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11. Bibliotheca Biblica: a Select List of Books on Sacred Literature, with Notices Biographical, Critical, and Bibliographical. By William ORME. London, 1824. 8vo.
For many of his titles and notices of books, Mr. Orme has been indebted to the present Work, to which he has honourably acknowledged his obligations. "The theological student cannot fail to derive much advantage from it; and the more learned divine will find it an excellent supplement to the Bibliotheca Theologica Selecta of the laborious Walchius, or to the erudite Bibliotheca Sacra of Le Long." (British Critic, N. S. vol. xxii. p. 486.)
12. Bibliothèque Sacrée Grecque-Latine; contenant le Tableau Chronologique, Biographique, et Bibliographique, des Auteurs Inspirés et des Auteurs Ecclésiastiques, depuis Moïse jusqu'à Saint Thomas-d'Aquin. Ouvrage rédigé d'après Mauro Boni et Gamba. Par. Ch. NoDIER. Paris, 1826. 8vo.
A convenient summary of biblical and ecclesiastical Bibliography. The author first gives a concise biographical notice of the sacred and ecclesiastical writers, and then specifies the principal editions of their works. A List is then subjoined of the Collections of the Canons and Acts of Councils and of the Canon Law, of Ecclesiastical Biographers, and of the Works of the Greek and Latin Fathers, and other Ecclesiastical Writers, and of the Greek and Latin Christian Poets.
13. Bibliotheca Sussexiana. A Descriptive Catalogue, accompanied by Historical and Biographical Notices, of the Manuscripts and Printed Books contained in the Library of HIS ROYAL HIGHNESS THE DUKE OF SUSSEX. By Thomas Joseph Pettigrew, F.R.S. &c. &c. Vol. I. in Two Parts. London, 1827. Imperial 8vo.
This magnificent publication has a special claim to be noticed in the present Catalogue of biblical Works, on account of the diversified and important information which it communicates respecting Editions of the Holy Scriptures, and which is not to be found in the bibliographical treatises already described.
The first portion of the Bibliotheca Sussexiana is appropriated
to MANUSCRIPTS, the number of which amounts very nearly to three hundred: these are arranged according to languages, viz. In Hebrew, Greek, Latin, French, Italian, Spanish, German, Dutch, English, Irish, Arabic, Persian, Armenian, Pali, Singhalese, and Burman.
The second part treats on PRINTED EDITIONS of the Holy Scriptures, disposed under the following titles, viz. Polyglotts of the Old and New Testaments and of detached portions thereof;-Hebrew Bibles, Hebrew and Hebrew-Samaritan Pentateuchs, and portions of the Old Testament in Hebrew;-Greek Bibles, Greek Pentateuch, and portions of the Old Testament in Greek ;-Latin Bibles; and parts of the Old Testament in Latin: forming an aggregate of four hundred and ninety-nine articles, many of which are among the rarest and most valuable in Sacred Bibliography. Much as has been accomplished by preceding authors who have treated on Sacred Bibliography, the laborious researches of Mr. Pettigrew have enabled him to contribute large and important additions to this branch of literature. He has accurately and minutely described the several editions of the Scriptures, and his Bibliographical Notices correct the errors, and supply the deficiencies, of former writers. Curious specimens of metrical Versions are introduced, besides numerous biographical and critical anecdotes of authors and editors. The numerous engravings are executed in the highest style of the chalcographic art. Creditable as the work is to Mr. Pettigrew, in a literary point of view, it would be injustice to the distinguished owner of this magnificent library, not to acknowledge the very liberal facility with which His Royal Highness the Duke of Sussex permits it to be consulted by scholars.
There are copies of this Catalogue in small folio, the typographical splendour of which is unequalled.
**A second volume of this Catalogue has been announced for publication: it is to contain the history of the remaining versions of the Old and New Testament, or of parts thereof, both ancient and modern, viz. The Syriac, Peschito, Philoxenian, and PalæstinoSyriac; the Arabic, Persic, Egyptian, Ethiopic, Armenian, Latin, Gothic, Sclavonic, Anglo-Saxon, German, English, French, Italian, Bohemian, &c. &c., all of which are disposed in chronological order.
ENTIRE TEXTS AND VERSIONS OF THE BIBLE.
PRINCIPAL EDITIONS OF THE HEBREW BIBLE
BISHOP WALTON,1 Carpzov,2 and particularly Le Long, have treated at great length on the various editions of the Hebrew Scriptures. These have been divided by De Rossi and others into Masoretic and Non-Masoretic editions,-a distinction, the utility of which is not perceived. In the present section, Dr. Masch's improved edition of Le Long's Bibliotheca Sacra3 has been chiefly followed. The various impressions of the Hebrew Bible may be divided into the four following classes, viz. (1.) Editiones Principes, or those first printed. (2.) Editiones Primaria, or those which have been adopted as the bases of subsequent impressions.
