who broke through the army of the Philis- | præ triginta ; and then the sense is clear, tines, and brought David water from the well that the three, who went down, were (not of Bethlehem. The Hebrew words are lite- three of the thirty captains, but) three, who rally tres ex (or præ) triginta caput; which were heads, or captains, over or above the last word may be rendered plurally. Our thirty. That this is the true meaning of English version renders the words, And three O'Djurn is farther evident from the same of the thirty chief, but this cannot be the expression applied to Benaiah, the second sense, because there were not thirty heads or captain in the second series; in verses the chiefsthere being thirty-seven, if we reckon 220 and 23d, These things did Benaiahall the mighty men; and there being but and had a name among the three mighty men; seven, if we reckon only those who were he was honourable above the thirty d'unen more honourable than the thirty, and to 7233, but he attained not unto the first three, whom alone the name of , head, is at the three captains of the first series. tributed; these being properly the Heads of The word 13" in Samuel being in all the the other thirty.

ancient versions, and seeming to improve The English translators seem to have been the propriety of the sentence, was probably sensible of an incorrectness; and therefore, read at first also in Chronicles; but the inin the margin, render the words, And the sertion or omission makes no material difthree captains over the thirty. This is much ference in the sense. The two next words nearer to truth than the former, but not are very different in sense, and yet very exact; because there were not three, but similar in sound and in the letters; and seven captains over the thirty. The LXX therefore we may fairly presume that one of (Alexand. and Vat.) render the words, Kal them has been corrupted from the other; kateßnoav Tpeus ato TWV Tplakovra, but very which has been so corrupted, is then the improperly. For if these heroes were three question. Now the phrase 137 be seems to of the mighty men in general, they must be corrupted, as those words never signify in have been three of the thirty-seven, and not the time of harvest throughout the Bible ; three of the thirty. But this version is very the phrases for that being 737 as in faulty in not translating the principal word Gen. xxx. 14; or 737 Opa as in Jer. L. 16; 2017, at least not in the Alexand. and Vat., or spa as in Prov. vi. 8. That the LXX though it is in the Ald. and Complut. could not read it in this sense is plain from copies; and very false, because the three, their translating it as a proper name; that went down, were not of the last thirty, Kaowap in the Alexandrian, Kao way in the but of the first seven; three of the more Vatican, and Kaowa in the Aldine copy; honourable ; and indeed the very three, that but after the time of the LXX the corrupmake the first series of generals.

tion settled into what now obtains; as is Josephus, after he had recorded the three evident from the later versions. first generals, Ιεσσαιμος, Ελεάζαρος, and On the contrary, the phrase 1907 by in Eeßas, speaking of this exploit, says, ol spels Chronicles is supported uniformly by all the av&pes OYTOI.—Lib. vii., cap. 12. Just so ancient versions, rendering the noun here the sacred historian mentions Jashobeam, the rock; which bears a proper relation Eleazar, and Shammah, as the generals of to the word cave just following it in the the first series, recording in what manner text. These two words are frequently each had particularly distinguished himself; mentioned together, the former as the and then adds this heroic action performed mountainous or upper part, and the latter as by them all together: after which, he the hollow part contained within the former: proceeds to the names of the second three ; which two were frequently found in the and none of the thirty are mentioned till mountainous parts of Palestine; and, on many verses afterwards.

account of the difficulty and danger of The Vulgate renders the words, Nec non access, were called the holds, or places of et ante descenderant tres, qui erant principes safe retreat from an enemy. Thus 1 Sam. inter triyinta. Here 70'yun is made properly xxiv. 1, David went up, and dwelt nijeda, to agree with YN (tria capita, or tres duces ), in the strong Holds of Engedi. 3 And Saul and this is true, because the title of On7 was went to seek David 13 "D upon the given only to the first seven, as before ob- Rocks; where we have the same preposerved. But inter triginta should have been sition preceding the same noun, as here in


4 s



,אל הצר 15




cap. 13.

,מצדה was also

וְדָוִד אָז בַּמְצוּדָה וּמַיָּב פְלִשְׁתִּים or rather) הצר fore safely conclude


that אָז בֵּית לָחֶם :

as it


Chronicles. 4 And he came where was a scenderunt tres ( ex triginta.) Nam triginta Cave itry; which cave was so large, that ex triginta nihil sententiæ habere potest. David with some of his little party lay con- ,

1 . , cealed in the inward recesses of it. Jose- vel 197, ad rupem, quæ scriptura Lud. phus calls it, ornalov Badu kai koidov, els Cappello placebat, nobis etiam placet; quia Trolu kal unkos avewyos kai adatos.- Lib. vi., locus hic notatur, ubi caverna erat Odollam.

