34 יָדִיךָ may kill the most valiant person. Thus he הַכְּמוֹת נָבָל יָמוּת אַבְנֵר : the people ; which was a great evidence of לֹא־אֲסָרוֹת וְרַגְלֶיךָ לֹא־לִנְחֹשְׁתַּיִם -his own innocency herein; because other הִגַּשׁוּ כִּנְפְוֹל לִפְנֵי בְנֵי־עַוְלָה נָפְלְתָּ

וַיִּסְפוּ כָל־הָעָם


: by nipab Dyn-be and petulant to his sovereign, would never

wise Joab, being so powerful, and proud,

ver. 34.

have taken the shame and blame of it

wholly to himself, as he did.

33 καὶ ἐθρήνησεν ὁ βασιλεὺς ἐπὶ ̓Αβεννὴρ,
καὶ εἶπεν, Εἰ κατὰ τὸν θάνατον νάβαλ ἀπο-
θανεῖται ̓Αβεννήρ; 34 αἱ χεῖρές σου οὐκ
ἐδέθησαν, οἱ πόδες σου οὐκ ἐν πέδαις· οὐ προσ-
ἤγαγεν ὡς νάβαλ, ἐνώπιον υἱῶν ἀδικίας ἔπεσας. καὶ ἐπιταφίους συγγραψάμενος θρήνους, &c.

Bp. Patrick.-33 Josephus looks upon
what follows as a kind of epitaph upon
Abner, whom David buried magnificently,
as he speaks, Θάψας δ ̓ αὐτὸν μεγαλοπρεπῶς

καὶ συνήχθη πᾶς ὁ λαὸς τοῦ κλαῦσαι αὐτόν.

By a fool in Scripture is often meant a
wicked man, a malefactor; and so the sense,
according to this translation is, Did he die
by the hand of justice, for some notorious
crime committed by him? Or, Did he die
by his own folly? No such matter. But
the words may be translated out of the
Hebrew, "How like a fool died Abner?"
Or, "Should Abner have died like a fool?"
That is, what a pity is it, that such a valiant
man should die on this fashion! By
treachery, without any power to defend him-

Au. Ver.-33 And the king lamented over Abner, and said, Died Abner as a fool dieth?

34 Thy hands were not bound, nor thy feet put into fetters: as a man falleth before wicked men [Heb., children of iniquity], so fellest thou. And all the people wept again over him.

As a fool.

Ged., Booth.-As a criminal.

reproached Joab to his very face, before all


Pool.-33 As a fool, i.e., as a wicked man; for such are oft called fools in ScripWas he cut off by the hands of justice for his crimes? Nothing less; but by Joab's malice and treachery. Or did he die by his own folly, because he had not wisdom or courage to defend himself? Ah no. The preservation. Victorinus Strigelius thinks words may be thus rendered: Shall or that David, in these words, distinguishes him should Abner die like a fool, or a vile, con- from those criminals, whose hands being temptible person? i. e., unregarded, unpitied, tied behind them, are carried to execution; unrevenged; as fools or vile persons die, for and from those idle soldiers, who, being whose death none are concerned. Or, How taken captive in war, have fetters clapped is Abner dead like a fool! pitying his mis- upon their legs, to keep them from running chance. It being honourable for a great away. He was none of these; neither a man and a soldier to fight, if met with by an notorious offender, nor a coward: but perenemy, and not (having his arms at liberty) fidiously murdered by one in seeming friendstand still like a fool to be killed, without ship with him. But the plain meaning making any resistance or defence; which, seems to be, that if his enemy had set upon by this treachery of Joab, happened to be him openly, he had been able to make his part good with him.

his case.

