« ElőzőTovább »
SHORT ARTICLES. - Latin Puzzle, 535. Gold Ants of Herodotus, 549. Manifold Writers, 549. Burning Alive, 549. Pope and Hogarth, 559. She took_the cup of life to sip, 563. Mediæval Rhymes, 567. Alleged Interpolations in the “Te Deum,” 567. Bee Superstitions, 576.
PUBLISHED EVERY SATURDAY BY LIT TELL, SON, & CO., BOSTON.
For Six Dollars a year, in advance, remitted directly to the Publishers, the LIVING Age will be punctually for warded free of postage.
Complete sets of the First Series, in thirty-six volumes, and of the Second Series, in twenty volumes, hand. Bomely bound, packed in neat boxes, and delivered in all the principal cities, free of expense of freight, are for sale at two dollars a volume.
ANY VOLUME may be had separately, at two dollars, bound, or a dollar and a half in numbers.
ANY NUMBER may be had for 13 cents; and it is well worth while for subscribers or purchasers to completo any txokon volames they may have, and thus greatly enhanco their value.
دارد و به
Might I pour my heart out You and I once loved
At your feet,
In some quiet corner
Of the Golden Street ?
Telling all my sorrow,
All my grief,
For the pain I caused you
For the death you,died by
Though I try to hide them
Tears will start.
Do you watch from heaven, BB 24303 She lias golden beauty,
As you said
Ce Minc is gone,
Like a guardian angel vi BDO But my love is truest
By my bed ?
if I ESTIS She has none.
What if death should part us,
You and I,
More than we are parted-
Let me try?
No, God make me strongers to the When theso sad, dark eyes
Day by day;
I must live my life out
¿?? And her blue ones laughing,
Death may re-unite us,
Who can tell ?
Could you live in heaven,
320k tcs You will not forget mo,
I in hell?
“ Peace," I hear you saying I am sad and wearied,
From the sky;
“What though we are parted,
You and I?
Death shall re-unite us
A. D. Once I wished to live,
THE THREE LOVERS.
0! such a ruff the Marquis wears,Press on my pale forehead
So fair and stiff with plaits all round;
Fair shines his satin cloak and vest,
With Indian pearl-seed edged and boand; Is this bliss ?
A. D. His sword-hilt's gold, bis orders hang
Like strings of toys around his neck;
Follow like chessmen at his beck :
This is the Marquis. Then the Fop,
Who moves not but a scent of spring
Shakes from his mantle and his plume.
His gold spurs on the pavement ring;
His feather is a good yard high;
His buttons every one a gen ;
A jewel hangs from either car,
His white hands ever play with them."
But see my Willy-kissing glove-7! For blue cyes I left her,
Stabbing his shadow-bravo and free
He dances through the palace lands,
Greeting each bird that sings like me.
His velvet cap is looped with chains ;
Red rubies in his bonnet flamo
So gay, so bright, and debonnaire-
I love to hear his very name.
- Welcome Guest. WALTER THORNBURY.
If I may.
From The Quarterly Review. of unsuspected relations which bind together On the Origin of Species, by Means of Nat- all the mighty web which stretches from end
ural Selection ; or the Preservation of Fa- to end of this full and most diversified earth. vored Races in the Struggle for Life. By Who, as he listened to the musical hum of Charles Darwin, M.A., F.R.S. London, the great humble-bees, or marked their 1860.
