וַיִּקְח דָּוִד אֶת שִׁלְטֵי הַזָהָב אֲשֶׁר

עַבְדֵי הַדַדְעֶזֶר וַיְבִיאֵם

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אל עַבְדֵי

Houb.-Omnes autem currus dissolvit, No. 1. a.- Interpreters have long hesicentum servatis.

tated as to the signification of this word ; Ver. 6.

and some have even rendered it by quivers, An. Ver.- And [U] the Lord preserved

as (after Jarchi) Jahn Archæol. II. i. David whithersoever he went.

p. 428; or also darts. Comp. blu, arrow. Ged., Booth. Thus the Lord [Heb., Booth., Jehovah] preserved, &c.

The signification here given has been adopted

by most commentators from Kimchi onVer. 7.

wards, and is supported by probable etymology, by the context of all the passages, and by the authority of the ancient versions.

Thus the Targums and Syriac version often

: 557 retain the same word, as being common in και έλαβε Δαυίδ τους χλιδώνας τους χρυσούς | Aramean; but the Chaldee translator of the οι ήσαν επί των παίδων των 'Αδρααζάρ βασι- Chronicles gives it in two places by shields, News Sovßà, kaì veykev avrà els 'lepovoalíu. 1 Chron. xviii. 7, 2 Chron. xxiii. 9; and the kai člaßev avrà Łovoaxij Baoileùs Aiyúttov, translator of Jeremiah, cap. xiii. 23, uses ev tớ avaşîvai avròv eis 'lepovoalny év the words FTOP?? po to denote the spots of ημέραις Ροβοάμ υιού Σολομώντος.

the leopard, as resembling the figure of a Au. Ver.-7 And David took the shields shield. Among the later Syrians this word of gold that were on the servants of Hadad appears to have become obsolete; for Bar ezer, and brought them to Jerusalem. Bahlûl, in Lex. Oxon. Ms. under HiSA,

Bp. Patrick.—The Hebrew particle el, himself fluctuates between the various which we translate on, may better be trans- opinions of Syrian interpreters, the most of lated with; that is, in the custody of Hadad

whom however understand by it quivers. ezer's servants, who were officers in his treasury: for it is not likely they brought translated and of doubtful import. Arab.

Prof. Lee.- Doophy. A word variously them into the field of battle. So Pool.

Hallet.7 The shields of gold that were blow, durus ; betwo, aculus. Arms of on the servants. This is the sense of the place. But it is not easy to suppose this to some kind, but whether offensive or debe the true rendering of the preposition 5, fensive, appears uncertain, usually shields, as Bishop Patrick could not but observe. It 2 Samuel viji. 7; 2 Kings xi. 10; Ezekiel should be so, as it is in 1 Chron. xviii. 7.

xxvii. 11, &c. LΧΧ. όπλα, φαρέτρας, , Dr. A. Clarke-The shields of gold.] We βολίδες, χλιδώνας, κλοιούς, ερισσούς. Sym. know not what these were. Some translate Tavotdiav. Vulg. arma, armatura, peltas, arms, others quivers, others bracelets, others pharetras. collars, and others shields. They were pro

Ver. 8. bably costly ornaments by which the Syrian

? ? And those who are called servants here, were

? probably the choice troops or body-guard of Hadadezer, as the argyraspides were of

και εκ της Μετεβάκ και εκ των εκλεκτών Alexander the Great. See Quintus Curtius. πόλεων του 'Αδρααζάρ έλαβεν ο βασιλεύς

Gesen.—um m. (r. 17) only plur. Doen, Aavi8 yadkòv tolùv oợópa. év auto enoinoe shields, apparently so called from being Ealouwv tùy báðaooav try xalxav, kai tous hard or perhaps tough ; see the signification στύλους, και τους λουτήρας, και πάντα τα of the Arabic root under about, and comp.

