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qui preest ,מושל בירא האלהים Itaque legendum

other branch is cut off, flourishing for ever."| vel odis, vel no, non sine præpositione Such I take to be the import of this passage. antecedente. That " is used as an interrogative particle 3 ... 727.05 106, locutus est mihi, dixit ; see Nold. and Michaelis. Compare Isaiah adde alterum »s post 237, ne casu personæ xxxvi. 19, with 2 Kings xvii. 34. In the verbum 27 destituatur, postquam eo non Syr. and Chald. this signification is common. privatur verbum DN. Græci Intt. et Syrus -For with me.] This is the reason of his adjungunt os ad 27: Sed 737 vs non est confidence and hope.

Hebraicum, cum contra passim legatur 6 But lawless men.] Is there not here a 5 27. ...DTN DNT swa, dominans timorem reference, not only to the punishment of the Dei. Hoc parum intelligitur, quid sit dowicked in general, but to the lawless, minans timorem. Et ex antecedentibus, ubi wicked Israelites, who, when the just king legitur, dominans in hominem justum, satis should come, would not submit to his law? declaratur, alterum swis, dominans, requiThe metaphor in this view has peculiar rere subjectum, non timorem Dei, sed force and propriety. As thorns are cut up timentem Deum. Peccat in Grammaticam and burned with fire, in the place where 87', post som, sine ; præpositione, ut they grew, so shall these sinners be cut off liquet ex membro priore, in quo legitur 0 TN). and consumed in their own land.

Houb.-1 Hæc autem sunt novissima timenti Deum; ita Syrus, NST72 d'907, qui verba David. Dicit David filius Isai; dicit dominatur in timentes. vir, qui exortus est propter Messiam, Deum 4 7801, et sicut lux.

), Jacob, quique egregia fecit cantica Israel : sine ", cum Vulgato et cum Syro. Nam 2 Spiritus Domini per me locutus est, et sententia talis est; Deum dominari in sermo ejus mea in lingua fuit. 3 Deus hominem justum et in timentem Deum, Israel mihi locutus est; verba mihi fecit similiter ut sol præest diei ac luci, et ut Petra Israel, qui præest homini justo, qui imbres terræ proventibus. Eam sententiam præest timenti Deum; 4 Quomodo luces- demonstrat verbum ben, quod Gen. i. de cente mane sol oritur, et mane est splendidum sole usurpatur, diei dominante : Davide ac sine nubibus, quomodo post imbres humo docente, quomodo non sine sole adveniente nascitur herba virens. 5 Non ita erit de lux oritur, nec sine imbribus herba tellure domo mea cum Deo, ut statuat mecum fædus generatur, ita non sine Deo Israel illabente sempiternum, perque omnia ratum futurum et mentibus humanis olimque in orbem venturo, observandum; nam quancunque habui sa- esse posse in homine justitiam et Dei timolutein, et quæcunque ejus beneficia in me ...7099, ex pluvia, vel post pluviam. extiterunt, hæc non amplius revirescent. Nos, quomodo post imbres, addito quomodo, 6 Sed filii Belial tanquam spina omnes quia illud > similitudinis, quod est in 7195, est evellentur; quam nemo manu apprehendit. Åtrò koivov, utroque in membro. 7 Sed quam si quis attingere parat, palmam

: s. 'yon, voluntas erga ejus implet ferrum, aut hastile lancea, quæque me, vel beneficentia in me; nam ... . quomodo ad extremum igne comburitur.

