Before proceeding to trace the similarity of these books, it is, however, proper to observe that they exhibit three widely different, yet equally appropriate modes of style; which, for the sake of distinction, may be termed the narrative, the argumentative, and the mystical styles. The first is nearly confined to the gospel, and the third to the apocalypse ; while the second pervades a large portion of the gospel, and almost the whole of the epistles. The narrativo style of John is remarkable, even among the historical books of Scripture, for its perspicuity and vivacity. The several events are depicted in a manner singularly graphic and circumstantial, showing the author to have been an eye witness of the occurrences which he relates, yet without prolixity or redundancy. Like the personages of a drama, the parties concerned are, as far as possible, made to express their own thoughts and sentiments; the writer usually restricting himself to the province of noting the time, place, and other particulars necessary to the right understanding of the transactions described, and occasionally interposing a remark naturally suggested by the facts which he records. The argumentative style seems to have been borrowed from Christ bimself, by whom, as well as by other religious teachers, it was often used, when the demonstration of important truths was pertinaciously resisted by ignorance, prejudice, or hostility. Assuming the character of mathematical exposition, it developes trains of close but simple reasoning, intermixed with axioms and definitions; and proceeds by slow but certain steps to distinct and unavoidable conclusions. The mystical style, which in some respects agrees with the narrative, of which it is, indeed, merely a variety, corresponds to that employed in other prophetical and visionary parts of Scripture, to an extent which implies that they were all dictated by the same Spirit. It evinces a mind, not only elevated by inspiration, but also improved by reflection and practice, and furnished in consequence with an affluence of words and ideas collected, as it were, from all quarters, to represent the vast and transcendant subjects of which it treats.

In comparing the several writings ascribed to the apostle John, these distinctions must be kept in view, more especially with regard to the apocalypse, the peculiar nature of which accounts for the peculiarity of its composition, and for its smaller analogy with the other books; although there is still sufficient resemblance among them to prove that they all proceeded from the same author. The fact will be established by collating from each a few passages, wherein a similarity of matter and style scarcely to be paralleled elsewhere seems to admit of no other conclusion. For this

purpose it will be sufficient to compare the gospel alternately with the epistles and the apocalypse, on the principle that two objects which agree with a third, agree, also, with each other. The genuineness of the second and third epistles was at an early period disputed, and by some churches disallowed; but, independently of their identity of character, which will now in like manner bé evinced, their very brevity and comparatively small importance are in favour of their canonical authority; since, had it not been well ascertained that they were written by an apostle, their intrinsic value would scarcely have procured for them a place in the sacred volume. COLLATION OF PASSAGES, SHOWING THE MUTUAL RESEM


SECOND EPISTLE OF JOHN. iv. 1. Many false prophets have 7. Many deceivers have gone forth gone forth into the world. 2. By this into the world, who do not acknowledge ye know the Spirit of God. Every Jesus Christ as having come in the spirit which acknowledgeth Jesus flesh. Christ as having come in the flesh is from God; 3. and every spirit which doth not acknowledge Jesus is not from God. And this is the [spirit] Such a one is the deceiver and the of Antichrist, which ye have heard is Antichrist. to come, and [which] is even now already in the world. *



II. 22. Who is the liar but he who denieth that Jesus is the Christ? Such a one is the Antichrist, who denieth (both] the Father and the Son.

23. Whosoever denieth the Son holdeth 9. Whosoever transgresseth, and not the Father. [He that acknow- continueth not in the doctrine of Christ, ledgeth the Son holdeth the Father holdeth not God. He that continueth also.] Also John v.22,23; XII. 44, 45; in the doctrine of Christ, such a one XIII. 20.

holdeth both the Father and the Son.

THIRD EPISTLE OF JOHN. 1. The elder to the elect Cyria, and 1. The elder to the beloved Caius, her children, whom I truly love. whom I truly love.

4. I rejoiced greatly to find (some] 4. I have no greater joy than to of thy children walking in truth. hear that my children walk in truth.

12. (Although I] have many things 13. I had many things to write, but to write to you, I have not chosen (to do not choose to write to thee with pen communicate them] by paper and ink, and ink. for I hope to come to you, and to con- 14. I hope, however, shortly to see verse face to face, that our joy may be thee, when we shall converse face to complete.



EPISTLES OF JOHN. 1. 1. In the beginning was the 1 John 1. 1. That which was from Word, and the Word was with God, the beginning, which we have heard, and the Word was God. 2. He was which we have seen with our eyes, in the beginning with God.

which we have contemplated, and our

hands have handled concerning the 4. In him was life, and the life was living Word : 2. For the life was the light of men.

manifested, and we saw [it,) and tesun. 11. I most truly tell thee that tify, and declare to you that eternal life I say what I know, and testify what which was with the Father, and was I have seen.

manifested [to us :) 32. What he hath seen and heard 3. That which we have seen and that he testifeth.

heard we declare [to you.] * Several variations from the authorized version, observable in this and other passages, are derived from Griesbach's edition of the Greek Testament, in 2 vols. 8vo. Lond. 1809.



