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ambition had induced them not only to dir.
femble their sentiments,but even to act in cor-
cert while in pursuit of wealth and power ,
no sooner did they obtain possession of these,
than the fame passions which had formed this
temporary union, gave rise to jealousy and dis-
cord. To each of them was attached a small
band of interested dependents, who, with the
malicious art peculiar to such men, heightened
their suspicions, and magnified every appearance
of offence. But with all those seeds of enmity
in their minds, and thus affiduously cherisned,
each was fo thoroughly acquainted with the
abilities and courage of his rival, that they
equally dreaded the consequences of an open
rupture. The fortunate arrival of Pizarro at
Cuzco, and the address mingled with firmness
which he manifested in his expoftulations with
Almagro and his partizans, averted that evil
for the present.

A new reconciliation took
place; the chief article of which was, that
Almagro should attempt the conquest of Chili;
and if he did not find in that province an esta-
blishment adequate to his merit and expecta-
tions, Pizarro, by way of indemnification, should
yield up to him a part of Peru.


1 f


This new agreement, though confirmed (June 12. 1534.) with the same sacred folemnities as their first contract, was observed with as little fidelity, c)


c) Zarate, lib. ii. C. 13. Vega, p. II. lib. ii. c. 19. Benzo.'

lib. iii. c. 0. Herrera, dec. 5. lib. vii. c. 8.

Regulations of Pizarro.

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Soon after he concluded this important transaction, Pizarro marched back to the countries on the sea-coast, and as he now enjoyed an interval of tranquillity, undisturbed by any enemy, either Spanish or Indian , he applied himself with that persevering ardour, which distinguifned his character, to introduce a form of regular government into the extensive provinces subject to his authority. Though ill qualified by his education to enter into any disquisition concerning the principles of civil policy, and little accuftomed by his former habits of life to attend to its arrangements, his natural fagacity supplied the want both of science and experience. He distributed the country into various districts; he appointed proper magistrates to preside in each; and established regulations concerning the administration of justice, the collection of the royal reyenue, the working of the mines, and the treatment of the Indians, extremely fimple, but well calculated to promote the publick prosperity. But though, for the present, be adapted his plan to the infant state of his colony, his aspiring mind looked forward to its future grandeur. He considered himself as laying the foundation of a great empire, and deliberated long, and with much folicitude, in what place he should fix the seat of government.



Foundation of Lima.

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Cuzco, the imperial city of the Incas, was · situated in a corner of the empire, above four hundred miles from the sea, and much farther from Quito, a province of whose value he bad formed an high idea. No other settlement of the Peruvians was so considerable as to merit the name of a town, or to allure the Spaniards to fix their residence in it. But, in marching through the country, Pizarro had been struck with the beauty and fertility of the valley of Rimac, one of the most extensive and best cultivated in Peru. There on the banks of a small river, of the same name with the vale which it waters and enriches, at the distance of six miles from Callao, the most commodious harbour in the pacifick Ocean, he founded a city which he destined to be the capital of his government. He gave it the name of Ciudad de los Reyes, either from the circumstance of having laid the first stone', at that feason (January 18. 1535.) when the church celebrates the festival of the Three Kings, or, as is more probable, in honour of Juana and Charles, the sovereigns of Castile. This name it still retains among the the Spaniards, in all legal and formal deeds, but it is better known to foreigners by that of Lima, a corruption of the ancient appellation of the valley in which it is situated. Under his inspection, the buildings advanced with such rapidity, that it soon aflumed the form of a city, which, by a ma

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gnificent palace that he erected for himself, and by the stately houses built by several of his officers, gave, even in its infancy, some indication of its subsequent grandeur. d)

Almagro invades Chili. ; In consequence of what had been agreed with Pizarro, Almagro began his march towards Chili; and as he pofseffed in an eminent degree the virtues most admired by soldiers, boundless liberality and fearless courage, his standard was followed by five hundred and seventy men, the greatest body of Europeans that had hitherto been assembled in Peru. From impatience to finish the expedition, or from that contempt of hardship and danger acquired by all the Spaniards who had served long in America , Almagro , instead of advancing along the level country on the coast , chose to march across the mountains by a route that was shorter indeed, but almost impracticable. In this attempt his troops were expofed to every calamity which men can suffer , from fatigue, from famine , and from the rigour of the climate in those elevated regions of the torrid zone, where the degree of cold is hardly inferior to what is felt within the polar circle. Many of them perished, and the

d) Herrera, dec. 5. lib. vi. c. 12. lib. vii. C. 13. Calancha

Cronica , lib. i. C. 37. Barnuevo, Lima fundata , ii. 294. ;

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survivors, when they descended into the fertile
plains of Chili, had new difficulties to encoun-
ter. They found there a race of men very
different from the people of Peru, intrepid ,
hardy , independent, and in their bodily consti-
tution, as well as vigour of spirit, nearly re-
sembling the warlike tribes in North America.
Though filled with wonder at the first appear-
ance of the Spaniards, and still more astonish-
ed at the operations of their cavalry and the
effects of their fire arms, the Chilese foon reco-
vered so far from their suprize, as not only to
defend themselves with obstinacy, but to attack
their new enemies with more determined fierce-
ness than any American nation had hitherto
discovered. The Spaniards, however,
tinued to penetrate into the country, and col-
lected fome considerable quantities of gold ;
but were so far from thinking of making any
settlement amidst such formidable neighbours
that , in spite of all the experience and valour
of their leader, the final issue of the expe-
dition still remained extremely dubious, when
they were recalled from it by an unexpected
revolution in Peru. e) The causes of this im-
portant event I shall endeavour to trace to their

31. or


e) Zarate, lib. iii, c. I. Gomara Hist, C. 131. Vega, p. II.

lib, ii, c. 20. Ovalle ,Hist. de Chile, lib. iv. c. 15. &c. Herrera, dec. 5. lib, vi. c. 9. lib. X, C. I, &c.

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