Syrus, 1770, cura de me. Oinissum fuit 1 ...12"YTON IT'Un sy op 2017, Vir ille, qui ' prope > ob similitudinem. Legi etiam exortus est propter Messiam Deum Jacob. potest "zon, quomodo antea pw. Caput Nam David propterea exortus est, ut adum- est, ne affixum primæ personæ post-on braret Messiam futurum ; qui Messias dicitur omittatur, quoniam id non deest post ru”: Deus Jacob, ut pote is, in quem Jacob nam sine aftixo, nihil yon significabit. Ait speravit, qui et ejus diem, quomodo et David non sic fore domum suam, ut fædus Abraham, vidit et gravisus est. Licebat cum ea sempiternum Deus faciat, quemadconvertere, propter Messiam Dei Jacob. Sed modum fædere Dei sempiterno sol redit ac cum Deus Jacob sit ille ipse Messias, nihil lucet, et quomodo ex pluviis semper herba causæ erat, cur Deus a Messia distingueretur. generatur; nam non fore ut salus sibi facta ...nini o'y3), quique cgregia fecit cantica. regerminet : quasi dicat : Hæc finem habeSic habendum , tanquam O'D29 Partici- bunt, et domus ea una perpetua erit, quæ pium, quod respondeat alteri participio opa, erit ejus, qui dominatur in hominem justum. regatque nipi in accusandi casu. Ita rem Quibus verbis David præcavet, ne quæ in tractat Syrus, qui bour, suavia reddens; Psalmo lxxxix. dixerat, et thronus ejus, ut nam si d'us esset adjectivum, post legeretur sol, coram me, et similia in aliis Psalmis,

rem.

• כי Lege :חפץ כי 5

sura.

dicta sunt ? Dicit David
, filius reiterit by specie

, qui tamen h. 1. esset intelligenda,

Israelitæ de domo sua dicta esse credant, criticæ peritissimi reprehendunt male sedulain quæ quidam dixerat de altera domo David, curam corrigendi omnia, quæ duri quid aut seu Messiæ, in sempiternum tempus man- insoliti habere videantur. Multo magis ab

ea abstinendum putavi in hac pericopa, quæ, 6 soban, Et Belial. Nusquam legitur si quam habet in verborum constructione booba, nisi alteri nomini substantivo sub-duritiem, eam ab ipso auctore fortasse traxnixum, ut o'x, vir, 12, filius, fc. Nec erit, qui haud dubie jam ætate provecta hæc dubium, quin sit legendum, svoga 121, filii scripsit, qua solent homines concisius et abautem Belial. Nam id probatur ex verbis ruptius nonnunquam cogitata eloqui. ob et up, pluralibus, quæ verba de filiis b) Assentior interpretibus, qui putant, (139) efferuntur. Significat David eos filios non probabile videri, Davidem hæc in exBelial, qui jugum Messiæ olim detrectaturi trema senectute, quæ 1 Reg. i. describitur, sunt, quique olim, ut spina, futuri sunt in- scripsisse. Sed 777778 de re sequenti cum tractabiles, posteaque igne comburendi. respectu ad antecedentem quoque dicitur,

7 nawa: Græci Intt. aloxúvny aútāv, con- Exod. iv. 8. Igitur respicitur ad carmen fusionem eorum; legunt onus, ex radice præcedens, quo hoc fuit posterius. tona, qua ex scriptione assumendum affixum c) Hæc verba summam continent illius o, ut legatur onaws, in quiescendo illos, i. e., promissionis. Quam non de Salomone incum eorum finis advenerit ; quod nos ver- telligo, sed de Messia, Davidi promisso, timus, ad extremum.

quamcunque hic deo cognitionem habuerit. Dathe.-Carmen Davidis, in quo spem Nam Salomo non Ora son dici potuisset, suam testatur de adimplenda promissione sibi quoniam DTN absolute positum totum genus data futuræ perpetuitatis regni sui a). humanum notat, non populum aliquem in a posterius b)

vir nempe Israëliticus, cujus sum Salomo fuit, in loco sublimi constitutus, unclus ex volun- non aliorum et multo minus omnium. tate Dei Jacobitarum, suavis propter cantica d) ? pro 7, He interrogandi deficiente, Israëlitis usurpata. 2 Spiritus Jovæ per me uti sæpe, v. c. Genes. xlii. 33; 1 Sam. est locutus, ejus verbum super lingua mea. xxiv. 20; 2 Reg. xviii. 34; vid. Noldius 3 Promisit Deus Israëlitarum, mihi promisit sub num. 2. Interrogatio vero hæc eo immutabilis Israëlitarum Deus : Erit domi- fortius affirmat. Expressi in versione sennator in homines, c) justus erit dominator re- sum affirmativum, quoniam genio linguæ ligionem Dei propagans. 4 Ut lux matutina convenientius videbatur.