EPISTLES OF JOHN. XXI. 24. This is the disciple that 3 John 12. (Honourable) testimony testifieth concerning these things, and is rendered to Demetrius by all men, wrote these things, and we know that and by the truth itself; and we, also, his testimony is true.

bear testimony, and ye know that our (Also v. 32 , and XIX. 35.)

testimony is true. xv. 11. These things I have spoken 1 John 1. 4. These things we write to you, that my joy in you may con- to you, that your joy may be complete. tinue, and [that] your joy may be complete.

(Also 111. 29; xvi. 24; and XVII. (Also 2 John 12.) 13.)

XIV. 16. I will request the Father, 11. 1. If any one sin, we have a and he will give you another advocate, righteous advocate with the Father, to continue with you for ever.

(even] Jesus Christ. 1. 29, 36. Behold the lamb of God, 2. And he is an atonement for our which taketh away the sin of the world. sins, and not for ours only, but for

(those,] also, of the whole world. III. 16. For God so loved the world IV. 9. By this was manifested the as to give his only begotten Son, that love of God towards us; that God sent whosoever believeth on him should not his only begotten Son into the world, perish, but have eternal life.

that we might live through him. 17. For God sent his Son into the 10. Herein is love; not that we world, not to condemn the world, but loved God, but that he loved us, and that through him the world might be sent his Son [as] an atonement for saved.

our sins. (Also 1. 34.)

(Also 14.) 1. 26. I baptize with water; but in V. 6. This is he that came by water the midst of you standeth (one) whom and blood, [even] Jesus Christ; not ye know not 33. This is he with water only, but with water and that baptizeth with [the] Holy Spirit. blood; and the Spirit beareth testi

mony, because the Spirit is the truth. 11. 36. He that believeth on the 12. He that hath the Son halla Son hath eternal life; but he that re- life: He that hath not the Son of God jecteth the Son shall not see life, but hath not life. the wrath of God abideth on him.

xx. 31. These things have been 13. These things I have written to written, that ye may believe that Jesus you, that ye may know that ye who is the Christ, the Son of God; and believe on the name of the Son of God that believing ye may have life by his have eternal life.

(Also vi. 47.)

XVII. 3. This is eternal life; that 20. We are in the true (God, even] they should know thee the only true in his Son, Jesus Christ. This is the God, and Jesus Christ whom thou true God, and eternal life. hast sent.

xv. 18. If the world hate you, ye 111. 13. Wonder not, my brethren, know that it hated me before you.

if the world hate you. 19. If ye were of the world, the IV. 5. They are of the world. On world would have loved its own; but, this account they speak of the world, because ye are not of the world, but I and the world heareth them. have chosen you out of the world, on this account the world hateth you.

(Also 1. 10–13; viii. 44; xvi. 33; (Also n. 1, 10; and v. 4.) and xvii. 14.)

xiv. 15. If ye love me, keep my II. 3. By this we are assured that commandments.

we know him, if we keep his commandments.


VOL. I. N. s.

4 L


my word.

EPISTLES OF JOHN. xiv. 21. He that hath my command- 1 John v. 3. For, this is the love of ments and keepeth them, he it is that God, that we keep his commandments. loveth me. 23. If a man love me, he will keep 2 John 6. This is love, that we

walk according to his commandments. (Also xv. 10.)

(Also 1 John 11. 5.) xv. 12. This is my commandment, 1 John 11. 11. For, this is the mesthat ye love one another, [even] as I sage



have heard from the behave loved you.

ginning, that we should love one an

other. v. 24. I most truly tell you

that 14. We know that we have passed he who heareth my word, and believeth from death to life, because we love the him that sent me,

hath passed

brethren. from death to life.

xv. 13. None hath greater love than 16. Herein we perceive love, in that this, that a man should lay down his he laid down his life for us, and we life for his friends.

ought to lay down (our) lives for the

brethren. 1. 18. No one ever saw God. The

IV. 12. No one ever beheld God. only begotten Son, who is in the bosom If we love one another, God dwelleth of the Father, he hath made [him] in us, and his love is completed in us. known.

XIII. 34. A new commandment I 11. 7. [My] beloved [brethren,] it give you, that ye should love one an- is not a new commandment that I other, that, as I have loved you, ye write to you, but an old commandalso should love one another.

ment which ye had from the beginning. 8. Again, a new commandment I write

to you. (Also 35; and vir. 42.)

