the violin, the violoncello, the viola, the flute, the clarinet, the fagotto, and the oboe produce a cavatina with about as much soul, taste, and method as the most perfect singer. Nothing but words is wanting, but this deficiency the virtuoso will know how to offset' through the means afforded him by the compass of his three or four octaves, through a lavish use offiorilure and of lours de force, a richness, a variety of satisfactory and finished passages, before which all the bravura of vocalization becomes pale. Pagauini,' it is well known, proposed a wager to Malibran, and like a gallant knight he offered to bring only the fourth part of his power into play, namely, the C string alone, against a singer, who with an extraordinary compass of voice combined the most brilliant bravura in our epoch. But it is known, too, that the challenge was not taken up. Thus we see that even in concert music the instrumentist, though he imitates the singer, must do more than the singer. An adagio of the violoncello must be something more than a cantabUe of the tenor, in order to equal this cantabile; and an allegro of the violin something more than a bravura air of the soprano, to be as brilliant as this bravura air. If it were otherwise, if the instruinenti3t limited himself to playing pieces practicable for the voice, he would naturally remain always inferior to the voice; and for this reason the instrumentist of the eighteenth century, whose mechanical means hardly exceeded those of the singers of their time, were not their rivals, but their doubles. Then, at least, the vocal style which they employed in their capacity as soloists was no more out of place than it is to-day. But of what avail would it be to apply this style, these forms aud phraseology of the opera, to the classical orchestra and chamber music, where the interest turns from the individuals to the whole, from the performers to tho composer? I will cite here the acute remarks which Gerber makes upon this point in his Lexicon of Musicians, in the article on J. S. Bach, one of the best in the work, and one of the few the material of which has warmed up the compiling vein of the indefatigable lexicographer even to the reasoning point. Says he:
"The style of composition in which melody reigned unlimited had in the eighteenth century the upper hand, and finally extended to all kinds of music, including, of course, instrumental music. Since the composers at that time sought their ideal of melodic beauty, and even the materials of their labour, only in the songs of the theatre; and since, on the' other hand, these songs had to conform themselves to the situations of the poem, where the feelings to be expressed frequently change with every line ; it followed that the instrumental pieces of this pattern placed us in the situation of those who hear an unknown opera arranged as quartet. You perceived nothing, but these heterogenous, fragmentary, and oddly contrasted ideas, resembling a rosary composed at hap-hazard of beads of all conceivable sizes and colours."
Yes, this motley mosaic, this succession of incoherent melodies, as the programme of an action which does not exist, and which it does not enable any one to understand, this libretto with blank pages, this adapted music, which is adapted to nothing, all this must have been very wretched! What persons of taste would not have preferred an opera music, which they understood, to a music without any sort of meaning?
There lay the immense advantage which, at that time, the dramatic composers had over the instrumentists. The former found the infallible level of the detailed plan for their labour marked out for them in the poem; the latter were utterly without aim or compass. Since they had shaken off the yoke of the canonical counterpoint, they were wholly at a loss what to set about with their freedom. They did not dream that they, to enter the lists with the dramatic composers, had got to do entirely differently and iufinitely more than these did; that, to counterbalance the charm of speaking music, the expression of the passions in tones, the combined pleasures of the eyes and of the soul, they had got to lift themselves to heights unattainable by the opera; that to the relative value of music applied to the drama they had got to oppose an absolute or purely musical value, namely that whose character we have defined in treating of the fugue. Till then, however, the contrapuntists alone had been in a condition to afford an instrumental music intelligible without a programe, which was clear and significant through its own logic, which prudently economised its own stores, was continually shifting, and always consistent with itself. It was not possible, therefore, by following the steps of the theatrical composers, but only by adhering to the method of the fuguists, for the grand instrumental music to enter upon that astonishing career, at whose goal is found the overture to the Zauberflote, and in which the science of composition seems even to have reached its end. But how was the melodic style to attain to the rationality and the strict unity of the fugue, and yet preserve its independence, its charm, and the power and variety of its positive expression t Just there lies Haydn's secret.