- Ultimum memoriente sale, ut tempore matutino non nubilo brum hujus versus eodem modo explico ?? a splendore solis post fluviam herba ex terra press, in quo interrogationem retinui. progerminat. 5 sic domus mea futura est d) e) Dah? pro ohz, inserto 17 parag. e projuvante Deo. Nam promissionem æternam nomine Da; vid. Schultens Institt. Ling. mihi dedit, definitam in omnibus, servandam. Hebr., p.

448. Num igitur salutem meam et omne desiderium f) nwa vel in sede sua, h. e., in eo loco, non promoveret ? 6 Impii vero omnes e) ubi crescunt, vel a nay, cessavit, nada, in erunt sicuti spinæ amovenda, quæ manu pre- fine, h. e., tandem. hendi non possunt. 7 Quas qui exscindere Maurer.—1 g 17 ???] Fuerunt qui vult, ferro aut hasta instructus accedit, interpretarentur de ultimo Davidis carmine, tandemque f) igne comburuntur.

quod sub finem vitæ composuerit. Sed a) Mirentur fortasse nonnulli, me in ver- recte monuit Dathius, ging de re sequenti tenda hac pericopa lectionem textus presse cum respectu ad antecedentem quoque dici secutum esse, et recentissimorum interpretum Ex. iv. 8. Igitur respici ad carmen præconjecturas, quibus difficultates removere cedens, quo hoc fuerit posterius. Top] annisi sunt, ei non substituisse. Sed quan- qui supra, i.e., in loco sublimi constitutus quam non nego, structuram verborum per es'. S poetice tanquam adverbium, ut nga, has emendationes tentatas fieri faciliorem, inf:a, Gen. xlix. 25, cf. 17, ib. xxii. 13. tamen fateor, me in hujus generis locis, lipning ;] i.e., suavis Israëlitarum quæ quidem difficilia sunt, sed tamen expli- poeta, propr. sunvis canticorum, i.e., lieblich cationem grammaticam admittunt, malle in durch Gesänge J. 3 Dixit Deus Israelis, hac acquiescere, quam ingenio indulgere. mihi dixit rupes, præsidium Israelis : erit, In scriptoribus quidem profanis viri artis / exsistet, prodibit (cf. vs. 4) justus in homines

VOL. II.

4 P

אֵלֶה הַגְבּרִים אֲשֶׁר ישב בַּאֲכֶת תַּחְכְּמֹנִי י רְאשׁ הַשָׁלֹשִׁי אָנאָך לא עבות אש וְלַה repetenda est

;
ut ante

9 הוּא עֲדִיכָוֹ הָעֶצְנֹו עַל־שְׁמֹנֶה מֵאֱוֹת ubi illam in versione , מִכֹּנָה ita etiam ante חָלָל בְּפַעַם אֶחָד :

בּקֶר לֹא Verba

IT:

אהת קרי

העצני קרי

dominator, dominator timens Deum. Sed | E. § 311. Verbum 107. impers. capitur. non vehementer repugnabo, si verba suurin 7 Qui voluerit tangere eas, implebitur, 121 DINI quarto casu vertere malueris : i.e., instruetur, se armabit ferro et hasta ; dixit promisit justum in homines domi-igne comburentur in sede sua, i.e., in eo loco, natorem cet. coll. Deut. vi. 3. 4— Et pro- ubi crescunt. Alii nav deducunt a nous, ut dibit ille quidem, ut lux matutina lucet, sol nasa sit in fine, tandem. oritur, lux matutina non nubila ; ut a splendore post pluviam herba ex terra proger

Ver. 8. minat. notat et quidem ut Ps. Ixviii

. 10 al. 777? N Dann nipa ng G. Gr. min., p. 80. Comparandi particula , et niap ,

y expressimus. Voc. nis non est nomen subst.