34 Thy hands were not bound, nor thy feet put into fetters; thou didst not tamely yield up thyself to Joab, as his prisoner, to be bound hand and foot at his pleasure. Joab did not overcome thee generously and honourably in an equal combat, nor durst he attempt thee in that way, as a general or soldier of any worth would have done. Before wicked men; or, before, i. e., in the presence or by the hands of froward, or perverse, or crooked men, by hypocrisy and perfidiousness, whereby the vilest coward

34 Thy hands were not bound, nor thy feet put into fetters.] He was not a prisoner, but had both hands and feet at liberty, and yet could make no use of them for his own

As a

man falleth before wicked men.]
That is, before a secret murderer.
Dr. Adam Clarke.-

Died Abner, &c.

Or thus:

Shall Abner die

A death like to a villain's?
Thy hands not bound,

Nor were the fetters to thy feet applied.
Like as
one falls before the sons of


So hast thou fallen!

He was not taken away by the hand of my kingdom, not well rooted and settled in justice, nor in battle, nor by accident: he it. The metaphor is taken from a young died the death of a culprit by falling into and tender child or plant. Too hard for me, i. e., too powerful.

the hands of a villain.

Though anointed king.

This song was a heavy reproof to Joab; and must have galled him exceedingly, being sung by all the people.

Houb.-33, An sicut ignavus moritur. Habet interrogationem cum admiratione conjunctam. Miratur et conqueritur David, hominem fortem cecidisse inultum. Nam eum Joab interfecerat per insidias et nihil tale metuentem. Itaque aberrant, qui per interrogationem sine admiratione convertunt, an, ut moritur stultus, mortuus est Abner, quod fecit Clericus.

34, barbare, pro, sicut cadit. Melioris notæ codices habent, sine ; melius,, sicut cadunt.

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Ver. 36.

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Au. Ver.-36 And all the people took notice of it, and it pleased [Heb., was good in their eyes] them: as whatsoever the king did pleased all the people.

As whatsoever, &c.

Ver. 39.

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that ibner was dead in Hebron, his hands הַמֶּלֶךְ בְּעֵינֵי כָל־הָעָם טְוֹב :

καὶ ἤρεσεν ἐνώπιον αὐτῶν πάντα ὅσα were feeble, and all the Israelites were ἐποίησεν ὁ βασιλεὺς ἐνώπιον τοῦ λαοῦ.


Ged., Booth.-1 And when Ishbosheth [LXX, Syr., Arab., Vulg.], the son of Saul, heard that Abner was dead in Hebron, he was discouraged, and all the Israelites were in a state of confusion. (4) For, though JonaHoub.-. Lege, vel, sine nexu. than, Saul's son, had a son, he was lame of Alterum hic membrum inchoatur, ut monet his feet. He was but five years old when punctum Athnac, quod præfixum est. Si the tidings came of the death of Saul and relinquitur, hæc dicentur : et placuit in Jonathan from Jezreel, and his nurse took oculis eorum, secundum omne quod fecit rex him up and fled and in the hurry of her in oculis eorum bonum, quæ non sunt He-flight, he fell, and became lame. And his braica, ut nec Latina. Veteres hæc vitabant, name was Mephibosheth.

et a mendo, ut quisque voluit, declinabant : vide Polyglotta.

4 And all the Israelites, &c. They had now lost Abner; Ishbosheth was a weak pusillanimous prince; and the son of Jonathan, the next hope of the royal family, was lame. The fourth verse, which mentions this circumstance, comes, therefore, naturally in here; which it does not after ver. 3; as every common reader must perceive.—Ged.

καὶ ὅτι ἐγώ εἰμι συγγενὴς σήμερον, καὶ καθεσταμένος ὑπὸ βασιλέως; οἱ δὲ ἄνδρες

Bp. Patrick.-Though anointed king.] Or, as the words may be translated, "and anointed king." That is, not born to a kingdom, but newly called to it, without any hereditary right to the authority; which made it more slender, than if it had been of long standing. This seems to have been the reason why he did not punish Joab for this murder, because he himself was not well established.

Houb.-39 Ego vero adhuc sum rex humilis ac infirmus.

Qui convertunt me, unctus [sic Dathe, Lee, &c.] non cogitant unctum regem esse

,משוח non, משיח

CHAP. IV. 1.