(3.) Editions, the text of which is accompanied with Rab
(4.) Editions, which are furnished with Critical Apparatus.
§ 1. EDITIONES PRINCIPES.
1. Psalterium Hebraicum, cum commentario KIMCHII. Anno 237 (1477). 4to.
The first printed Hebrew book. It is of extreme rarity, and is printed (probably at Bologna) with a square Hebrew type, ap
1 Prolegom. cap. iv. De Bibliorum Editionibus præcipuis. 2 Critica Sacra, pars i. cap. 9. pp. 387-428.
Bibliotheca Sacra, post. Jacobi Le Long et C. F. Boerneri iteratas curas ordine disposita, emendata suppleta, continuata ab Andrea Gottlieb Masch. Halæ, 4to. 1778-85-90. 4 vols. with Supplement. The account of Hebrew editions is in the first volume, pp. 1-186. 331-424. De Bure's Bibliographie Instructive, tom. i. (Paris 1763), and Brunet's Manuel du Libraire, et de l'Amateur de Livres, (4 vols. 8vo. Paris 1820, 3d edit.) have also been consulted occasionally.
proaching that of the German Jews. The text is without points, except in the first four psalms, which are clumsily pointed. The commentary of Rabbi Kimchi is subjoined to each verse of the in the subsequent editions, as it contains all those passages which text in the rabbinical character, and is much more complete than were afterwards omitted, as being hostile to Christianity. Prof. Jahn states that it is incorrectly printed, and that the matres lectionis are introduced or omitted at the pleasure of the editors.
2. Biblia Hebraica, cum punctis. Soncino, 1488, folio. The first edition of the entire Hebrew Bible ever printed. It is at present of such extreme rarity, that only nine or ten copies of it are known to be in existence. One of these is in the library of Exeter College, Oxford. At the end of the Pentateuch there is a long Hebrew subscription, indicating the name of the editor (Abraham Ben CHAJIM), the place where it was printed, and the date of the edition. This very scarce volume consists, according to Masch, of 373 (but Brunet says 380) folios, printed with points and accents, and also with signatures and catchwords. The initial letters of each book are larger than the others, and are ornamented. Dr. Kennicott states, that there are not fewer than twelve thousand verbal differences between this edition and that of Van der Hooght; his assertion is questioned by Masch. The researches of biblical critics have not succeeded in ascertaining what manuscripts were used for this Hebrew Bible. It is, however, acknowledged that these two very ancient editions are equal in value to manuscripts. § 2. EDITIONES PRIMARIE, OR THOSE WHICH HAVE BEEN
ADOPTED AS THE BASES OF SUBSEQUENT IMPRESSIONS. 1. Biblia Hebraica, 8vo. Brixiæ, 1494.
This edition was conducted by GERSON, the son of Rabbi Moses. It is also of extreme rarity, and is printed in long lines, except part
of the Psalms, which is in two columns. The identical copy of this edition, from which Luther made his German translation, is said to be preserved in the Royal Library at Berlin. This edition was the basis of, 1. The Hebrew Text of the Complutensian Polyglott; 2. Bomberg's first Rabbinical Bible, Venice, 1518, in 4 vols. folio; 3. Daniel Bomberg's 4to. Hebrew Bible, Venice, 1518; 4. His second Hebrew Bible, 4to. Venice, 1521; and, 5. Sebastian Munster's Hebrew Bible, Basil, 1536, in 2 vols. 4to.
2. Another primary edition is the Biblia Hebraica Bombergiana II. folio, Venice, 1525, 1526, folio.
This was edited by Rabbi Jacob Ben CHAJIM, who had the reputation of being profoundly learned in the Masora, and other branches of Jewish erudition. He pointed the text according to the Masoretic system. This edition is the basis of all the modern pointed copies.
§ 3. EDITIONS OF THE BIBLE WITH RABBINICAL COM
Besides the Biblia Rabbinica I. et II. just mentioned, we may notice in this class the three following editions; viz.
1. Biblia Hebraica cum utraque Masora, Targum, necnon commentariis Rabbinorum, studio et cum præfatione R. Jacob F. Chajim, Venetiis, 1547-1549, 4 tomes in 2 vols. folio.
This is the second of Rabbi Jacob Ben Chajim's editions; and, according to M. Brunet, is preferable to the preceding, as well as to another edition executed in 1568, also from the press of Daniel Bomberg.
2. Biblia Hebræa, cum utraque Masora et Targum, item cum commentariis Rabbinorum, studio Joannis Buxtorffii, patris; adjecta est ejusdem Tiberias, sive commentarius Masoreticus. Basilea, 1618, 1619, 1620, 4 tomes in 2 vols. folio.