: sed infinitivus, qui progrediente oratione transit in verbum fin. m?!. niai propr. significant lux matutina, non

Ταύτα τα ονόματα των δυνατών Δαυίδ sunt ei nubes nip N53 , lur matulina Ιεβοσθε ο Χαναναίος άρχων του τρίτου εστίν sine nubibus, ut 1 Chron. ii. 30: 5 το πη» 'Αδινών ο 'Ασωναίος, ούτος εσπάσατο την 0!al. Ad postrema verba '21 min mente poupalav avtoũ étrì OKTakodious otpatióras supplendum est verbum progerminandi, quod cigánać. eo facilius potest suppleri, quoniam præ

Au. Ver.-8 These be the names of the cedens mi non solum de ortu lucis ad- mighty men whom David had : The Tachhibetur, sed etiam de plantis ex terra monite that sat in the seat, chief among the erumpentibus. Cf. voc. 777 al. In omnia captains [or, Joshebbassebet the Tachalia abierunt Michaëlis, Dathius, et reliqui, monite, head of the three]; the same was quos quidem inspicere licuit, omnes. Mi- Adino the Eznite: he lift up his spear (see chaëlis : wenn der M en anbricht, wird i Chron. xi. 11 and xxvii. 2] against eight die Sonne aufgehen, ein Morgen cet. quæ hundred, whom he slew (Heb., slain) at constructio nonnisi impeditum et hiulcum one time. sensum fundere videtur. Dathius in eo Pool.- Whereas there are some differences potissimum peccavit, quod comma 4 cum 5 ita between this list and that 1 Chron. xi., most copulavit, ut illud protasin, hoc apodosin of them are easily reconciled by these two efficiat. Cui structuræ manifesto repugnat considerations : 1 That nothing is more particula ? ab initio vs. 5 posita. 5 common than for one person to have divers Nonne enim sic futura est domus mea cum names. 2. That as some of the worthies Deo, i.e., juvante Deo? nam fædus sem- died, and others came in their steads; so piternum fecit mecum, definitum in omnibus, this must needs cause some alteration in the servandum ; omnem enim salutem meam et later catalogue, 1 Chron. xi., from this, omne desiderium meum nonne promovebit? which was the former. The Tachmonite, or, ? primum ab init. et sub fin. membri quarti Hachmonite, called Jashobeam, 1 Chronicles repetitum auget orationis gravitatem. Da- xi. 11, from his place; or, as here, Joshebthius ? primum cum quarto positum vult bassebet, i.e., as we render it, that sat in pro ?4, quod hic ne sensum quidem præ- the seat, i. e. was, under Joab, chief or preberet. Michaëlis verba Top NS maluit sident of the council of war, or lieutenant ab antecedd. dirimere et ad seqq. referre (locum tenens). The same was Adino : this

,

was his proper name. The Eznite ; so provenient. Cui interpretationi præter for- called, either from his family, or from the mam Hiph., quæ notat provenire facere place of his birth or education. He lift up obstat id, quod verba præcedentia prim? his spear ; which words are fitly supplied yon ?? eum sensum, quem dedit Mich., out of 1 Chron. xi. 11, where they are exnempe hunc: ille (deus) solus est omnis mea pressed. Or thus, he was above eight hunsalus et omne meum desiderium non ferunt; dred, i. e. he conquered them. So there is hoc enim esset '927 1725 177 vel certe 197 ? only an ellipsis of the verb substantive,

6 Impii vero omnes erunt sicuti which is most frequent. At one time; in spina ejicienda (72); nemo enim manu eas one battle. Object. But this man is said prehendet. 59259 Nomin, abs. De cara cf. to have slain only three hundred in 1 Chron.

impia non ,יַצְמִיהוּ בְלִיַּעַל legens יַצְמִיחַ וּבְלִיַּעַל pro

.וגו'

xi. 11. Answ. 1. Possibly he slew eight Chief among the captains.]