ponderous flight from flower to flower, and Any contribution to our natural history watched the unpacking of their trunks for literature from the pen of Mr. C. Darwin, their work of suction, would have supposed is certain to command attention. His sci- that the multiplication or diminution of their entific attainments, his insight and careful- race, or the fruitfulness and sterility of the ness as an observer, blended with no scanty red clover, depend as directly on the vigimeasure of imaginative sagacity, and his lance of our cats as do those of our wellclear and lively style, make all his writings guarded game-preserves on the watching of unusually attractive. His present volume our keepers ? Yet this Mr. Darwin has dison the “Origin of Species " is the result of covered to be literally the case :many years of observation, thought, and
“From experiments which I have lately tried, speculation ; and is manifestly regarded by I liave found that the visits of bees are necessary him as the “opus ” upon which his future for the fertilization of some kinds of clover ; but fame is to rest. It is true that he announces humble-bees alone visit the red clover (Trifoit modestly enough as the mere precursor of bium pratense), as other bces cannot reach the
nectar Henco I havo very little doubt, that if a mightier volume. But that volume is only the whole genus of humble-becs became extinct intended to supply the facts which are to or very rare in England, the heartsease and red support the completed argument of the
clover would become very raro or wholly disap
present essay. In this we have a specimen-trict depends in a great degree on the number
pear. The number of humble-becs in any discollection of the vast accumulation; and, of field-mice, which destroy their combs and working from these as the high analytical nests; and Mr. H. Newman, who has long atmathematician may work from the admitted tended to the habits of humble-becs, believes that
more than two-thirds of them are thus deresults of his conic sections, he proceeds to stroyed all over England. Now the number of deduce all the conclusions to which he wishes mice is largely dependent, as every one knows, to conduct his readers.
on the number of cats; and Mr. Newman says, The essay is full of Mr. Darwin's charac
ncar villages and small towns I havo found
the nests of humble-becs more numerous than teristic excellences. It is a most readable elsewhere, which I attribute to the number of book; full of facts in natural history, old cats that destroy the mice.' Hence, it is quite and new, of his collecting and of his obsery- credible that the presenco of a feline animal in ing; and all of these are told in his own per- through the intervention, first of mice, and then
large numbers in a district might determine, spicuous language, and all thrown into pic- of bees, the frequency of certain flowers in that turesque combinations, and all sparkle with district.”—P. 74. the colors of fancy and the lights of imagin- Again, how beautiful are the experiments ation. It assumes, too, the grave propor- recorded by him concerning that wonderful tions of a sustained argument upon a mat- relation of the ants to the aphides, which ter of the deepest interest, not to naturalists
would almost warrant us in giving to the only, or even to men of science exclusively, but to every one who is interested in the his. aphis the name of Vacca formicaria :tory of man and of the relations of nature “ One of the strongest instances of an animal around him to the history and plan of crea- apparently performing an action for the sole
good of another with which I am acquainted is tion.
that of aphides voluntarily yielding their sweet With Mr. Darwin's “ argument” we may cxcretion to ants. That they do so voluntarily say in the outset that we shall have much tho following facts will show. I removed all
fault to find. But this does not the ants from a group of about a dozen aphides make us the less disposed to admire the sin- during several lours. After this interval, I felt
on a dock plant, and prevented their attendance gular excellences of his work; and we will sure that the aphides would want to excreto. I seek in limine to give our readers a few ex- watched them for some time through a lens, but amples of these. Here, for instance, is a not one of them excreted. I then tickled and
stroked them with a hair in the same manner, as beautiful illustration of the wonderful inter- well as I could, as the ants do with their an. dependence of nature of the golden chain tenne, but not one excreted. Afterwards I
allowed an ant to visit them, and it immediately the observations which I have myself made in scemcd by its cager way of running about, to some little detail. I opened fourteen nests of be well aware what a rich flock it had discovered. F. sanguinea, and found a few slaves in cach.
It then began to play with its antenne on the Males and fertile females of the slave-species abdomen first of one aplis and then of another, (F. fusca) are found only in their own proper and cach aphis, as soon as it felt tho antennæ, communities, and have never been observed in immediately lifted up its abdomen and cx- the nests of F. sanguinen. The slaves are black, crcted a limpid drop of sweet juice, which was and not above half the size of their red masters, cagerly devoured by the ant. Even tho quite so that the contrast in their appearance is very young aphides behaved in this manner, showing great. When the nest is slightly disturbed, the that the action was instinctive, and not the re- slares occasionally come out, and, liko their sult of experience.”—Pp. 210, 211.
