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culture, to formation of habits of attention, of diligence, of reading, command of the faculties, and of regular and constant application. Of course, it is of no little importance what the inaterial of study is; but much more is the intellectual discipline which it furnishes. In the university, on the other hand, the great concern is the subject-maiter of study. The student, it is presumed, has already the necessary training, and is now seeking clear and classified information for bis life's work.
Conversation, or examination, or making of abstracts, should always accompany a course of lectures for instruction, as helpful, if not indispensable to the certifying, digesting, and assimilating of the instructions received. Taking of notes during the time of listening to a lecture is an interruption, and granted only to defective memory. It were better to grasp the whole discourse as a unit, by one continuous effort of attention, and write the notes after returning to one's room; but that demands an excellence of memory too rare to admit of its being recommended as a rule; and to learn to take notes with facility and without embarrassment of attention, is an attainment valuable for life.
Upon the whole, the great aim of the university is to instruct, promote, and direct professional enterprise. The school is a system of constraints; the college of mixed constraints and inducements, designed to guide, to correct independent action. The university is a commonwealth of minds already committed to their own responsibility. Neither school nor college have properly any professional bearing; the university is entirely professional.
They are the studies of the university which have no natural termination. The work of the school comes to an end when its pupils are adequately prepared for college; the work of the college ceases when its classes are properly qualified to take up the studies of the university ; but the work of the university initiates men into that career which, as long as they are useful to the world, has no end. Up to the close of their college course youth receive education for their own sake; in the university they are to learn how to be useful to others. And although that end may be attained by many
different ways, yet fundamentally it lies in the right directing of enterprise, and toward the forming of public sentiment accordingly, and through the channel of professional effort.
The best service a man can render his fellow-men is generally in the line of his profession ; but there is also an indefinable influence for good or evil wielded by every respectable professional man, through his intercourse with society, and which increases in power and extent with his professional success. Consequently the common duty belonging to all educated men is that of guiding public sentiment aright; that is, in a manner conducive to the good order of community, to the support of enlightened enterprise, and the cause of God, peace, and good will among men.
By profession, in these remarks, we would not be understood to mean only medicine, law, and theology, but every learned occupation, demanding, for true success in it, a basis of liberal culture.
One of the things which it belongs to the college to teach, is the reliability of truth; that there are principles trustworthy and eternal, many of which can be known indubitably, and ought to be so known by all educated men. This position should be abundantly sustained from every branch of science, that the young mind may be well fortified in regard to it. Immense evil has been done by the false dictum, so often repeated, that nothing can be known for certain. It puts the mind in a state of universal scepticism, defeating all the most valuable ends of education. It is chiefly with a view to the inculcation and full exposition of this doctrine that the precise sciences should be taught in college. The fuller study of mathematics belongs to the engineer or astronomer, and accordingly to university work; the minute study of chemistry belongs to the professions founded thereupon, but their fundamental principles ought to be well enough explained and substantiated for yonth in college, to establish in their minds conviction and confidence in their reliability. A minuteness of instruction, beyond the demands of this purpose, is out of the proper line of college work, and belongs to the university.
At the same time, to prevent the evil of confidence in the the wrong place, the bounds of actual knowledge ought also
to be set forth, and the vagueness of conjecture, where nothing but conjecture exists, should be distinctly set over against positive knowledge, where that exists. How to test the credible and distinguish its features, and what features mark any thing as incredible, is a point essentially belonging to the same connection.
For such purpose was geometry employed by the Greeks, and law by the Romans. Law, studied as a profession, is out of place in a college course; but law, to all the extent of inculcating the reality of the great principles of civil order, is one of the most valuable instruments at the disposal of liberal education.
A good college education may as properly be laid out upon a youth destined to be a merchant, or a farmer, or a tradesman, as upon one who has a view to a learned profession. The difference is only that the liberal professions demand, if not by rule, by the nature of the case, previous attaininent in college studies, and other occupations do not so demand it. There can be little doubt, however, that all the respectable occupations of human life would be better conducted if in the hands of liberally educated men. But that implies a breadth of culture extending to all the studies prior to, and independent of, the particular professional training. Most industrial pursuits depend upon science. But an education containing nothing but science is not a liberal one. It cultivates only a part of a man, and that the harder part, which it hardens. There can be no liberal culture without art: and the most available of all arts for the purpose is that of literature.