Au. Ver.-1 And when Saul's son heard

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Ver. 2, 3.

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2 καὶ δύο άνδρες ἡγούμενοι συστρεμμάτων | Ged., Booth.-2 Now Ishbosheth, Saul's τῷ Ιεβοσθὲ υἱῷ Σαούλ· ὄνομα τῷ ἑνὶ Βαανὰ,son, had two men who were chiefs of hordes : καὶ ὄνομα τῷ δευτέρῳ Ρηχὰβ, υἱοὶ ̔Ρεμμὼν τοῦ the name of the one was Baanah, and the Βηρωθαίου ἐκ τῶν υἱῶν Βενιαμίν· ὅτι Βηρὼθ name of the other Rechab; the sons of ἐλογίζετο τοῖς υἱοῖς Βενιαμίν. 3 καὶ ἀπέ-Rimmon a Beerothite, of the Benjamites ; δρασαν οἱ Βηρωθαῖοι εἰς Γεθαὶμ, καὶ ἦσαν ἐκεῖ [for Beeroth was now reckoned to Benjamin : παροικοῦντες ἕως τῆς ἡμέρας ταύτης. 3 As the original Beerothites had fled to Au. Ver.-2 And Saul's son had two Gittaim, and are sojourners there until this men that were captains of bands: the name of the one was Baanah, and the name of the other Rechab [Heb., second], the sons of


6 וְהֵנָּה בָּאוּ עַד־תּוֹךְ הַבַּיִת לִקְחִי Rimmon a Beerotlite, of the children of חַמִּים וַיַּכֵּהוּ אֶל־הַחֹמֶשׁ וְרֵכָב וּבַעֲנָה Benjamin : (for Beeroth also was reckoned to

אָחִיו נִמְלָטוּ : ד וַיָּבֹאוּ הַבַּיִת וְהוּא-,And the Beerothites fed to Gittaim 3

שֹׁכֵב עַל־מִטָתוֹ בַּחֲדַר מִשְׁכָּבוֹ וַיַּכֵּהוּ וַיְמִתְהוּ וַיָּסִירוּ אֶת־רֹאשׁוֹ וַיִּקְחוּ אֶת־ Ged., Booth. Now Ishbosheth [LXX ראשׁוֹ וַיֵּלְכוּ דֶּרֶךְ הָעֲרָבָה כָּל־

הַלַּיְלָה :


and were sojourners there until this day.)

And Saul's son.

Saul's son.

לבן Aut legendum est [הָיוּ בֶן־שָׁאוּל-.Maurer

Ver. 6, 7.

[Houb.,, Chald., Syr., Arab.], aut,

quod equidem conjecerim, excidit post: 6 καὶ ἰδοὺ ἡ θυρωρὸς τοῦ οἴκου ἐκάθαιρε Hanc lectionem exhibent LXX. πυροὺς, καὶ ἐνύσταξε καὶ ἐκάθευδε· καὶ ̔Ρηχὰβ τῷ Ιεβοσθὲ υἱῷ Σαούλ. Cf. vs. 4, 8. καὶ Βαανὰ οἱ ἀδελφοὶ διέλαθον, 7 καὶ εἰσCaptains of bands. ἦλθον εἰς τὸν οἶκον· καὶ Ιεβοσθὲ ἐκάθευδεν

Bp. Patrick.-Captains of bands.] Cap- ἐπὶ τῆς κλίνης αὐτοῦ ἐν τῷ κοιτῶνι αὐτοῦ· καὶ tains, perhaps, of two companies of guards τύπτουσιν αὐτὸν, καὶ θανατοῦσιν αὐτὸν, καὶ ἀφαιροῦσι τὴν κεφαλὴν αὐτοῦ· καὶ ἔλαβον τὴν

about the king.