...7: Græci Intt. Táyua, turina; legunt The case of Engedi then seems to have 50, quod omnino est legendum, nisi legitur been just the case of Adullam ; where there on, et castra, quomodo 1 Par. xi. 15.

, a strong hold, 1 Sam. Nam nm, bestia, aut bestia, scriptio non xxii. 4; and a cave nyo, 1 Sam. xxii. 1; ferenda. both which words are also mentioned here

Ver. 14. in Sam. xiv. and Chron. xvi. : we may there

, (! 7127) was here also the name for the rock of

: Adullam, and that it originally was so in Samuel as it is still in Chronicles. So that

και Δαυίδ τότε εν τη περιοχή, και το υπό7197 was first corrupted into 1937 (or, as Oteua Tậv å dopúlwv tóte èv BnOleép. Houbigant tells us the p was formerly

Au. Ver.-14 And David was then in an written 27, 7130) which was the form of it, hold, and the garrison of the Philistines was when the LXX rendered it Kaowap; and then in Beth-lehem.

Ken. 14 And David was then in the thence it was corrupted into 737, stands.

hold, and the advanced guard of the PhilisThe only remaining word to be considered tines was then at [naa, 1 Chron. xi. 16]

Bethlehem. here is n'm (see notes of Lee and Gesen, on ver. 11, p. 675), which in Chronicles is

Ver. 16. nor; and we may infer, that the corrup

Au. Ver.-He would not drink. tion is here also in Samuel. For it does not

Geddes, Booth.—But David [1 Chron. appear that it ought for certain to be ren

xi. 18] would not drink. dered a troop anywhere in the Bible; and it is never once rendered tayua by the LXX, male. Aut legendum , aut 139, ut

Houb.16 ; Masora o, de cisterna, but in this place : which therefore we may 1 Par. xi. 18 bis quidem hoc versu; semel suppose to have been corrupted from 173112, infra ver. 20. the regular word for a troop or host, and frequently occurring in Scripture : and indeed

Ver. 17.

same chapters but three verses afterwards. , to

, ? by rendering the word there castra, which

: . As to Rephaim, that was the name of the valley lying between

και είπεν, ίλεώς μοι κύριε του ποιήσαι Jerusalem and Bethlehem; the distance of τούτο, ει αίμα των ανδρών των πορευθέντων εν which two places, as Maundrell tells us, is ταις ψυχαίς αυτών πίομαι και ουκ ήθέλησε two hours' travel, p. 87, Edit. 4.

πιείν αυτό. ταύτα εποίησαν οι τρεις δυνατοί. The English version is, And there went Au. Ver.-17 And he said, Be it far from down three captains, who were over the me, O LORD, that I should do this: is not thirty, and came to the rock to David, into this the blood of the men that went in the cave of Adullam; and the host of the jeopardy of their lives? therefore he would Philistines was encamped in the valley of not drink it. These things did these three Rephaim.

mighty men. Houb.-13 Ili etiam tres ex triginta Ged.-17 For he said: “God preserve prima ail Davidem in rupem sub caverna me from doing so: shall I drink [1 Chron. Odollam descenderunt. Erant castra Phi- xi. 19, so Houb., Ken., Dathe, Booth.] the listæorum in valle Rephaim.

lifeblood of these men who have gone for it D'VSW 1777. Recte Masora viw, et de- at the risk of their lives?” &c.

וַיֹּאמֶר חָלִילָה לִי יְהוָה מְעֲשְׂתִי being the very word used in these sanne זאת הֲדָם הָאֲנָשִׁים הַהְלְכִים בְּנַפְשׁוֹלָם may be added

, that the Vulgate seems t8 וְלֹא אָבָה לִשְׁתּוֹתָם אֵלֶה עָשׂוּ שְׁלֹשֶׁת ,in this very place of Samuel מחנה have read הַגְבֹּרִים :

.never signifies היה

מאלהי חלילה לי

יהוה יהוה מעשתי the variation between the words

חלילה לי

.Sam ויאמר ;in Chronicles מאלהי מעשות in Samuel_and |



זאת .Sam מעשתי .Chron האלה אשתה בנפשותם כי

בנפשותם ההלכים .Chron

. | being sufficiently expressive of the person בנפשותם הביאום ולא אבה

ולא אבה .הלילה לי מעשות זאת ,saine words as here

.Chron לשתותם אלה עשו שלשת

.Sam לשתותם אלה עשו שלשת .Chron הגברים : .Sam הגברים :


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not this the blood, &c., then there must have 1 Chron. xi. 19; 2 Sam. xxiii. 17. been originally the pronoun 1997, or some79 Chron. thing else, to perfect the sentence.