The work of Professor Porter, of Yale College, the name of which stands at the head of this article, is a defence, and a very able defence, of the system and methods pursued in the oldest and best American colleges. Commencing with an historical review of the rise and progress of the existing agitation on that subject, the author takes up the line of argument, as before the bar of the American public, and discusses the studies of the regular course, in comparison with those now recommended as better ; the enforcement of fidelity in study, as compared with greater license; the evils of the college sys
ART. IX.--NOTICES OF RECENT PUBLICATIONS.
Manual of Historico-Critical Introduction to the Canonical Scriptures of
the Old Testament. By Karl Freidrich Keil. Translated from the Second Edition, with Supplementary notes from Bleek and others, by George O. M. Douglas, D. D., Professor of Hebrew and Old Testament Exegesis in the Free Church College, Glasgow. Vol. II., 8vo, 435 pp. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark. New York: Scribner,
Welford & Co. An Introduction to the New Testament. By Friedrich Bleek. Edited
by Johannes Friedrich Bleek. Translated from the German of the Second Edition, by the Rev. William Urwick. Vol. II., 8vo, 426 pp.
Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark. New York: Scribner, Welford & Co. The introductions of Keil and Bleek have, from the date of their appearance, been esteemed the best and most serviceable manuals of the kiud in Germany, where criticism and exegesis are prosecuted with a thoroughness, acuteness, and learned research unknown elsewhere. These works, which are indispensable to one who would acquaint himself with the latest and best results of Scriptural investigations, are now, by the publication of their second volumes, made entirely accessible to English readers.
The respective merits of these introductions, and the general character of the translations, were sufficiently stated in our notice of the preceding volumes. Keil and Bleek have both proceeded upon the idea which, since Reuss, has been the prevailing one in Germany, of regarding introduction under the aspect of the literary history of the Bible. This gives to the subject a unity and scientific precision which it did not possess before, though it still leaves the true position of some important topics in doubt. With some minor diversities of arrangement, however, the plan pursued by both is the same. One of the most striking and obvious results of this method is the inversion of the order pursued in all the old introductions, by placing the special before the general portion of the subject. The questions of the canon and the text, the manuscripts, versions, etc., are postponed until the origin and character of each individual book has first been investigated. This may accord better with the historical order, but it is, in our judgment, of doubtful advantage in a text-book for theological classes.
In regard to some of the books of the New Testament, Bleek arrives at con. clusions differing from the belief now currently entertained, though he does not, except in a single instance, pass beyond the limit of the doubts allowed in the early church, and mentioned, if not entertained, by some of the ablest and sound. est of the fathers. He is disposed, with Eusebius, to discriminate among the books of the canon, and, while not venturing to exclude any from it that are now received, and still less inclined to admit any that are now excluded, he is of opinion that those books regarding whose canonicity no doubt has ever been expressed, and which have from the beginning been received without a discord.
had already become eminent in his own communion. His book betrays an inquisitive, earnest, and impassioned mind, endowed with considerable learning, culture, and elegance, and master of a style of more than average force, beanty, and point. Dr. Stone's characteristics, surroundings, and antecedents, invest bis conversion to Romanism with unusual interest, and render his book one of the most plausible and effective pleas for the church of his adoption which has issued from an American pen. But if such a writer fails as to the material issues involved, his plea only weakens what it aims to support.
Mr. Bacon's tract is not so much a direct sifting or refutation of the reasonings in this book, as a positive, derisive, and irrefutable demonstration of the impossibility of obtaining the assurance of salvation of which Dr. Stone is in quest, according to the institutions, dogmas, and methods of the Romish Church. It is a very apt and trenchant application of logic, humor, satire, to a case which well deserves this incisive and caustic treatment. The pivot on which Dr. Stone's plea turns is that of Papal infallibility. With this his whole argument stands or falls. If he is successful in establishing that, of course he proves it the duty of all to submit to the Roman pontiff. Failing of this, he fails altogether.
The Papist and Protestant agree that we need an infallible guide in religion. But the latter insists that God's Word, the former, that the church, through its hierarchy or some order or council or person thereof, is this infallible guide. Dr. Stone, the Vatican Council, and all ultramontanes maintain that this infallibility vests in the Pope primarily and exclusively, as the head of the church. We hold that all members of the true church, which is Christ's body, i. e., all real Christians and saints know infallibly all truths essential to salvation, because they find them asserted in the Scriptures, upon the authority of God. IIis voice they hear, and will not follow a stranger. This results from their being guided by the Holy Spirit whose anointing makes them to know all things essential to salvation; that they are the truth and no lie, and that no lie is of the truth. 1 John ii. 20-27.
But how do we know the Scriptures to be the word of God ?