The prinhundred at one time, and three hundred at cipal commander, as I said, under Joab. another: whereof the former is related here, Who is not here mentioned, though he was as being most considerable; and the latter a great man, inferior to none of these ; but in the Book of Chronicles which supplies had stained himself by the base murder of many passages omitted in the former two great persons, Abner and Amasa. writings. 2. He slew three hundred with | Which some take to be the reason why he his own hands; and the other five hundred, had not the honour to be put into the numthough killed by his men, are said to be ber of those worthies who served David. slain by him, for he was the chief cause of The same was Adino the Eznite.] It is all their deaths; for he, by his undaunted thought he had two names, and was of the courage, killing three hundred, put the rest family of the Ezrites ; though Abarbinel to flight, who were easily slain by his will have his name to have been Adinosoldiers in the pursuit. 3. Some of the haezri. Hebrew writers affirm that these were two lle lift up his spear.] These words are distinct persons, being called by differing supplied out of 1 Chron. xi. 11. names; the one the father, and the other

Against eight hundred, whom he slew at the son, who succeeded his father, as in one time.] In that place of the Chronicles strength and valour, so also in his place of it is said he killed three hundred: that is, honour and trust.

after the slaughter he made in one battle of Bp. Patrick.There is a list of these eight hundred; but killed in another (as mighty men in 1 Chron. xi. very different Kimchi understands it) three hundred. from this in several things. But Abarbinel Ken.thinks that it creates no difficulty, if we do 1 Chron. xi. 11 ; 2 Sam, xxiii. 8. but observe, that there he distinguishes them

. into three classes : those that had always ;

. , .

; . after he was made king of all Israel. All whose memories were fit to be preserved : but here, in this book, the Divine writer 13979 1977

.

. heroes, who were always with him in his

Sam. wars; and for whose sake he composed the precedent song of praises to God.

: . The Tachmonite that sat in the seat.] Or,

: . as it is translated in the margin, « Josheb-| Chron. Και ουτος ο αριθμος των δυνατών του boshebat the Tachmonite; for so he is Sam. Ταυτα τα ονοματα των δυνατών του called in 1 Chron. xi. 11, Ishobeam; which Chron. Aavid. Ießaqu vios Axapavi tporomay well be thought the same name abbre-Sam. Δαυιδ: Ιεβοσθαι ο Χαναναιος, αρχων viated. He “sat in the seat” (as we Chron. TOKOS, TWv tplakovta. OUTOS eoTagato translate it here) in the council of war ;

Sam. του τριτου (αυτος) εστιν. . . Αδεινων next to Joab: being, it is thought, his lieu-Chron. my poupacav avtov aTag etl Tpuatenant-general. For that he was one of the Sam. ο Ασωναιος, , Sanhedrin, who sat in the seat of judgment, Chron. Koglous tpavmatias ev kaipw evi. as some would have it, is not probable : Sam. κοσιους τραυματιας εισαπαξ. . though it is likely these were men of great The present English Version. wisdom as well as valour: and this man Chron. And this is the number of the being called a Chachmonite, Abarbinel thinks Sam. These be the names

of the it was because he was a man of learning, Chron. mighty whom David had ; being given to study as well as fighting; for Sam. mighty men whom David had; in Hebrew the word chacham signifies a wise Chron. Jashobeam Hachmonite, man : as this was no question in military Sam. The Tachmonite that sat in the seat, affairs, if not in affairs of state, and other Chron, the chief of the captains : sorts of wisdom.