As to . nwyr Chron. the last word of each may be right: for the

. pronoun is found added to an infinitive in .

the present manner, 1 Kings xxi. 3; though

such infinitive generally is without it, the Sam. pronoun immediately preceding the infinitive

. Thus in Gen. xliv. 17, we have the very Sam.

, . .

It does not appear, that o'tin is ever used

. in this solemn form of appeal to the Deity, : .

the word being constantly 717; as in 1 Sam. xxiv. 6; xxvi. 11; and i Kings xxi. 3. But

then the word 177 should have the mem preChron. Και είπεν Ιλεως μου

ο θεος

TOV fixed, as it is before obx; and as we find it Sam. Kai ELITEV Ιλεως μοι, Κυριε, TOV in the several instances just referred to. Chron. ποιησαι το ρημα

alpa This preposition is improperly omitted also Sam. ποιησαι

alua in some other places; as Joshua x. 13; and Chron. ανδρων τουτων

in this very chapter of Sam., v. 24 and 32. Sam. των ανδρων των πορευθεντων εν How the sacred name of Jehovah Chron. πιoμαι εν ψυχαις αυτων ; ev came to be exchanged into on God in this Sam. ταις ψυχαις αυτων πιoμαι. . place, may probably be owing to the superChron. ψυχαις αυτων ηνεγκαν αυτο: Και ουκ | stitious veneration the later Jews paid, and Sam.

Kas ouk do still pay to the name Jehovah (the nomen Chron. εβoυλετο πιεν αυτο. Tauta etolmoav ineffabile) which therefore they pronounced Sam. ηθελησε πιεν αυτο. Tavta eroinoav Adonai or Elohim. A Jew then, who was δυνατοι. .

dictating to a transcriber, reading Elohim in Sam.

this place instead of Jehovah, and not giving These two verses vary considerably; yet notice of such variation, the former word in such a manner, that we can easily see was set down instead of the latter: and they were originally the same. The present probably the same mistake has been made reading in Chronicles, in the middle of the in many other places. verse where the difference is greatest, is The original cause of this superstition exactly regular; and completely expressive (the not pronouncing the name Jehovah) of the wonder and surprise of David on probably was—that Jehovah was the name such an occasion : but the present reading of the God of the Jews, in contradistinction in Samuel is evidently broken, and wants to all the deities, or false gods of other all that spirited emphasis, which gives so nations; as being the name of the nemuch beauty to the other. That it is so cessarily-existent Deing. And the Jews, broken and defective is clear from the loss perhaps, had learnt at Babylon, amongst of the verb inox (bibam ) which is found in ather heathenish superstitions, to conceal the ancient versions, and therefore existed the true name of the God of their country, formerly in the original. And as the text to prevent its destruction. For the heathens of Samuel is plainly deficient in that verb, had very early a superstitious notion, that a so is it in many more words, which are country or city could not be taken, till the regular in the corresponding passage. tutelar god or presiding genius was invited

The participle oma seems foisted in by out of it, by invoking him in his real name, some transcriber, to make the passage sense, The Jews, finding this a sacred custom as it now stands ; but, even with that word, observed by other nations, absurdly adopted it is apparently incomplete, wanting still the the same precaution; and resolved, that the necessary word unen. Or, at least, if we true name of their God should also be a secret, could suppose the sense to have been—Is by declaring it unlawful to pronounce it,

Chron. οι τρεις

οι τρεις δυνατοι. .

וַאֲבִישַׁי אֲחִיו יוֹאָב בֶּן־צְרוּיָה הָוּא On which words Servius remarks

Romani ראשׁ הַשְׁלשָׁי וְהוּא עוֹרֵר אֶת־ celatum esse rotuerunt

, in cujus Dei tutela חֲנִיתוֹ עַל־שְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת חָלָל וְלֹוֹ־שָׁם :st

, we suis nominibus Di Romani appe בַּשְׁלֹשָׁה :

השלשה ק'

That such a custom did obtain in the (vid. ad Jos. vi. 26) iverunt i. e., num aquam world very early, is evident from those cele- bibam ab hisce viris cum vitæ periculo brated lines in Virgil; Æneid. 2, 351, &c. haustam? Excessere omnes, adytis arisque relictis,

Ver. 18. Dii, quibus imperium hoc steterat?