This great work was executed at the expense of Lewis Koenig, an opulent bookseller at Basle; on account of the additional matter which it contains, it is held in great esteem by Hebrew scholars, many of whom prefer it to the Hebrew Bibles printed by Bomberg. Buxtorf's Biblia Rabbinica contains the commentaries of the celebrated Jewish Rabbins. Jarchi, Aben Ezra, Kimchi. Levi Ben Gerson, and Saadias Haggaon. An appendix is subjoined, containing, besides the Jerusalem Targum, the great Masora corrected and amended by Buxtorf, the various lections of the Rabbis Ben Ascher and Ben Naphtali. Buxtorf also annexed the points to the Chaldee paraphrase. The Tiberias published by Buxtorf, in 1620, was intended to illustrate the Masora and other editions to his great Bible.
3. Biblia Hebraica Magna Rabbinica. Amstelodami, 1724
27. 4 vols. folio.
"This is unquestionably the most copious and most valuable of all the Rabbinical Bibles, and was edited by Moses Ben Simeon of Frankfort. It is founded upon the Bomberg editions, and contains not only their contents, but also those of Buxtorf's, with additional remarks by the editor." Bibl. Sussex. vol. i. part ii. p. 188. In pp. 189-195. there is a copious and interesting bibliographical description of this edition.
§ 4. EDITIONS WITH CRITICAL NOTES AND APPARATUS. 1. The first edition of the Hebrew Bible, printed by Bomberg, and edited by Felix PRATENSIS, (Venice 1518), contains the various lections of the Eastern and Western recensions; which are also to be found in Buxtorf's Biblia Rabbinica.
2. Biblia Hebraica, cum Latina Versione Sebastiani MuxSTERI. Basilea, 1534, 1535. 2 vols folio.
The Hebrew type of this edition resembles the characters of the German Jews: the Latin version of Munster is placed by the side of the Hebrew text. Though the editor has not indicated what manuscripts he used, he is supposed to have formed his text upon the edition printed at Brescia in 1494, or the still more early one of 1488. His prolegomena contain much useful critical matter; and his notes are subjoined to each chapter. This is the first edition of the Hebrew Bible printed in Germany.
3. Biblia Sacra Hebræa correcta, et collata cum antiquissimis exemplaribus manuscriptis et hactenus impressis. Amstelodami. Typis et sumptibus Josephi Athiæ. 1661; 1667. 8vo.
An extremely rare edition of a most beautifully executed Hebrew Bible. The impression of 1667 is said to be the most correct. So highly were the labours of the printer, Athias, appreciated, that the States General of Holland conferred on him a gold chain with a gold medal appendant, as a mark of their approbation. Athias adopted the text of Rabbi Chaim's edition, printed at Venice in 1525-26; but he avoided his errors, and rejected several of the readings which are peculiar to that edition. (Jewish Expositor, July, 1828. p. 58.)
4. Biblia Hebraica, cum notis Hebraicis et Lemmatibus La. tinis, ex recensione Dan. Ern. JABLONSKI, cum ejus Præfatione Latina. Berolini, 1699, large 8vo.
Dr. Rossi considers this to be one of the most correct and important editions of the Hebrew Bible ever printed. It is extremely
scarce. Jablonski published another edition of the Hebrew Bible in 1712 at Berlin, without points, in large 12mo; and subjoined to it Leusden's Catalogue of 2294 select verses, containing all the words occurring in the Old Testament. There is also a Berlin edition of the Hebrew Bible without points, in 1711, 24mo., from the press of Jablonski, who has prefixed a short preface. It was begun under the editorial care of S. G. Starcke, and finished, on his death, by Jablonski. Masch pronounces it to be both useless and worthless.
5. Biblia Hebraica, edente Everardo VAN DER HOOGHT. Amstel. et Ultraject. 8vo. 2 vols. 1705.
A work of singular beauty and rarity. The Hebrew text is printed after Athias's second edition, with marginal notes pointing out the contents of each section. The characters, especially the vowel points, are uncommonly clear and distinct. At the end, Van der Hooght has given the various lections between the editions of Bomberg, Plantin, Athias, and others. Van der Hooght's edition was reprinted at London in 2 vols. 8vo. 1811, 1812, under the editorship of Mr. Frey, and is executed with great beauty.
6. Biblia Hebraica ex aliquot Manuscriptis et compluribus impressis codicibus; item Masora tam edita quam manuscripta, aliisque Hebræorum criticis diligenter recensita. Cura ac studio D. Jo. Henr. MICHAELIS. 1720. 2 vols. large 8vo. There are also copies in 4to.
This edition has always been held in the highest estimation. The text is printed from Jablonski's Hebrew Bible (Berlin, 1699); and there were collated for this edition five manuscripts in the library of Erfurt, and nineteen of the best printed editions. A selection of various readings, and parallel passages, both real and verbal, is subjoined, together with brief notes on the most difficult Michaelis has prefixed learned proletexts of the Old Testament gomena to this edition, the type of which is bad and unpleasant to the eye.
