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CASTLE OF HOIIENTW1EL.

superior officer, "faithful found amongst the faithless," protested against the execrable sacrifice of martial honour, and refused to it the sanction of his name. It was in this manner, and whilst Massena in Italy, by his heroic defence of Genoa, was displaying an example worthy of a better cause, that men entrusted with the keys of Germany, gave facilities to French triumphs, and left poor unhappy Suabia to be overrun and devastated.

Respecting the destiny of this hill-fort, as connected with the military history of a preceding age, an anecdote of a very different kind was related to us by our communicative host. An army of Swedes, under Charles the Twelfth, sat down regularly before it; but finding their assaults fruitless, they turned the siege into a blockade, which lasted two years. After the garrison had, in the interval, nearly consumed all their provisions, the brave governor, on the last remaining ox being slaughtered, caused the stomach of the animal to be filled with a portion of the very little corn that was left, and let it down by a rope over the rock. His stratagem succeeded. The besiegers, on examining the bag and its contents, came naturally to the conclusion that the castle was not yet reduced to extremity, and having had sufficient experience of its invincible strength, they soon afterwards raised the siege.—Hohentwiel, though situated in the Baden dominions, belongs, as we were informed, to the King of Wiirtemberg, as a family appanage. It remains in an entirely dismantled state; a circumstance, however, which adds to, rather than diminishes, its picturesque grandeur. Not very far distant is another fortress on a lofty rock, called HohenKrahen, which "the Lion of the North," at the period above mentioned, besieged and took, it not being of the same strength as Hohentwiel. And on our road from Singen, looking in a north-west direction, we saw not less than fire of these lofty mounts, crowned with castles,* rising in different parts of a^great level.

From Schaff'hiiusen to Singen the country is fine: hills of moderate height, generally covered with green woods, here and there insulated eminences, clothed with similar plantations of firs, or young beech and oak trees—wiuding roads—are the principal constituents of the scenery, which, but for the appearance of vines, would have made us fancy ourselves in England. Aa you proceed the prospects open—and plains extending wide are bounded by cultivated as well as woody bills.—Deviating a little from the direct road to Stokacb, we reached Kudolfs-Zell, and thence viewed the Unter-see,+ or inferior lake of Constance. It is a charming piece of water, enriched with fruitful fields on the Suabian borders, and foliaged eminences on those of Switzerland. Our perspective to the south-east was terminated by the beautiful island of Iieichenau, and an elevated range of country studded on the side of Thurgovia with towns and villages, and with convents and chateaux crowning the neighbouring heights.

In the little hamlet of Popemann, near Zell, is a chapel dedicated to the Mater Dolorosa of the Romanists.

• Hohentwiel, Hohen bowen, Hohen stofflen, Hohen-stanfen, Hohenkrahen. The three first named are visible from the Culm of Mount Righi, near Lucerne.

t The Zellersee (or Untersce) is sixteen miles long and about ten broad. The isle of Reichenan (a league in length and half a league in breadth) which with its Benedictine Abbey in Mr. Coxe's time belonged to the Bishop of Constance, now appertains to the domain of the Grand Duke of Baden.

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The same expedient of ex-votos is there resorted to (for all occasions and against all accidents) that we found so highly popular in other Catholic districts through which we had passed. In one, of the pictures which hung near the altar was a peasant kneeling by the side of his cow. In the clouiis was his Saintly Patroness pouring down a stream of milk (if we might judge by its colour) which touches the udder of the airimal. This is done in the presence of the Virgin Mary who sils in the highest heavens' with a dead Christ in her lap! On our asking the landlady of the neighbouring inn, what was the meaning of such hiiToglyphics; she told us that it was the religious custom of the people, whenever any serious illness or affliction occurred to them, to make a vow to some saint, and, if they recovered or obtained the object of their prayers, they presented a picture or other offering in fulfilment of such vow, and as a memorial of the miracle which had been wrought in their behalf. When moreover a murrain seizes their cattle, or their cows cease to give milk, they pray to some favourite Saint to intercede with the Blessed Virgin to exert her all powerful influence with her Sou, that the pestilence may be stopped and the lacteal fountain again may flow. And who, that has seen, as here and elsewhere he may do, the super-abundant records of successful application, can seriously come to any other conclusion than that the Church, which sanctions such Apostolic practices, must be that "true and only saving" one, to whose Priesthood it is given

"To plead our cause in that high place,
"Where purchas'd Masses proffer grace.

Continuing to coast along the north-western arm of the

lake, through a marshy tract (according to the foolish advice of an ignorant guide) we had nearly paid forfeit with our carriage and baggage; for the waters had rUen and covered the road that lies along on the shore. An inhabitant of Sernatingen, however, perceiving the hazard we ran, came to us, and acting the part of a true friend at need, piloted our vehicle through the flood and saved us from a serious misadventure. Arrived at the village above named, we were favoured with a brighter sky than had attended our noon-day's journey; and were thereby enabled to discern beyond the vast expanse of waters, the gigantic forms and hoary summits of the Tyrol esc and Appenzel chain, like all other

"Far off mountains, taming into clouds."

After the lakes we had previously visited, this branch, (only the extremity) of the great Bodensee presented an aspect of inferior interest. It belongs not however to ns to boast of having seen the lake of Constance, properly so called.

At Stockach, picturesquely situated on a rising ground, we beheld a fine effect of sun-set on the Rsetian Alps to the south-east, and on the champaign country stretching as far as the Black Forest to the west and north; a country which one is induced to contemplate with yet stricter attention from recollecting that, during the revolutionary war, it was repeatedly the scene of the most obstinate and sanguinary engagements, fonght with alternate success, between the contending armies of France and Austria.

The road for miles and miles is lined on each side with apple and pear trees; and so plentiful was the crop that

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<he branches of most of them were, as a matter of necessity, propped up with poles.—The peasantry in these parts appear to be very poor: the women, employed in some of the hardest field-work, carry enormous weights of grass and other things on their heads, and the far greater number of them have neither stockings nor shoes. The men wear immensely large triangular cocked hats, which forma ludicrous set off to their blue smock-frocks.—Oxen of a large and powerful breed are used at plough and in the team. The sheep are also full sized.—This quarter of the Duke of Baden's dominions is entirely Catholic.

17th.—Duttlingen is a large place, with wide streets and lofty houses built of stone, in a very heavy stile. The churih corresponds with the rest of the town as to bulk and architecture. Considerable business is carried on here in cutlery and shoemaking, and in the manufactory of net for pantaloons. The tradesmen attend the different fairs, within an extensive circumference, including those of Switzerland: The postmaster (whose inn is a good one) informed us that he never remembered to have seen so many persons travelling through the country, as there had been this summer: people of all nations, English, French, Russians, and Poles, as well as Germans. Thestudentsof the different Universities were particularly numerous; of those indeed we had ourselves met a great many pedestrianizing among the Alps, and some of them shaping their course towards Italy.

It was at Duttlingen that we crossed the Danube, whose name alone would have been sufficiently calculated to interest us, even if the river itself were not the wide and rapid stream which it is, although so near

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