? voluerunt, ? urbs Roma sit; et jure Pontificum cautum

ne appel. ? larentur, ne exaugurari possent : et in Capitolio fuit clypeus consecratus - genio urbis Romæ, sive mas sit sive fæmina. Macro

και 'Αβεσσα ο αδελφός Ιωάβ υιός Σαρoυίας bius gives a whole chapter upon the words of the poet just cited, and says-De vetustissimo To Sópu autoù eni mpiakocious tpavparias

αυτός άρχων εν τοις τρισί, και αυτός εξήγειρε Romanorum more, et de occultissimis sacris

και αυτό όνομα εν τοις τρισιν. vox ista prolata est: constat enim omnes urbes in alicujus Dei esse tutela, moremque

Au. Ver.-18 And Abishai, the brother Romanorum fuisse, ut cum obsiderent urbem

of Joab, the son of Zeruiah, was chief hostium, certo carmine evocarent tutelares among three. And he lifted up his spear Deos : propterea ipsi Romani et Deum in against three hundred, and slew them (Heb., cujus tutelá urbs Roma est, ut (et) ipsius slain), and had the name among three. Urbis Latinum nomen ignotum esse volue

Ken.—18 And Abishai, the brother of runt; cavenlibus Romanis, ne quod sæpe

Joab, the son of Zeruiah, he was head of adversus urbes hostium fecisse se noverant, (an order of) three ; for he lifted up his idem ipsi quoque hostili evocatione paterentur. spear against three hundred soldiers (see -Lib. iii., cap. 9. This then being the notes on ver. 8, p. 667–673, and on i. 19, custom of the Romans at other sieges, and no p. 491]; so he had a name among three. such evocation having been practised at the

Ged.-18 Next to them was AbishẠI Ben siege of Jerusalem ; it is probable, that their Zervia, Joab's brother, the chief of the omission of that custom at a siege so re

second three. He brandishing his spear, markable was occasioned by their ignorance

broke through three hundred men; and of the true name of the God of Jerusalem.

hence had the first name among the second

three. The English version is—And he said, The Lord forbid, that I should do this thing !

Booth.18 And next to them was Abishai, Shall I drink the blood of these men, with the brother of Joab, the son of Zeruiah, the their lives ? (Shall I drink this water, which chief of the second three. For be, raising may be considered as the blood of these his spear, penetrated through three hundred men, who have brought it at the hazard of men; and had the first name, among the their lives ?) for, at the hazard of their lives

, second three. they have brought it !- And he would not

Ver. 19. drink it. These things did these three mighty Au. Ver.-19 Was he not most honour

able of three ? therefore he was their captain: Houb.-17 D'UN 077, Sanguinem homi- howbeit he attained not unto the first num ; vel addendum alterum 007, ut sit, three. ? ,

Ken.hoc faciam; hoc est sanguis hominum... vel

1 Chron. xi. 21; 2 Sam. xxiii. 19. addendum non, bibam, ut 1 Par. xi. 19, hoc modo, , ( O

. nem hominum istorum, qui periculo suo 723

. (iverunt) bibam ? Ita ut in vocabulo oin,

. sit 11 interrogans. Vide locum parallelum. ]

. Sententia imperfecta sed facili negotio sup- Chron. Amo TWV TPIWY UTEP TOUS duo evdogos, plenda : num sanguinem horum virorum sc. Sam. Ek

των τριών

ενδοξος, , bibam (IPWN 1 Chron. xi. 19, cf. G. Gr. Chron. Kai nu,

κ.τ.λ. ampl. p. 850), qui cum vitæ suæ periculo Sam. και εγενετο, κ.τ.λ.


absit a me ... ut ,הלילה לי...מעשתי זאת - זאת הרם

נכבד |

-num sangui) , בנפשותם אשתה


.Chron מן השלשה

.Sam מן השלשה .Chron ויהי וגו' .Sam ויהי וגו'

[. הֲדַס הָאֲנָשִׁים הַהלְכִים בְּנַפְשׁוֹתָם 17



אשר וְהוּא הִכָּה אֶת־אִישׁ מִצְרִי מַרְאֶה וּבְיַד הַמִּצְרִי חֲנִית וַיֵּרֶד אֵלָיי .has certainly been dropped out of the latter בַּשָּׁבֶט וַיִּגְאַל אֶת־הַחֲנִית מִן הַמִּצְרִי We evidently want one worthy of the second