σκεύη. . the noun bou. 2 Sam. viii. 7, 277377 volan, Au. Ver.-8 And from Betah [or, Tibshields of gold. 2 Kings xi. 10; 2 Chron. hath], and from Berothai [or, Chun, 1 Chron. xxiii. 9; Cant. iv. 4; Ez. xxvii. 11, in xviii. 3), cities of Hadadezer, king David which passages shields are spoken of as took exceeding much brass. suspended for ornament upon the walls. And from Betah. Jer. li. 11, sharpen the arrous, deben wir, Boothroyd. And from Tibhath.] In the fill out the shields, i.e., put them on, see in parallel place these names are Tibhath and

וּמִבֶּטַח וּמִבְּרֹחַי עָרֵי הַדַדְעֶזֶר לָקַח

.soldiers were decked and distinguished הַמֶּלֶךְ דָּיִךְ נְחֹשֶׁת הַרְבֵּה מְאר :

same reason.

.ומבטה ומברתי the words are .ומטבחת ומכין the words are

Chun. I have adopted the first as most pro- Au. Ver.--13 And David gat him a name bably the true reading here, as it is in the when he returned from smiting (Heb., his versions mentioned; and I consider that smiting, or, slaying) of the Syrians in the Berothai ought to be restored there for the valley of salt, being eighteen thousand men. 1 Chron. xviii. 8.

14 And he put garrisons in Edom; Took exceeding much brass.

throughout all Edom put he garrisons, and Ged.--Brought a very great quantity of all they of Edom became David's servants. brass, of which Solomon, afterward, made And the Lord preserved David whitherthe brazen sea, the columns, the lavers, and soever he went. all the other utensils of the temple [LXX Pool.-13 Gat him a name, i.e., much inand Jos.].

creased his reputation. The Syrians, or Hallet.8 And from Beta, and from Be- Edomites, as they are said to be, i Chron. rothai, cities of Hadadezer. In Chron. it is, xviii. 12. It is likely these two people were likewise from Tibhuth, and from Chun, cities confederates, and that divers of the Syrians of Hadarezer. Here is a difference between whom David had defeated in Syria fled to all these three proper names.

Hadarezer Edom, and there joined with them against in Chron. is always called Hadadezer in their common enemy, and made up together Samuel: an easy mistake, 7 written for 1. a very great army (as the number of the The names of his two cities are written very men slain in it showeth), consisting of the differently: though we may see somewhat of veteran soldiers of both countries; although the occasion of the difference. In Samuel the slaughter here following may seem not

. In Chronicles to have been of the Syrians, as the words at

. The first name first reading seem to intimate, but of the is plainly the same, only the two first letters Edomites; (it not being probable that the are dislocated. In Sam. it is spelt iroa, in Syrians would come so far from their own Chron. it is 1799. The other name you is country, as to the valley of salt, to fight;) turned into on. The change of 5 into 3 and this verse may be read thus, and that is not difficult; and the n is taken from the very agreeably to the Hebrew : And David end of the first name in Chron. nnau. To gat him a name when he returned from confirm the reader in the reasonableness of smiting of the Syrians, in 'smiting (which is the alteration I here propose in Sam., it easily repeated out of the last clause, acmust be observed that here in Sam. the first cording to the common usage of Scripture) name is spelt Tebah, in the LXX, Syr., and in the valley of salt eighteen thousand men, Arab. But perhaps the other name is spelt who were Edomites, as is sufficiently implied right in Sam. and wrong in Chronicles. For here in the next verse, and expressed in Chron. the Syr. calls this city, Berothai, 1 Chron. xviii. 12. The valley of salt; a as in Sam. and the LXX in both places place in Edom so called, either from its render the name of it, twv eklektWV, the neighbourhood to the Salt Sea, or for some chosen ; which shows that they read, Be- other cause now unknown. Being eighteen rothai, in both places, which they derived thousand men ; as it is also 1 Chron. from in, he chose. At the end of this xviii. 12, where also they are said to be verse the LXX add what we read in the smitten by Abishai, because he was then a end of the parallel verse in Chron., Brass, chief commander of the army under David, wherewith Solomon made the brazen sea, and and, it may be, began the fight; as, for the the pillars, and the lavers, and all the vessels. like reason they are said to be smitten by This I suppose, was omitted by the Bishop's Joab, Psal. Ix., title, where also there are figure ellipsis.

only 12,000 mentioned; which place, if it

speak of this battle, the state of it was this : Ver. 13.