7. Biblia Hebraica secundum editionem Belgicam Everardi VAN DER HOOGHT, collatis aliis bonæ notæ codicibus, una cum Versione Latina Sebastiani Schmidii. Lipsia, 1740, 4to.
A tolerably accurate reprint of Van der Hooght's text, but upon very indifferent type, with additional various readings. The Latin version of Sebastian Schmidt is placed opposite to the Hebrew text. To the work are prefixed, 1. A Preface, by J. C. Claudius, vindicating the edition of Van der Hooght against some critical censures; 2. Van der Hooght's Preface, with the testimonies of some eminent scholars in favour of his edition; and, 3. The Testimony and Judgment of the Theological Faculty of Strasburgh in favour of Sebastian Schmidt's Latin Translation. Masch, Bibliotheca Sacra, part i. p. 158.
8. Biblia Hebraica cum notis criticis, et Versione Latina ad notas criticas facta. Accedunt Libri Græci, qui Deutero-canonici vocantur, in tres Classes distributi. Autore Carolo Francisco HOUBIGANT. Lutetiæ Parisiorum, 1753, 4 vols. folio.
The text of this edition is that of Van der Hooght, without points; and in the margin of the Pentateuch Houbigant has added various lections from the Samaritan Pentateuch. He collated twelve manuscripts, of which however he is said not to have made all the use he might have done. Houbigant has also printed a new Latin version of his own, expressive of such a text as his critical most beautifully printed, but has not answered the high expectaemendations appeared to justify and recommend. The book is tions that were entertained of it. (See Bishop Marsh's criticism on it, in his Divinity Lectures, part ii. pp. 101-104. and also Bibl. Sussex, vol. i. part ii. pp. 192-194.)
9. Vetus Testamentum Hebraicum cum variis Lectionibus. Edidit Benjaminus KENNICOTT, S. T. P. Oxonii, 1776, 1780, 2 vols. folio.
state of the Hebrew text, published in 1753 and 1759; the object This splendid work was preceded by two dissertations on the of which was to show the necessity of the same extensive collation of Hebrew manuscripts of the Old Testament as had already been undertaken for the Greek manuscripts of the New Testa ment. The utility of the proposed collation being generally admitted, a very liberal subscription was made to defray the expense of the collation, amounting on the whole to nearly ten thousand pounds, and the name of his majesty King George III. headed the list of subscribers. Various persons were employed both at home and abroad; but of the foreign literati the principal was Professor Bruns of the University of Helmstadt, who not only collated Hebrew manuscripts in Germany, but went for that purpose into Italy and Switzerland. The business of collation continued from 1760 to 1769 inclusive, during which period Dr. Kennicott published annually an account of the progress which was made. More than six hundred Hebrew manuscripts, and sixteen manuscripts of the Samaritan Pentateuch, were discovered in different libraries in England and on the Continent; many of which were wholly collated, and others consulted in important passages. Several years of course elapsed, after the collations were finished, before the materials could be arranged and digested for publication. The variations contained in nearly seven hundred bundles of papers, being at length digested (including the collations made by Professor Bruns); and the whole when put together being corrected by the original collations, and then fairly transcribed into thirty folio
volumes, the work was put to press in 1773. In 1776 the first | Halensis translate, accessit G. Chr. Knappii præfatio de editionivolume of Dr. Kennicott's Hebrew Bible was delivered to the bus Bibliorum Halensibus, 8vo. Hale, Libraria Orphanotrophe. public, and in 1780 the second volume. It was printed at the Cla- According to the Journal Général de la Littérature Etrangère (Jan rendon Press; and the University of Oxford has the honour of 1819), the above-noticed edition of 1793 consisted of ten thousand having produced the first critical edition-upon a large scale, both copies; the unsold stock of which were disposed of to the trustees of the Greek Testament and of the Hebrew Bible--an honour or governors of the Orphan House at Halle, by whom the titlewhich it is still maintaining by a similar edition, hitherto indeed page was altered to the date of 1818, and a new preface was added unfinished, of the Greek version, commenced by the late Rev. Dr. by Professor Knappe relative to the editions of the Bible published Holmes, and now continuing under the editorial care of the Rev. at Halle. Dr. Parsons.