וגו וַיַּהַרְגֵהוּ בַּחֲנִיתוֹ :

The only various reading here is, that Au. Ver.-20 And Benaiah the son of 27 in Samuel is in Chronicles D'wa; which Jehoiada, the son of a valiant man, of variation does not affect the sense, and there- Kabzeel, who had done many acts [Heb., fore both words may have been original. great of acts], he slew two lionlike men For, as Abishai has been proved to be the [Heb., lions of God) of Moab: he went first general of the second ternary, the sense down also and slew a lion in the midst of a is the same whether we say, Of the three was pit in time of snow. he not most honourable ? or, Of the three he Ken.—The word n is evidently defective, was more honourable than two. But, as the for want of the last letters, which is preancient versions do not acknowledge an served in Chronicles; and which is also interrogation in the first instance, and as the preserved in the margin of most editions in first instance is evidently corrupt in the Samuel, and in the text there of the ComLXX by reading exelvwv (which is extremely plutensian. The word 5ww in Samuel should improper, as his inferiors had not been yet be °[So Houb.] as in Chronicles; and, mentioned) it seems much more eligible to being compounded of 7x, leo and 5x, Deus, prefer the last reading, as in Chronicles; is used here as the strongest compound which is adapted with great propriety to the word for a man or men of valour (so most circumstances of the history. To which it commentators] : and this sense of the word must be added, that one of the Greek ver- is confirmed by Vitringa, in his excellent sions in Origen's Hexapla seems to have Commentary on Isaiah, vol. ii. p. 138. read dip in Samuel ; by rendering the Ged., Booth.20 And next to him was words there, υπερ τους δυο ενδοξος.

Benaiah, the son of Jehoiada (the son of a Ged., Booth.-19 Of the three, he was wealthy man of Kabzeel,) great in exploits. the most honourable, and became their He slew two huge lions of Moab : he went chief; yet he attained not the rank of the down also and slew another lion in the midst first three.

of a pit, in time of snow. 19 I greatly suspect that one worthy ha

Ver. 21. been here dropped out of the text both of

, .

w ternary ; unless with Kennicott we make him out of Ashael; which the text, I think, does not authorize us to do.–Ged.

Maurer.—19 227 73?? ??? Then p?] Fuit αυτός επάταξε τον άνδρα τον Αιγύπτιον, , enim (cf. vs. 18 ex) in honore apud tres illos, ävòpa opatòv, év Tân xeipi toù Alyurtlov eorumque duo fuit, sed usque ad tres illos non δόρυ ως ξύλον διαβάθρας και κατέβη προς pervenit, i. e., nec tamen eos æquavit, eis par aŭròv ev páßsw, kał jptrage dópu ék tñs fuit. ? interpositum est, ut sæpius, 17 vero, xeipòs Toll Aiyuttiov, kaì ånéktelVEV avròv év in quo explicando frustra laborarunt inter- το δόρατι αυτού, κ.τ.λ. pretes, non dubito ortum esse ex 17 præ- Au. Ver.-21 And he slew an Egyptian, cedenti.

a goodly man (Heb., a man of countenance, Ver. 20.

or, sight: called, 1 Chron. xi. 23, a man of

great stature]: and the Egyptian had a ?

spear in his hand; but he went down to him

? a ? ?

the Egyptian's hand, and slew him with his

own spear. :an bija man niņa reaans 22 These things did Benaiah the son of

Jehoiada, and had the name among three

mighty men. και Βαναίας υιός Ιωδαε ανήρ αυτός πολ

Ken.λοστος έργοις, από Καβεσεήλ, και αυτός

1 Chron. xi. 23; 2 Sam. xxiii. 21. επάταξε τους δύο υιούς 'Αριήλ του Μωάβ

karéßn kaì léovra év . μέσω του λάκκου εν τη ημέρα της χιόνος. .


איש קרי



בֶן־יְהוֹיָדָע בֶּן־אִישׁ חָי וּבְנָיָהוּ בֶן־יְהוֹיָדָע with a staf , and plucked the spear out of רַב־פְּעָלִים מִתַּבְצְאֵל הוּא הִכָּה אֶת־

שְׁנֵי אֲרָאֵל מוֹאָב וְהוּא יָרַד וְהִכָּה אֶת־הָאֲרִיךְ

הבר קרי

הארי קרי

היל קרי

.Chron והוא הכה את האיש המצרי | , kai airds kartan kai crdrais Tov Adovra


איש .Sam והוא הכה את

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