Abishai begins the combat, and kills 6,000; ?

after him comes in Joab, and kills 12,000 ning yaina nbena Nop more, which makes up this 18,000. But why

may not that be another history and battle?

: So the Edomites and Syrians together did każ étroinge Aavið óvoua. kaì èv tộ åva- first fight with Abishai, and lost 18,000 men, κάμπτειν αυτόν επάταξε την 'Ιδουμαίαν εν | and afterwards recruited their forces and Γεβελέμ εις οκτωκαίδεκα χιλιάδας. .

fought with Joab, and lost other 12,000


.ויעש דור שם

Nor is it strange if two battles were o came into immediate connexion with fought in one place; of which there are 12. divers instances in historians.

Ged.-13 “And David, on his return Bp. Patrick.–13 David gat him a name from smiting the Syrians, erected a monuwhen he returned from smiting of the Syrians.] ment. Meanwhile Abishai Ben-Zeruia His victory over that people (mentioned having slain of the Edomites, in the vale of ver. 5), when they came to succour Hadad- Melah, eighteen thousand men, he put ezer, gained him a great reputation, as a garrisons throughout all Edom.” potent prince, and a mighty warrior.

A whole line has been dropped out of the In the valley of salt, being eighteen thou- original of this verse; which I have supsand men.] There is nothing in the Hebrew plied from Chronicles. While David was in answering to the word being: which there- person carrying on the war against the fore should be translated, “in the valley of Syrians, &c. Abishai, one of his generals, salt eighteen thousand men. That is, he subdued the Edomites. slew of the Edomites so many, besides the Booth.13 And David, on his return two and twenty thousand of the Syrians. from smiting the Syrians, erected a monuSo we read expressly 1 Chron. xviii. 12, and ment. Meanwhile Abishai, the son of Zein the title of the sixtieth Psalm it is said, ruiah, slew of the Edomites, in the valley of they were Edomites, not Syrians, who were salt, eighteen thousand men. 14 And he slain in this valley. Only in that place of put garrisons in Edom. the Psalms, there is mention of no more Houb.-13 Præterea David, Syria dethan twelve thousand slain : which makes victa, cum rediret, bellum gessit cum Idumæis some think it speaks of a distinct battle in valle salis, ex iisque decem et octo millia from this. But Abishai, who began the hominum interfecit. fight, perhaps, slew six thousand, and then

Ecce alteram seriem manJoab, coming in with his reserve, slew cam, nec non vero etiam perturbatam; et twelve thousand more; which, in all, make fecit David nomen, cum rediret a percutiendo eighteen thousand. By the valley of salt, Syriam in valle salis, octodecim millia Epiphanius understands the Dead Sea, hominum. lo. Ordinem talem non which was formerly a famous valley, or Hebraicum, facile videt, quisquis Hebraica rather it was a valley near that sea. But legere assuevit. 20. Non intelligitur, quoneither of these opinions has any good modo David fecerit sibi nomen, dum ex Syria foundation, as Salmasius shows: who takes revertebatur. 30. Ne stare quidem potest this valley of salt to have been in the country fecit sibi nomen, nisi additur is, sibi, quod of Edom, where this battle was fought; and abest e contextu. Denique nescitur, quoto be called by this name, either from rum hostium David ceciderit octodecim the salt springs which were therein, or millia hominum. Neque enim Syri aguntur, from the salt that was digged up there (see qui jam devicti erant, et apud quos non est his Exercit. Plinianæ, cap. 35, pages 613, vallis salis. Nos totum hunc locum, as614).

sumpto ex veterum versionibus supplemento, Bishop Horsley.-13 Syrians. From the ita sanari posse credimus, 0100 12101 717 wyn parallel place in