(Also iv. 11, 21; and 2 John 5.) 1. 5. The light appeared in the dark- 1. 5. God is light, and in him is no ness, but the darkness did not admit darkness at all. it.

9. The true light, which enlight- 11. 8. The darkness is passing away, eneth every man, was coming into the and the true light now appears. world.

XII. 35. Yet a little while the light 11. He that hateth his brother is in is among you. Walk, while ye have darkness, and walketh in darkness, the light, lest darkness come upon and knoweth not whither he is going, you. And he that walketh in dark- because the darkness bath blinded his ness knoweth not whither he is going. eyes.

(Also 46 ; and III. 19; VIII. 12; (Also 9, 10; and 1. 6, 7.) IX. 5; XI. 9, 10.) COLLATION OF PASSAGES, SHOWING THE MUTUAL RESEM.


APOCALYPSE OF JOHN. 1. 14. The Word became incarnate, XIX. 12. His eyes (were] like a and dwelt among us, full of grace and flame of fire, and on his head (were] truth; and we beheld his glory, a many diadems. He bore a name inglory as of the only begotten of the scribed which none knoweth but himFather.

self, 13. and (was] clad in a robe dipt in blood, and his name is called, The

Word of God. 29, 36. Behold the lamb of God, v. 6. And I saw in the midst of the which taketh away the sin of the throne ... a lamb standing, as world.

[if it had been] slain, &c.

(Also 9; and xii. 11.)




APOCALYPSE OF JOHN. XIX. 33. On coming to Jesus, as they 1. 5. To him that loveth us, and saw that he was already dead, they washed us from our sins in his own did not break his legs; 34. but one of blood, .6. [be] glory, &c. the soldiers pierced his side with a 7, Behold, he cometh with clouds, spear, and immediately there came and every eye shall see him, and they, forth blood and water.

[also,] who pierced him. 37. Another scripture saith, “ They xvi. 3. And the second angel empshall look on [him

whom they tied his bowl on the sea, and it bepierced [to the heart.”]

came blood, like [that] of a corpse.

(Also vii. 14.) III, 29. He that hath the bride is

XX1. 9. And one of the seven angels the bridegroom.

came and talked with me, saying, Come, [and] I will show thee the

bride, the wife of the lamb. 11. 19. Jesus answered them, De- 22. And I saw not any temple stroy this temple, and in three days I therein, for the Lord God who ruleth will raise it up.

.... 21. But he over all and the lamb are its temple. spake concerning the temple, his body.

XIV. 1. Let not your heart be dis- 3. Behold, the tabernacle of God turbed : Trust in God, trust also in [is] with men, and he will dwell with

2. In my Father's house are them, and they will be his people, and many mansions. Had it not [been God himself will be with them, [as] so,] I would have told you. I go to their God. prepare a place for you.

xx. 17. I ascend to my Father and 1. 5. To him that loveth us, your Father, to my God and your 6. and hath made us a royal priestGod.

hood to his God and Father, to him

[be] glory, &c. xiv. 23. If a man love me, he will 11. 20. Behold, I stand at the door keep my word; and my Father will and knock. If any man hear my love him, and we will come to him, voice, and open the door, I will enter and make an abode with him.

in, and sup with him, and he [shall

sup] with me. (Also 1. 9; and viii. 12.)

(Also vi1.15; XXI. 23; and xxii. 5.) IV. 13. Whoso drinketh of this vii. 16. They shall not hunger any water will thirst again, 14. but whoso more, nor thirst any more, neither shall drinketh of the water which I shall the sun injure them, nor any heat; give him will never thirst again ; but 17. for, the lamb that is in the midst the water which I shall give him will of the throne will tend them, and lead become within him a well of water, them to living fountains of waters, and springing up to eternal life.

God will wipe away all tears from VII. 37. On the last day, the great XXI. 6. To him that thirsteth I will [day] of the festival, Jesus stood, and freely give of the fountain of the water proclaimed, saying, If any one thirst, of life. let him come to me, and let him that

XX11. 17. The Spirit and the bride believeth on me drink. 38. As the say, Come; and let him that heareth Scripture hath said, “Out of his belly say Come; and let him that thirsteth shall flow rivers of living water.”

Whosoever will, let him freely

take the water of life. vi. 48. I am the bread of life. 49. 11.7. To him that overcometh I will Your fathers ate the manna in the wil- give to eat of the tree of life, which is derness, and died. 50. This is the in the paradise of God. bread which cometh down from heaven, 17. To him that overcometh I will that any one may eat thereof, and not give of the hidden manna. die. (Also 31, 32,58 ; and x. 2—4.) (Also xiv. 4; and xxII. 1.)

their eyes.


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