masters, aro much agitated, and defend the nest. Or take the following admirable specimen of and pupæ are exposed, the slaves work energet
When the nest is much disturbed, and tho larvæ the union of which we have spoken, of the ically with their masters in carrying them away employment of the observations of others to a place of safety: Hence it is clear that the with what he has observed himself, in that slaves feel quite at homo. During tlic months which is almost the most marvellous of facts have watched for many hours several nests in
of Juno and July, in three successive ycars, I -the slave-making instinct of certain ants. Surrey and Sussex, and never saw a slave either We say nothing at present of the place as- leave or enter a nest. As, during these months, signed to these facts in Mr. Darwin's argu- that they might behave differently when more
the slaves are very few in number, I thought ment, but are merely referring to the collec- numerous, but Mr. Smith informs me that he tion, observation, and statement of the facts has watched nests at various hours during May, themselves:-
June, and August, both in Surrey and Hamp
shire, and has never seen the slaves, though .“ Slave-making Instinct. --This remarkable in- present in large numbers in August, cither leare stinct was first discovered in the Formica (Pol. or enter the nest. Hence he considers them as yerges) rufescens by Pierre Huber, a better ob- strictly household slaves. The masters, on the server oven than his celebrated father.
This other hand, may be constantly scen bringing in ant is absolutely dependent on its slaves; with materials for the nest, and food of all kinds. out their aid the species would certainly become During tlic present year, however, in the month extinct in a single ycar. Tho males and fertile of July, I came across a community with an unfemales do not work. The workers or sterile usually large stock of slaves, and 'I observed a females, though most energetic and courageous few slaves mingled with their masters leaving in capturing slaves, do no other work. They the nest, and marching along the same road to are incapable of making their own nests or of a large Scotch fir-tree, twenty-five yards distant, feeding their own larvæ. When the old nest is which they ascended together, probably in search found inconvenient, and they have to migratc, of aphides or cocci. According to Huber, who it is the slaves which determine tho migration, had amplo opportunities for observation, in and actually carry their masters in their jaws. Switzerland, the slaves habitually work with So utterly helpless are the masters, that when their masters in making tho nest, and they alone Huber shut up thirty of them without a slave, open and close the doors in the morning and but with plenty of the food which they like best, evening; and, as Huber expressly states, their and with their larvæ and pupe to stimulate principal office is to scarch for aphidcs. This them to work, they did nothing ; they could not difference in the usual babits of the masters and even feed themselves, and many perished of hun slaves in the wo cou rics probably depends ger. Huber then introduced a single slave (F. merely on the slaves being captured in grcater fusca), and she instantly set to work, fed and numbers in Switzerland than in England. saved the survivors, made some cells and tended “One day I fortunately witnessed a migrathe larvæ, and put all to rights. What can be tion of F. sanguinca from one nest to another, more cxtraordinary than these well-ascertained and it was a most interesting spectacle to behold facts? If we had not known of any other slaves the masters carefully carrying (instcad of being making ant, it would have been hopeless to have carried by, as in the case of F. rufescens) their speculated how so wonderful an instinct could slaves in their jaws. Another day my attention have been perfected. Another species (Formica was struck by about a score of the slave-makers sanguinca) was likewise first discovered by P. haunting the same spot, and cvidently not in Huber to be a slave-making ant. This species search of food : they approached, and were vig. is found in the southern parts of England, and orously repulsed by an independent community its habits liave been attended to by Mr. F. of the slave species (F. fusca), somctimes as Smith, of the British Museum, to whom I am many as tlırco of these ants clinging to thio legs much indebted for information on this and other of the slavc-inaking T. sanguinca. The latter subjects. Although fully trusting to the state- ruthlessly killed their small opponents, and carments of Huber and Mr. Smith, I tried to ap- ried their dead bodies as food to their nest, proach the subject in a sceptical frame of mind, twenty-nine yards distant, but they were preas any one may well be cxcused for doubting vented from getting any pupe to rear as slaves. the truth of so extraordinary and odious an in- I then dug up a small parcel of papæ of F. fusca stinct as that of making slaves. Hence I give from another nest, and put them down on a bare
spot near the place of combat; they were eagerly We can perhaps best convey to our readseized and carried off by the tyrants, who per-ers a clear view of Mr. Darwin's chain of haps fancied that, after all, they had been victorious in their latc combat.