, , i Chron. xviii. 12, it is evident that this 77929, et fecit David, cum reverteretur a slaughter in the valley

of salt was

a percutiendo Syriam, cum Edom bellum in slaughter of Edomites. And instead of valle salis, et percussit ibi octodecim millia. ow, the LXX in this place read on. But 10. Verbum bu ad posteriora rejicimus. the passage seems to require further cor- 20. Post O nu, addimus D1TH Ox, quod exrection. I would read thus,

cidit, propter utriusque similitudinem, quod

egitur 1 Par. xviii. 12. 30. Addimus " And David acquired fame upon his return onbe7, ante no pai, quod Syrus exhibet in from his defeat of the Syrians. For he verbo 137, bellum, quodque omissum est smote of Edom, in the valley of salt, simili errore, prope verbum satis simile. eighteen thousand.” The similitude of the Denique addimus Ti, et percussit, supposito words on and o713 was the occasion that verbo bw, quod convertimus, ibi, nempe in some early transcriber overlooked the two valle salis. Verbum t exhibent Græci words and T after on, and thus the word | Intt. in verbo Græco errátate, percussit,


את ארם את אדום המלחמה בגיא מלחי ייך שם שמונה ,Chronicles


que | ויעש דור שם בשבו מהכותו את ארם ייך מאדם בגיא מלח

quanquam ordine paulum diverso utuntur. and David's sons were chief rulers [or,
Ita fit locus integer ac sanus, adhibita et princes, ch. xx. 26).
veterum Intt. et loci paralleli autoritate. Pool.Recorder; either, first, The writer

Dathe.-13 Postquam ex prælio cum of chronicles. But it is not likely he Edomitis in valle salis commisso, in quo duo- would have been put among the great deviginti millia ceciderant, redierat tropæum officers of state and church. Or, secondly, sibi ererit.

The treasurer, who examined all the acEdomitis. Pro 7 Syrus legendum esse counts, and kept records of them. Or, Oy, Edom, non solum testimoniis twv ó, thirdly, The king's counsellor, as Ahithophel Syri, Arabis, et codd. Kennicotti 286 et 201 is called, 2 Sam. xv. 12; 1 Chron. xxvii. 33, probatur, sed etiam loco parallelo 1 Chron. who was to bring things of moment to the xviii. 12 et Ps. lx. 2, atque præterea versu king's mind and remembrance, and to adsequenti, in quo occupatio terræ Edomiticæ, monish him from time to time of things fit quæ illam victoriam excepit, describitur. to be done. See 1 Kings iv. 3 ; 2 Kings Cæterum ne sic quidem veram lectionem xviii. 18. sibi constare, sed ex 1 Chron. xviii. 12 et

Bp. Patrick.Recorder.] The Hebrew Ps. lx. 2 aliam componendam esse, con- word mazkir, importing something of keepjectat Michaëlis (in Bibl. Orient., p. xiii., ing in memory, or bringing to remembrance, p. 226) in hunc fere modum: erexit David moved our translators to render it recorder tropæum, cum rediret ex prælio cum Syris, or remembrancer, as if he wrote the acts of et Joabus redierat et profligaverat Edomitas every day, which afterward were digested in valle salis.

into annals. But this, sure, was not so conMaurer.—13 W] Post hoc vocabulum siderable an employment as to make him nonnulla (fortasse DITTON 7) excidisse vi- that had it the prime civil officer in the dentur. Cf. 1 Chron. xviii. 12; Ps. lx. 2. kingdom, as Joab was the military. There14 And the Lord.

fore Victorinus Strigelius takes him to have Ged., Booth.Thus the Lord [Heb., been the chancellor of the kingdom : which Booth., Jehovah].

is more likely than their opinion, who take

him for the master of requests, who presented Ver. 16, 17,

petitions, and put the king in mind of them. ?

Dr. A. Clarke.—731, Remembrancer ; 16

one who kept a strict journal of all the pro?: ?