"The text of Kennicott's edition was printed from that of Van, der Hooght, with which the Hebrew manuscripts, by Kennicott's direction, were all collated. But, as variations in the points were disregarded in the collation, the points were not added in the text. The various readings, as in the critical editions of the Greek Testament, were printed at the bottom of the page, with references to the correspondent readings of the text. In the Pentateuch the deviations of the Samaritan text were printed in a column parallel to the Hebrew; and the variations observable in the Samaritan mannscripts, which differ from each other as well as the Hebrew, are likewise noted, with references to the Samaritan printed text. To this collation of manuscripts was added a collation of the most distinguished editions of the Hebrew Bible, in the same manner as Wetstein has noted the variations observable in the principal editions of the Greek Testament. Nor did Kennicott confine his collation to manuscripts and editions. He further considered, that as the quotations from the Greek Testament in the works of ecclesiastical writers afford another source of various readings, so the quotations from the Hebrew Bible in the works of Jewish writers are likewise subjects of critical inquiry. For this purpose he had recourse to the most distinguished among the rabbinical writings, but particularly to the Talmud, the text of which is as ancient as the third century. In the quotation of his authorities he designates them by numbers from 1 to 692, including manuscripts, editions, and rabbinical writings, which numbers are explained in the Dissertatio Generalis annexed to the second volume.
"This Dissertatio Generalis, which corresponds to what are called Prolegomena in other critical editions, contains not only an account of the manuscripts and other authorities collated for this edition, but also a review of the Hebrew text divided into periods, und beginning with the formation of the Hebrew canon after the return of the Jews from the Babylonish captivity. Though inquiries of this description unavoidably contain matters of doubtful disputation, though the opinions of Kennicott have been frequently questioned, and sometimes justly questioned, his Dissertatio Generalis is a work of great interest to every biblical scholar. Kennicott was a disciple of Capellus both in respect to the integrity of the Hebrew text, and in respect to the preface of the Samaritan Pentateuch; but he avoided the extreme into which Morinus and loubigant had fallen. And though he possessed not the rabbinical learning of the two Buxtorfs, his merits were greater than some of his contemporaries, as well in England as on the Continent, were willing to allow." Bishop Marsh's Divinity Lectures, part ii pp. 105-108. For a very copious account of Dr. Kennicott's edition of the Hebrew Bible, see the Monthly Review (O. S.), vol. 1v. pp. 92-100. vol. lxiv. pp. 173–182. 321-328. vol. lxv. PP.
11. Biblia Hebraica. Digessit et graviores Lectionum varietates adjecit Johannes JAHN. Vienna, 1806, 4 vols. 8vo. Professor Jahn has long been distinguished for his successful cultivation of oriental literature. In his edition the text is very distinctly printed, the principal Hebrew points are retained, and the poetical parts of the Old Testament are metrically arranged: it is conveniently divided into four vols.; of which VOL. I. contains the Pentateuch.-VOL. II. contains the Historical Books of Joshua, Judges, Ruth, Samuel, Kings, Ezra, Esther, and Nehemiah.-VOL. III. comprises the Prophetical Books thus arranged;Amos, Hosea, Micah, Isaiah, Joel, Nahum, Habakkuk, Obadiah, Zephaniah, Jeremiah, Lamentations, Ezekiel, Daniel, Haggai, Zechariah, Jonah, Malachi.-VOL. IV. contains the Psalms, Proverbs, Job, Song of Solomon, and Ecclesiastes. The Books of Kings and Chronicles are given in a kind of harmony.
Each book is judiciously divided into greater or less sections, to which is prefixed a short Latin analysis of their contents. The division into chapters is preserved, and their numbers are noted at the heads of the sections. The number of the verses are also marked in the margin. The Masoretic Notes, which are generally added in the margin of the Hebrew Bibles, are retained, with the exception of a very few, which relate to the accents, and mark the middle of the book. They are all expressed at full length, and many of them are also accompanied with a Latin version. The Jewish criticisms, which are in some editions added at the end of each book, are omitted by Professor Jahn, as being of no use to the Christian reader. To the text are subjoined the more important various readings; and in some more difficult places, all the varia tions that could be found are carefully given. These various readings are taken from the collations of Bishop Walton, Grabe, Montfaucon, Dr. Kennicott, De Rossi, and Dr. Holmes. The text is that of Van der Hooght, from which the editor has departed only in nine or ten places, in which many other editions had preceded him, and which are supported by numerous and very weighty authorities. There are copies on fine paper in 8vo., which are very beautiful, and also forty copies in 4to., which are very rare.
12. Biblia Hebraica, or the Hebrew Scriptures of the Old Testament, without points, after the text of Kennicott, with the chief various readings, selected from his collation of Hebrew manuscripts, from that of De Rossi, and from the ancient versions; accompanied with English notes, critical, philological, and explanatory, selected from the most approved ancient and modern English and foreign biblical critics. By B. BOOTHROYD [now LL.D.]. Pontefract and London, 1816. 2 vols. 4to.