Sam. chief among the captains, (the same

.Cliron ואלה מספר הגבורים אשר שמות הגברים אשר | been with him

;

and they that came to him .Sam אלה .Chron לדויד ישבעם בן חכמוני to Ziklag

,

a little before he was made king of .Sain לדוד ישב בשבת תחכמני ,Judah

;
and they that came to him to Hebron
.Chron ראש השלושים הוא עורר

השלשי
.Sam ראש

שלש מאות | intended only to mention the most excellent .Chron את חניתו על

מאות
העצנו על שמנה
.Chron חלל בפעם אחת :
.Sam חלל בפעם אחד :

ETTL OKTA

men

an

he

Chron. lift up his spear against 300 was yet one hero remaining to be accounted Sam. was Adino the Eznile) against 800 for. See Sam. ix. 17, 18, 19, 22, 23; and Chron. slain (by him) at one time.

Chron. xii. 15, 20, 21, 24, 25. Now the Sam. whom he slew at one time.

most rational and certain method of inThe catalogue of David's mighty men in vestigating the truth of these positions, and Samuel coincides with the catalogue in Chro- discovering the difference of rank among nicles, at this 11th verse; and in this one these thirty-seven heroes, is, to see first who verse (so contradictory in the two chapters, are properly the thirty, so frequently menand so remarkably defective in that of tioned in a body, and celebrated only by the Samuel) there are more difficulties than in name of om1227, the mighty men. almost all the other verses united. Here Here then we shall find, that there are then it will be necessary to make several exactly thirty enumerated after Asahel, the observations, and those of some considerable brother of Joab, Sam. xxiv. And from the length; especially, as the right understand- thirty upward we meet with six names, ing this one place will lead us easily to the which are Jashobeam, Eleazar, Shammah, true sense of many others, which would be Abishai, Benaiah, and Asahel; to which in else extremely difficult.

Chronicles is prefixed (as before observed), 1. That the words of this verse, and of Joab the captain-general, who certainly is the verses following in these two chapters, considered as the first and chief of David's originally contained the same senseno one mighty men. can doubt who has at all considered them, Let us now see, how the notion of a divior will at any time carefully compare them. sion of the next six into a double series of And hence it will follow, that, however dif- three is supported by the history. And here ferent a word, or words, or the manner of (without rectifying at present some corrupted expression may be in some verses of these numbers on this subject) let us only observe, two chapters (as it evidently is in many) yet that in Chron. xx. it is said of Abishai, He the sense must have been, and should be still was head of three, i.e. (as in the next verse, the same in both places; and where the very remarkably)—Of the three he was more sense is not now uniform, but manifestly con- honourable than two, therefore he was their tradictory, one of the two places must have captain; but yet he attained not unto the been corrupted.

three, i. e., not unto the three, which had 2. The next observation, which is of great been mentioned just before him; and were importance to the truth of the history before superior in honour, as they had been in us (and seems necessary to be established merit. antecedently to any farther inquiries) con- Again, it is said of Benaiah, who was next cerns the exact number, and the superior or under Abishai (and therefore the second of inferior rank of these celebrated warriors. the second ternary), Sam. xxii; Chron. xxiv.,

As to the nu er, we are expressly assured these things did Benaiah, and had a name in Samuel, ver. 39, that they were thirty and among three ; and then, in the next words, seven in all. But then, how to make out he was more honourable than the thirty, but this number by a particular detail of the he attained not unto the three, i.e., the three several worthies in their order, has been the generals mentioned before Abishai, and subject of much disquisition, but does not superior to Abishai and himself. Now as appear to have been yet properly determined. Abishui, Joab's brother, was at the head of In both Samuel and Chronicles we fre- three, and Benaiah next under him was one quently have thirty of these thirty-seven of three; there must follow a third man to mentioned together, as a fixt and well-known complete this ternary: and the next man body of them, which were celebrated only being Asahel, another brother of the captainby the general name of mighty men. See general, we must conclude (as there is no Sam. xiii. 23, 24; Chron. xv. 25. And in other mentioned) that he was the third both chapters we have also frequent mention general of the second series, especially as of the number three ; and sufficient reason he was evidently not one of the body of thirty, for concluding, that the remaining seven there being thirty expressly named after were divided into a double ternary, or two him. ranks different in dignity, and each rank If then Abishai, Benaiah and Asahel concontaining three heroes : consequently there stituted a second ternary of heroes, who

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