Nothing in art, any more than in nature, forms itself by leaps and without some transition. Great classical masterpieces are always announced by some more or less brilliant beginnings, which have served to prepare the way for them. The application of the fugue method to expressive melody, or, in other words, the approximation of the two opposite extremes in music, offered
in the nature of the case an unlimited field, and more degrees of ascent than any one musician alone could traverse. Haydn was neither the starting-point nor goal of the style of instrumental composition which he brought to so high a pitch of perfection. Emanuel Bach was his immediate predecessor and his pattern; Boccherini was his competitor, and Gluck, who was some twenty years older than he, composed the overture to IphigeniainAulu at a time when he could owe Haydn nothing.
Gluck was, so far as I know, the first who wrote classical pieces for the orchestra in a style not fugued. By the term classical we understand here, as everywhere, works which are not perishable, to whatever species they may belong and whatever character they may bear. Even the Picciuists, in their arrogant contempt for instrumental music, confessed, without difficulty, that Italy possessed no instrumental master who could be compared with Gluck. They put a sort of pride in this confession. Every nation has its own peculiar genius, said Laharpe. To .the French, dramatic art; to the Italians, song; to the Germans, instrumental music: Suumcuigue/ Gluck's portion, though by far the humblest in the opinion of this Aristarchus, was, on the other hand, the clearest of the three, since the two others still disputed one another's claim. That of the French had already been disputed by the English and the Germans in behalf of Shakspere; that of the Italians by Gluck himself, who maintained that his tragic song was worth considerably more than theirs.
In the overture to Ipkigenia in Aulis, one of the true and oldest patterns of great instrumental music, we perceive but the first step in the imitation of the mode of treatment characteristic of the spirit of the fugue ; it limits itself to introducing unity and a clear meaning into the melodic work. Years have but added to the beauty of this masterpiece, which still sounds new to our ears! What a mournful sublimity in the introduction! what majestic grandeur iu the Allegro! how happily motived in a musical point of view, and how admirably adapted to the outline of the poem, is this mixture of warlike and pathetic thoughts, which uninterruptedly succeed and alternate with one another, as rapidly and closely as the waves of a rushing stream! Agamemnon's pride, Achilles' rage, Iphigenia's tears, all are expressed in it. And what makes the merit of the picture? The fact, that the emotions, to which the overture alludes, without individualizing them, express themselves, and could express themselves under the same forms on the stage. There is not a sentence in it, which resembles the vocal song ; not one, which seems to call the text to aid and make the programme necessary. Separate the overture from the opera, and let the hearer know nothing of the relations which connect them, and still the piece will preserve all the integrity of its musical signification. In intention it is applied music, in execution it is pure music. Nevertheless, what sort of critical remarks would the masterpiece of Gluck excite at this day? It would be objected to it, that it is too long, that is to say, rather monotonous. The overture to Don Juan is much longer, and no one ever finds it too long. The reason is, that Gluck, who dealt sparingly with his thought, reproduced it continually throughout the whole course of the work, after the manner of the fugists, and consequently made use in it of hardly any other principle than modulation. Such a means does not suffice in a work of this extent. Whether a phrase iu the tonic comes up again literally in the dominant, or vice versd, it still remains always the same phrase. The ear, which becomes accustomed to it in the new key, perceives no difference.
(To be continued.)
The Perfumed Letter-box.—"As lately," says the Leiptic Algemeine Theater-Chronik of 21st September, "Sir William Don was performing at Dresden, he underwent a little adventure, the sequel of which brought him to the lock-up house, where he remained until one hour before the commencement or a performance in which he had to take part. The patrol on the Neumarkt, it is said, caught him pouring some kind of liquid substance into one of the letter-boxes."—Our Leipsic Correspt.