To Dr. Kennicott's Hebrew Bible, M. De Rossi published an This is perhaps the cheapest Hebrew Bible, with critical appaimportant supplement at Parma (1784—1787), in four volumes 4to. ratus, that is extant; it was published originally in parts, the first of Varia Lertiones Veteris Testamenti. This work and Dr. Kenni- of which appeared in 1810. It is peculiarly interesting to the cott's edition form one complete set of collations. Of the immense Hebrew scholar and critic, as it contains in a condensed form, the auass of various readings which the collations of Dr. Kennicott and substance of the most valuable and expensive works. An eminent M. De Rossi exhibit, multitudes are insignificant; consisting fre- critic has observed, Mr. Boothroyd has evidently spared neither quently of the omission or addition of a single letter in a word, as expense nor labour to furnish the student with interesting extracts, uvau, &c. "But they are not therefore useless. All of this class which are calculated to assist him as well in interpreting as in contribute powerfully to establish the authenticity of the sacred obtaining a critical acquaintance with the original text. A good text in general by their concurrence; while they occasionally philological note is frequently of more importance towards the afford valuable emendations of the sacred text in several important elucidation of a difficult passage than a long theological comment, passages, supporting by their evidence the various readings sug- which is often little better than a detail of contrary opinions. gested by the ancient versions derived from manuscripts of an There is evidently some hazard of adopting fanciful and conearlier date." (Dr. Hales's Analysis of Chronology, vol. ii. book i.jectural corrections in so extensive an undertaking as this, which p. xiv.) In the first volume of Dr. Masch's edition of Le Long's is principally compiled from preceding authors of almost every Bibliotheca Sacra, there is a valuable collection of various read- description. Against this danger the sobriety of the editor's judgings made from the Masoretic and Non-Masoretic printed copies ment has been a powerful protection; and as his avowed object of the Hebrew Bible. See pp. xl.-cxviii. was the solid instruction of the purchasers of his book, he has, in (Eclectic commendable manner, accomplished his purpose." and the poetical parts of the Hebrew Scriptures are printed in Review, vel. vii. p. 34. New Series.) The type is very clear; hemistichs, according to the arrangement proposed by Bishop Lowth, and adopted by Archbishop Newcome. There are copies in royal 4to.
10. Biblia Hebraica, olim a Christiano Reineccio edita, nunca denuo cum variis lectionibus, ex ingenti codicum copia à B. Kennicotto et J. B. De Rossi collatorum, ediderunt, J. C. DOEDERLEIN et J. H. MEISSNER. Lipsia, 1793, 8vo.
This edition was undertaken by the celebrated Dr. Doederlein and Professor Meissner, in order to supply those lovers of Hebrew literature who may not be able to consult the expensive volumes of Kennicott and De Rossi. They have selected the principal various readings of those eminent collators; but Professor Jahn asserts that the text is very incorrect. The fine paper copies are beautiful and convenient books; but these on common paper are scarcely legible. They are usually bound in two volumes. In 1818 a second edition of this valuable Hebrew Bible was published at Halle, with a new preface by Dr. Knappe, entitled, Biblia Hebraica olim a Christ. Reineccio evulgata, post ad fidem recensionis Masoretica, cum variis lectionibus ex ingenti codd. mss. copia a Benj. Kennicotto et I. B. De Rossi collatorum edita, cur. J. C. Doederleinio et I. H. Meissnero. Quorum editioni ante hos XXV. annos e bibliopolio Lipsiensi emissæ, nunc emptionis jure in libr. Orphanotrophei
13. Biblia Hebraica secundum editionem Everardi Van der Hooght, denuo recognita et emendata à Juda D'ALLEMAND, Lingua Sanctæ Doctore. Editio nova, longè accuratissima. Londini, 1822; 1833. 8vo.
The edition, of which there are copies on fine paper, is stereotyped: it is printed after Van der Hooght's text; in preparing which for the press, the learned editor, Mr. D'Allemand, states that he discovered not fewer than two hundred errata. These he has carefully corrected, and by repeated and most attentive revision he has perhaps done all that human industry can accomplish, in order to produce an accurate edition of the Hebrew Bible In addition to the care previously bestowed by the editor, every page was revised four times, after the stereotype plates were
cast, by persons familiar with the Hebrew Language. Van der Hooght's historical summaries of the contents of each chapter are omitted, in order that the expense of the book may not be unnecessarily increased. The various readings and Masoretic notes are very neatly and clearly exhibited at the foot of each page. Upon the whole, this edition may safely be pronounced the most beautiful, as well as the cheapest, edition of the Hebrew Scriptures ever published, To its great accuracy a learned Polish Rabbi has borne testimony. (See Jewish Expositor, September, 1825, p. 346.)