בֶּן־צְרוּיָה עַל־הַצָבָא

6ר וְיוֹאָב ceedings of the king and operations of his וִיהוֹשָׁפָט בֶּן־אֲחִילוּד מַזְכִּיר : 17 וְעָדְוֹק .army

; a clhronicler . see the margin בֶּן־אֲחִיטֶוּב וַאֲחִימֶלֶךְ בֶּן־אֶבְיָתָר כֹּהֲנֶיס

18 וּבְנָיָהוּ בֶּן־יְהוֹיָדָע וּשְׂרָיָה סוֹפֶר : annalist , whose duty it was to record the וְהַכְּרֵתִי וְהַפְּלֵתִי וּבְנֵי דָיִן כֹּהֲנִים

הָיוּ :


Gesen.—Part. 92 as subst. a recorder,

register, i. 9., historiographer, the king's

? ,

deeds of the king and the events of his

reign, 2 Sam. viii. 16; xx. 24; 1 Kings 16 kai 'Iwaß viòs Eapovías étrì tìs otpatias iv. 3; 2 Kings xviii. 18, 37; 1 Chron. και 'Ιωσαφάτ υιός Αχιλουδ επί των υπο- xviii. 15; 2 Chron. Xxxiv. 8; Is. Xxxvi. 3, 22. μνημάτων 17 και Σαδώκ υιός Αχιτώβ και The same office is mentioned as existing in 'Αχιμελεχ υιός 'Αβιάθαρ, ιερείς και Σασά ο ελhe Persian court, both ancient and modern, γραμματεύς: 18 και Βαναίας υιός Ιωδαε σύμ- where it is called WakaNuwish ; Hdot. βουλος και ο Χελεθι, και ο Φελετί, και οι vi. 100; ib. vii. 90 ; ib. viii. 100 ; Chardin υιοι Δαυίδ αυλάρχαι ήσαν.

Voyage en Perse, t. iii., p. 327; T. V., Au. Ver.-—16 And Joab the son of Ze- p. 258, ed. Langlès. So too in the time of ruiah was over the host; and Jehoshaphat the Roman emperors Arcadius and Honorius the son of Ahilud was recorder (or, remem- under the name of magister memoriæ. brancer, or, writer of chronicles);

Pool.— The son of Ahitub; not of that 17 And Zadok the son of Ahitub, and Ahitub, 1 Sam. xxii.; for that was of IthaAhimelech the son of Abiathar, were the mar's race, but this of Eleazar. Ahimelech priests; and Seraiah was the scribe [or, the son of Abiathar; so Abiathar called his secretary);

son by the name of his father, 1 Sam. 18 And Benaiah the son of Jehoiada was xxii. 20. The priests, i. e., the chief priest over both the Cherethites and the Pelethites; Inext under Abiathar, who fled to David,


1 Sam. xxii. 20, and now was high priest, as keeper of the public accounts. But the may be gathered from 2 Sam. xv. 35; Hebrew word sopher (which we translate 1 Kings ii. 27, 35 : under him these two scribe) importing something of learning (as were the next chief priests, or the second the word scribe in the New Testament doth), priests, each one being chief of the house of I take him to have been his prime counhis father, Zadok of Eleazar, and Abimelech sellor in the law, who always attended him. of Ithamar. See Numb. iii. 32; 1 Chron. Constantine L'Empereur thinks there were xxiv. 3, 4. Or these two are here men- two sorts of scribes, an ecclesiastical and a tioned, because they constantly attended civil; and here understands the latter; and upon the king, that he might consult with would have him signify no more than the them in the matters of the Lord, as need muster-master of the army (see his Annot. required.

on Bertram De Repub. Jud., p. 383, &c.). Bp. Patrick. - Zadokand Ahimelech- Dr. A. Clarke.The scribe.] Most likely were the priests.] These two were the chief the king's private secretary. See the margin. of the family of priests; next to the high- Gesen.7297 PO, The king's scribe, sepriest, which was Abiathar: called second cretary, an officer of state who writes the priests in 2 Kings xv. 18. The former was royal edicts, etc. 2 Kings xii. 11; 2 Chron. of the family of Eleazar (1 Chron. vi. 5), xxiv. 11; so kat' étoxnv Dog, the scribe, the other of Ithamar.