reasoning, and of our objections to it, if we set “At the same time I laid on the same placo a before them, first, the conclusion to which he small parcel of the pape of another specics (F. seeks to bring them ; next, the leading propoAlava), with a few of these little yellow ants still sitions which he must establish in order to clinging to the fragments of the nest. This is sometimes, though rarely, made into slaves, as make good his final inference; and then the has been described by Mr. Smith. Although so mode by which he endeavors to support his small a species, it is very courageous, and I have propositions. seen it ferociously attack other ants. In one instance I found to my surprise an independent
The conclusion, then, to which Mr. Darcommunity of F. flava under a stone beneath a win would bring us is, that all the various nest of the slave-making F. sanguinca, and when forms of vegetable and animal life with which I had accidentally disturbed both nests, the little the globe is now peopled, or of which we ants attacked their big neighbors with surpris- find the remains preserved in a fossil state ing courage.
“Now I was curions to ascertain whether F. in the great Earth-Musuem around us, which sanguinea could distinguish tho papæ of F. the science of geology unlocks for our infusca, which they babitually make into slaves, struction, have come down by natural sucfrom those of the little and furious F. flava, cession of descent from father to son,—"aniwhich they rarely capture, and it was evident that they did at once distinguish them, for we mals from at most four or five progenitors, have seen that they eagerly and instantly seized and plants from an equal or less number" the pupæ of F. fusca, whereas they were much (p. 484), as Mr. Darwin at first somewhat terrificed when they came across thc pupa or even the carth froin the nest of F. flavn, and diffidently suggests ; or rather, as, growing quickly ran away; but in about a quarter of an bolder when he has once pronounced his hour, shortly after all the little yellows ants had theory, he goes on to suggest to us, from one crawled away, they took lieart and carried off single head :"Onc evening I visited another community of
“ Analogy would lead me one step further, F. sanguinea, and found a number of these ants namely, to the belief that ALL ANIMALS and returning home and entering their rests, carly- PLANTS have descended from some one protoing the dead bodies of F. fusca (showing that type. But analogy may be a deceitful guide. it was not a migration) and numerous. pupą. Nevertheless, all living things have much in comI traced a long filc of ants burthened with this mon in their chemical composition, their germibooty for about forty yards to a very thick clumpnal vesicles, their cellular structure, and their of heath, whence I saw the last individual of F. laws of growth and reproduction. ... Therefore sanguinca emerge, carrying a pupa, but I was I should infer from analogy that probably all not able to find the desolated nest in the thick the organic beings which have crer lived on heath. The nest, however, must bave been this carth': (man therefore of course included) closo at land, for two or three individuals of F. "hare descended from some one primordial torm fusca were rushing about in the greatest agita-l into which life was first breathed by thə Creation, and one was perched motionless with its
tor."'-P. 484. own pupa in its moutlı on the top of a spray of heath, an image of despair over its ravaged This is the theory which really pervades home.”—P. 219, 223.
the whole volume. Man, beast, creeping Now, all this is, we think, really charming thing, and plant of the earth, are all the linwriting. We feel as we walk abroad with eal and direct descendants of some one inMr. Darvin very much as the favored object dividual ens, whose various progeny have of the attention of the dervise must have felt been simply modified by the action of natural when he had rubbed the ointment around his and ascertainable conditions into the multieye, and had it opened to see all the jewels, form aspect of life which we see around us. and diamonds, and emeralds, and topazes, and This is undoubtedly at first sight a somerubies, which were sparkling unregarded be- what startling conclusion to arrive at. To neath the earth, hidden as yet from all eyes find that mosses, grasses, turnips, oaks, save those which the dervise had enlightened. worms, and flies, mites and elephants, inBut here we are bound to say our pleasure fusoria and whales, tadpoles of to-day and terminates; for when we turn with Mr. Dar- venerable saurians, truffles and men, are all win to his “ argument,” we are almost im- equally the lineal descendants of the same abmediately at variance with him. It is as án original common ancestor, perhaps of the nu“ argument” that the essay is put forward ; cleated cell of some primæval fungus, which as an argument we will test it.
alone possessed the distinguishing honor of