14. Biblia Hebraica Manualia, ad Exemplar Athianum accurata [à Judâ D'ALLEMAND]. Londini, 1828, large 12mo,
This edition of the Hebrew Scriptures was printed by the London Society for promoting Christianity among the Jews. "In compliance with the prejudices of those, for whose benefit it was intended, it is strictly a Jewish Bible, without a single Roman letter or figure. The Jews do not like Van der Hooght's edition, because a mark (†), which they deem a cross, is used in the text as a mark of reference to the notes." The editions most prized by the Jews are those of Athias (see page 7. No. 3 of this Appendix); and from his second edition, printed in 1667, the text of the present Hebrew Bible is taken, with one or two variations. "From its size, price, and the correctness of the text, this book will be a desirable acquisition to the Christian reader of the Old Testament in its original language, who wishes to possess the Jews' text. But for critical purposes, he must have recourse to Bibles free from the Masorah, such as those of Munster, and the quarto of Stephens." (Jewish Expositor, July, 1828. vol. xiii. pp. 256. 258.)
15. Biblia Hebraica secundum editiones Jos. Athiæ, Joannis Leusden, Jo. Simonis aliorumque, imprimis Everhardi Van der Hooght, recensuit, sectionum propheticarum recensum et explicationem clavemque Masorethicam et Rabbinicam addidit Augustus HAHN. Lipsia, 1831, 8vo,
EDITIONS OF THE HEBRÆO-SAMARITAN PENTATEUCH.
1. CHRISTOPHORI CELLARII Hora Samaritanæ: hoc est, Excerpta Pentateuchi Samaritanæ Versionis, cum Latinâ Interpretatione novâ et Annotationibus perpetuis. Etiam Grammatica Samaritana copiosis exemplis illustrata, et Glossarium, seu Index Verborum. Cize, 1682. 4to.
2. Pentateuchus, Hebræo-Samaritanus, charactere HebraicoChaldaico editus, curâ et studio Benj. BLAYNEY, S. T. P Oxonii, 1790. 8vo.
The text of the Hebræo-Samaritan Pentateuch, which was printed in Bishop Walton's Polyglott, described in p. 20. infra, has been adopted as the basis of this edition, to which have been added various readings from Dr. Kennicott's edition of the Hebrew Bible. already noticed.
PRINCIPAL EDITIONS OF THE GREEK TESTAMENT, AND OF DETACHED BOOKS THEREOF.
BESIDES the works of Le Long and Masch, the history of the various editions of the Greek Testament is treated at considerable length by Pritius,1 by Dr. Mill and Wetstein in the Prolegomena to their critical editions of it, by Michaelis and his learned annotator Bishop Marsh,2 Dr. Griesbach, Professors Beck and Harles," by Mr. Butler, and by Dr. Clarke. To their labours, which have been consulted for this section, the reader is once for all referred, who is desirous of studying this important branch of the literary history of the sacred writings.
The following table exhibits the four principal StandardText-Editions of the Greek Testament, together with the prin cipal editions which are founded upon them :8
The text of Van der Hooght is scrupulously followed by Dr. Hahn, who has carefully corrected the typographical errors in Van der Hooght's edition. The volume is stereotyped from a new and very clear type, with singular neatness, and it is printed on good paper. As all the late editors (Jahn alone excepted) have preferred to follow the judgment of Van der Hooght, his text may now be regarded as the textus receptus of the Hebrew Scriptures. Aldus. Fol. Gr. 1518.-Gerbelii. Qto. Gr. 1521.-Cephalaus. Oct.
Of the minor editions, containing the Hebrew text only, without any critical apparatus, the following have been recommended to biblical students; viz.
1. The most useful Hebrew Bible, for any person who is moderately acquainted with Latin, is that of Benedictus Arias Montanus, with an interlineary Latin translation, printed by Christopher Plantin at Antwerp, 1572, 1584, folio.
2. Biblia Hebraica, accurante M. Christiano REINECCIO, Lipsiæ, 1725, 1729, 1756.
These are neat and accurate editions, Masch mentions another edition dated 1729, in quarto, in which the books are arranged according to the order adopted in the editions of the German translation of the Bible.
3. Biblia Hebraica manualia ad optimas quasque editiones recensita, atque cum brevi lectionum Masorethicarum Kettriban et Krijan resolutione ac explicatione. Edita a Johanne SIMONIS. Hale, 1752; 1767. Editio nova, 1828. 8vo.
The second edition of 1767 is the best. The text is that of Van der Hooght,. There is a short yet full Hebrew and Latin Lexicon at the end of both editions, which have the additional merit of being portable, cheap, and useful.
4. Biblia Hebraica sine punctis. Amstelodami, 1701, small
This is usually though incorrectly called Leusden's Hebrew Bible. The real editor was Maresius; Leusden wrote a preface to the Hebrew Bible printed at Amsterdam, 1694, 8vo. which abounds with errors. With the edition of 1701 is frequently bound up a neat and accurate edition of the Greek Testament, printed by Wetstein at Amsterdam, 1740, in small 8vo.
5. Biblia Hebraica, ad optimarum editionum fidem, summa diligentia recusa. Societatum Biblicarum sumptibus. Basileæ, 1827. 8vo.