κεφαλὴν αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἀπῆλθον ὁδὸν τὴν κατὰ

Dr. Adam Clarke.Captains of bands.] Principes latronum, captains of banditti, dvoμàs öλny тηv vúкTA. says the Vulgate; the Syriac is the same. Au. Ver.-5 And the sons of Rimmon Whether Ishbosheth kept bands of marauders, the Beerothite, Rechab and Baanah, went, whose business it was to make sudden incur- and came about the heat of the day to the sions into the country places, and carry off house of Ish-bosheth, who lay on a bed at noon. grain, provisions, cattle, &c., we know not; but such persons would be well qualified for the bloody work in which those two men were afterwards employed.

6 And they came thither into the midst of the house, as though they would have fetched wheat; and they smote him under the fifth rib and Rechab and Baanah his brother escaped.

7 For when they came into the house, he lay on his bed in his bed-chamber, and they smote him, and slew him, and beheaded him, and took his head, and gat them away through the plain all night.

Fifth rib. See notes on ii. 23.

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Pool.-2 Beeroth also was reckoned to Benjamin: this is added as the reason why he called them Beerothites, because though Beeroth was now in the hands and possession of the Philistines, 1 Sam. xxxi. 7, yet of right it belonged to the Benjamites, Josh. xviii. 25.

3 And, or yet, or but; for this comes in to anticipate an objection against what he had now said. It is true, saith he, the Beerothites fled, as others did, upon the overthrow of Saul and his army, 1 Sam. xxxi. 7, to a time without necessity, and after the mention place called Gittaim, 2 Sam. iv. 3; not that in of the escape of the two assassins. But in Benjamin, Neh. xi. 33, but some other place the version of the LXX, this 6th verse of that name more remote from the Phi- relates the circumstance by which the two listines; and so they were Gittaimites by assassins were enabled to make their way their present habitation, but Beerothites by unperceived to the king's chamber, namely, their original, and place of their birth. that the servant, who kept the gate, was

Bp. Horsley.-6 There can be no doubt that this verse has suffered some great corruption. In the 7th verse the murder of Ishbosheth seems to be related a second

fallen asleep while she was winnowing quod absciderant, abstulerunt, totamque noc-
wheat. Then the 7th verse describes the tem per viam deserti iter fecerunt.
See LXX, and

murder in its proper place.

compare Vulgate.

Hunc versum fuisse misere deformatum multæ res demonstrant; ut illud Ged.-5 The sons of Rimon the Beero- est, quod narratur, interfectores intrasse in thite, then, Baanah and Rechab, went, and medias ædes, etsi posteà versu 7 idem nararrived about mid-day at the house of Ish-ratur, ut non ante-dictum, et illud etiam, bosheth; 6 who was then lying on a bed; illos fugisse, antequam iterum narretur it being noon: and the woman, who kept domum intrasse. Num enim fugerunt, the door, had also fallen asleep, as she was antequam domum intrarent? Denique cleaning wheat. So Rechab, and his brother afferebat mendi suspicionem ipsa narBaanah, went privately into the house; ratio repetita ejusdem homicidii, con7 and finding Ishbosheth sleeping on his tinenti in sermone facta, nulla interposita bed, in his inner chamber, they smote him, parenthesi, propter quam res ante-dictas reand slew him, and took off his head. And sumere necesse esset. Non mirum igitur they took his head, and travelled all night aliter scriptam fuisse apud Græcorum Intt. by the way of the wilderness. Codices Hebraicos hujus versiculi magnam partem. Nimirum sic habetur apud Græcos, et ecce ostiaria domus purgabat frumenta, et dormituriit et soporata est; Rechab autem et Baana fratres latuerunt; ut postea sequatur, et domum intrârunt, quæ omnia plana sunt, atque etiam talia, ut fieri vix possit, hæc suo marte, quæ non legerent, Græcos addidisse, cum præsertim eadem memoret de ostiaria Vulgatus. Propterea nos Græcorum scriptionem, ut fuit, amplectimur, paucissimis

6, 7, I have entirely followed LXX, partly corroborated by Josephus and the Vulgate.