2 Kings xviii. 18; xix. 2 ; xxii. 3, 8, sq.; Dathe, Ged., Booth.17 “ And Zadock, 1 Ch. xxiv. 6 ; Isa. xxxvi. 3 ; xxxvii. 2; also the son of Ahitub, and Abiathar, the son of without article DO, 2 Sam. viii. 17 ; xx. 25 ; Ahimelech (Syr., Arab.; so Gesen.], were 1 Chron. xviii. 16. Sometimes several the priests; and Seraiah was the scribe.”

scribes are mentioned, 1 Kings iv. 3 ;

Esth. The text remains a proof either of the iii

. 12; viii. 9; comp. Jer. xxxvi. 23. negligence or ignorance of the Jewish b) Military scribe or tribune, who had critics. It is certain from 1 Sam. xxi. 1, charge of the conscription and muster-rolls, and xxii. 9, that Ahimelech was the father, muster-master, 2 Kings xxv. 19; Jer. lii. 25; not son, of Abiathar; yet this error has been 2 Chron. xxvi. 11; Is. xxxiii. 18. So prob. suffered to remain in the text both here and Jer. xxxvii. 15, as having charge of the in 1 Chron. xviii. The Syr. only reads right. public prison. Genr. of a military leader, Dathe.-Cum ex 1 Sam. xxi. 1 et xxii, 9

. constet, Ebjatharum filium Achimelechi chief, Judg. v. 14. fuisse, et sic quoque 1 Chron. xviii. 16

an army so legatur, vix dubitari potest

, nomina hæc to levy a conscription, ävyis h. 1. esse transposita, errore tamen peranti

levied. c) In the later books, a scribe, quo in codd. Nam unus Syrus illam lectionem exhibet, oi ó, Vulg., Chaldæus re

γραμματεύς, one skilled in the sacred books

and in the law, 1 Chron. xxvii. 32; Jereceptam.

miah viji. 8; Ezra vii. 6, Ezra was a scribe .] Ita etiam legitur 1 Chron. xviii. 16 ; -xxiv. 6. (10 897) skilled in the law of Moses. So as Sed constat ex 1 Sam. xxii. 9, 11, 12, 20,

a title of Ezra, Neh. viii. 1, sq. 12, 26, 36;

كتب .Comp


וְצָדוֹק בֶּן־אֲחִיטוּב וַאֲחִימֶלֶךְ בֶּן־אֶבְיָתָר-.Maurer

Achimelechum filium Achitubi fuisse, Ab Ezra vii. 11. Syr. lian, Arab. Lub,

Falsa_lectio haud dubie .אֲחִימֶלֶךְ בֶּן־אֲחִיטוּב


jatarum vero Achimelechi. Igitur vix dubi-
tari potest, legendum esse: 2 man? piz id.

Was over both. hac ratione orta est. Nimirum sciolus qui- Houb., Horsley, Maurer, Gesen., read as in dam quum vidisset, Abjatari et patrem et parallel place in Chronicles, 'm37 58 (so all avum, Zadoki vero ne patrem quidem com- the ancient versions except LXX), memorari, vitium subesse suspicans, avum, over the Cherethites," &c. quem non opus fuerat commemorare, Zadoki

? ] patrem fecit, Achimelechum vero, ne hic sensum non præbent. Pro mot opinor patre careret, in filium Abjatari vertit.

Bp. Patrick.-Seraiah was the scribe.] parallelo 1 Chron. xviii. 17. El Benajah, Secretary of state, as we now speak; or, as filius Jojadæ, præfectus fuit custodum corothers imagine, clerk of the council, who poris Davidis, propr. carnificum et cursorum. set down all acts and decrees; others, the 'no tanq. a. 972 r. nn sc. Un, O'T1 Sam.

Haec [וּבְנָיָהוּ בֶן־יְהוֹיָדָע וְהַכְּרֵתִי וְהַפְּלֵתִי-.Maurer

quod exstat in loco עַל הַכְּרֵתִי legendum esse

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