Booth.-6 And they went into the midst of the house, as if to fetch wheat; and the woman who kept the door had fallen asleep. So Rechab and Baanah his brother went to the house, and as Ishbosheth was lying on his bed, in his bed-chamber, they smote him in the groin, and slew him, and took off his head, and escaped. And they took his exceptis. Græci autem pro, fugerunt, head, and went all night by the way of the

. והנה באו... 6


legebant, latuerunt; pro en 'npi, capientes frumenta, Top, colligens 6, 7, These com. are strangely perverted frumenta: Nam quod habent éκáðαιpe by accident or design. No apposite sense purgabat, ejusdem est sententiæ, quia frucan be derived from them as they now stand. menta non prius colliguntur, quam fuerint The 6 clearly read a different text. I sus- purgata; pro 7", et percusserunt eum, pect they have not given us the text complete, et dormivit; quid vero pro vonn bx, as it originally obtained. I would therefore legerent, non divino. Verum recte dun is, propose to the learned, whether it is not ad solem (dormiebat.) Denique pro INI, highly probable that the historian would men- venerunt usque ad, suspicor eos legisse, tion their ostensible reason for coming to the ostiaria; nam apud Nehemiam sunt king. The first part of the 6th com. con- Janitores. Sic igitur hic versus potest ad tains this reason: they came to fetch wheat. eorum fidem resarciri: pa myon nɔm

, לקטה חמים ינומה אל השמש : ורכב ובענה אחיו כלטו | Harmer has shown that it was and is the

custom for soldiers to receive a certain et ecce ostiaria media in æde purgans fruquantity of wheat, &c. per day, and their menta, et dormivit ad solem; Rechab autem coming for such a supply could excite no et Baana frater ejus latuerunt.

Ver. 8.

6 והנה באו עד תוך 434 .suspicion. See vol. i., p הבית לקחי חטים והשערה ינומה: 7 ובאו רכב ובענה

11111110000 1171 Indo y de nuen, &c.
Of the propriety of this emendation the
learned will judge.--Boothroyd's Heb. Bible.

Houb.-6, 7, Ostiaria domus, dum media
in æde triticum purgabat, ad solem obdor-
mierat; itaque Rechab et Baana frater ejus
domum clam ingressi sunt, dum ille in cubi-
culo interiore super lectum decumbebat, per-

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Ver. 10, 11.

10 כִּי הַמַּגִּיד לִי לֵאמֹר הִנֵּה־מַת,Cussumque eum occiderunt, et caput ejus

בְּעֵינָיו כִמְבַשָׂר quatur scelerati homines occiderunt, peribit שָׁאוּל וְהוּא הָיָה אֲשֶׁר nonne igitur, que actum aget, ubi, ועתה הלוא וָאֹחֲזָה בּוֹ וָאֶהֶרְגֵהוּ בְּצִקְלָג 11 אַף כִּי־אֲנָשִׁים .antecesserit quanto magis לְתִתִּי לוֹ בְּשָׂרָה :

רְשָׁעִים הָרְגוּ אֶת־אִישׁ צַדִּיק בְּבֵיתוֹ עַל־מִשְׁכָּבוֹ וְעַתָּה הֲלוֹא אֲבַקְשׁ אֶת־ דָּמוֹ מִיֶדְכֶם וּבְעַרְתִּי אֶתְכֶם מִן־ הָאָרֶץ :



CHAP. V. 1.

izpwp-by Au. Ver.-And spake.

series, et præterea inutilis fiet hæc resumptio,

Booth. And spoke to him. [LXX.,
Syr., Arab., five MSS].

10 ὅτι ὁ ἀπαγγείλας μοι ὅτι τέθνηκε Σαούλ, καὶ αὐτὸς ἦν ὡς εὐαγγελιζόμενος ἐνώπιόν μου, καὶ κατέσχον αὐτὸν καὶ ἀπέκτεινα αὐτὸν ἐν Σεκελάκ, ᾧ ἔδει με δοῦναι εὐαγγέλια· 11 καὶ νῦν ἄνδρες πονηροὶ ἀπεκτάγκασιν ἄνδρα δίκαιον ἐν τῷ οἴκῳ αὐτοῦ ἐπὶ τῆς οίτης αὐτοῦ. καὶ νῦν ἐκζητήσω τὸ αἷμα αὐτοῦ ἐκ χειρὸς ὑμῶν, καὶ σὺ ἔσῃ εἰς ἡγούμενον ἐπὶ τὸν λαόν μου καὶ ἐξολοθρεύσω ὑμᾶς ἐκ τῆς γῆς. Ἰσραήλ.

σὺ ποιμανεῖς τὸν λαόν μου τὸν Ἰσραὴλ,

, qui erat cogitans dandam sibi (mercedem). Omissum fuit prope s ex similitudine. 11. Videtur legendum, cum Arabe

Ver. 2.

Au. Ver.


Au. Ver.-10 When one told me, saying, Thou shalt feed my people Behold, Saul is dead, thinking to have Israel, and thou shalt be a captain over brought [Heb., he was in his own eyes as a bringer, &c.] good tidings, I took hold of him, and slew him in Ziklag, who thought that I would have given him a reward for his tidings [or, which was the reward I gave him for his tidings]:

; ut sit, igitur, cum nexu orationem continuante; autem, cum, vel quando. Nam si vertas, quanto magis, ut se

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11 How much more, when wicked men have slain a righteous person in his own house upon his bed? shall I not therefore now require his blood of your hand, and take you away from the earth?

root, and comp. Syr. præivit Ephr.

Houb.-10 Ego eum, qui mihi nuntiavit Saülem esse mortuum, quanquam lætum nuntium afferre videbatur, apprehendi et in I. 114, also Germ. Fürst i. q. Engl. first.


prince, also

to be brave,


Ged. Thou shalt be the shepherd of my
people, &c.

Booth.-Thou shalt tend, as a shepherd,
my people, &c.

- Ken., Booth.-Ruler.
Ged.-Supreme ruler.

Gesen.- m. (r. 2) pp. the foremost,
hence leader, prefect, prince, etc. See the


Siceleg interfeci, cum sperabat nuntii mer-Chald. T3, T, id. Arab. cedem se à me accepturum: 11 Num igitur,

cùm scelerati homines hominem immeritum

domi lecto in suo interfecerunt, non ego istum brave, valiant, whence sanguinem de manu vestra requiram, vosque magnanimous, noble. Spoken de terra eripiam?

10. Clericus, ut boni nuntii pretium ei persolverem, grammatica, ut ipse loquitur, conculcata. Nam inauditum est Tò, cùm significat ut, vel eo ut, subjunctum habere velle gerundium, præfixo, ut est nn; cum rò et Tò N sint unum et idem. Chaldæus legebat,

, qui dixerat, vel cogitarat me sibi daturum mercedem; nam sic convertit, ¡m

1. Of any prefect, overseer, e. g. of the treasury, 1 Chron. xxvi. 24, 2 Chr. xxxi. 12; of the temple, 1 Chron. ix. 11, 2 Chron. xxxi. 13; of the priests, 1 Chron. xii. 27; of the palace, 2 Chron. xxviii. 7; of military affairs, leader, chief, 1 Chron. xiii. 1, 2 Chr. Xxxii. 21.

2. Absol. prince of a people, a general word comprehending also the royal dignity, 1 Sam. ix. 16, x. 1, xiii. 14, 2 Sam. vi. 21, vii. 8, 1 Kings i. 35, xiv. 7, al. To the anointed prince, i. e., Messiah, Dan. ix. 25.

prince of the covenant, i. e. confederate, Dan. xi. 22. Plur. princes, Job xxix. 10, Psalm lxxvi. 13-Hence

3. Noble, honourable, in general; Plur.

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