1. ERASMUS. 1516-19-22-27-35.
Gr. 1524.-Bebelius. Oct. 1524. Gr. 1531-35.-Colinæus. Oct. Gr. 1534.-Platteri. Oct. Gr. 1538-40-43.- Van Ess. Oct. Gr. Lat. 1827.
2. COMPLUTENSIAN. 1514.
Plantin. Oct. Gr. 1564-73-74-90-91-1601-12. Fol. Gr. et Lat. 1572. Oct. 1574-83. Fol. 1584.-Geneva, Gr. 1609. 24mo. 1619, 1620. Qto.-Goldhagen. 1753. Oct. Gr.-Gratz. Gr. Lat. 1821. Oct.
3. ROBT. STEPHENS. 1546-49-50.
Oporinus. Duod. Gr. 1552.-Wechel. Fol. Gr. 1597. Duod. 1600. Fol. 1601. Duod. 1629.-Imp. Nicolai Dulcis. Fol. Gr. 1687.Edit. Regia. Fol. Gr. 1642.-Crispin. Duod. Gr. 1553-63-1604. Duod. Gr. et Lat. 1612-22.-Froschoveri. Oct. Gr. 1559-66.-Brylinger. Oct. Gr. 1563.- Voegelii. Oct. Gr. 1564.-Vignonii. Duod. Gr. 1584-87-1613-15.-Beza. Fol. Gr. et Lat. 1565-82-89-981642.-Waltoni. Fol. Gr. Lat. 1657.-Millii. Fol. Gr. 1707.Kusteri. Fol. Gr. 1710-23.-Birchii. Gr. 1788. Fol. et Qto.Hardy. Oct. Gr. 1768. 1776. 1819.-Valpy. Gr. 1816; 1826. Oct. -Lloyd. Gr. 18mo. 1828. 1830.-Greenfield, Gr. 48mo. 1829.Bloomfield, Gr. 1832. 8vo.
4. ELZEVIR. 1624-33, &c.
Boecleri. Oct. Gr. 1645.-Curcellai. Oct. Gr. 1658-75-85-99.-Felli, Oct. Gr. 1675.-Konigii. Oct. Gr. 1697-1702.-Gregorii. Fol. Gr. 1703.-G. D. T. M. D. Oct. Gr. 1711-35.-Wetstenii. Fol. Gr. 1715.-Birrii. 1749. Oct.-Basil. 1825. Oct.-Lond. 1827. 48mo. The editions of Bengel, Bowyer, Griesbach, Alter, Harwood, Knappe, Tittmann, Boissonade, Lachmann, Scholz, Naebe, and Goeschen, are not formed on the text of either of the above editions. Of the various editions of the Greek Testament, which have issued from the press, the following more particularly claim the
notice of the biblical student :
damo recognitum et emendatum. Basileæ, 1516, folio. Gr. Lat. 1. Novum Instrumentu omne diligenter ab ERASMO Roteroedit. princeps.
Introd. ad Lect. Nov. Test. pp. 403-423.
6. Victorini BITHNERI Lyra Davidis regis, sive Analysis 2 Introduction to the New Test. vol. ii. part i. pp. 429-494.; part ii. pp. 844 Critico-Practica Psalmorum; quâ Voces Ebrææ explicantur, ac-885. Bishop Marsh's Divinity Lectures, part i. pp. 98-110,; part ii. pp. 1--46.
consensus Textûs Sacri cum Paraphrasi Chaldaica ac Septuaginta Virorum Interpretatione Græca monstratur. Londini, 1650, 1664, 1679, 4to.; Tiguri, 1664, 1670, 8vo.; Glasguæ (in ædibus academicis) et Londini, 1823. 8vo.
Bythner's Lyra Prophetica has long been known as perhaps the most valuable help to the critical and grammatical study of the book of Psalms. The late reprint, at the university press of Glasgow is very beautiful.
3 Nov. Test. vol. i. prolegom. pp. iii.-xxxix.
• Monogrammata Hermeneutices Novi Testamenti, pp. 110-115.
5 Brevior Notitia Literaturæ Græcæ, pp. 656-664. ; and also vol. iv. of his improved edition of Fabricius's Bibliotheca Græca, pp. 839-856. Horæ Biblicæ, vol. i. pp. 150-169.
Bibliographical Dictionary, vol. vi. pp. 168-203.
This table is taken from Masch and Boerner's edition of Le Long's Bibliotheca Sacra, and from Dr. Dibdin's Introduction to the Knowledge of the Classics, vol. i. pp. 55. 3d edit. with the requisite corrections and additions.
Erasmus had the distinguished honour of giving to the world the first edition of the entire New Testament. It was reprinted in 1519, 1522, 1527, and 1535. The first edition is of extreme rarity, and was executed with great haste, in the short space of five months. Some of the manuscripts which he consulted are preserved in the public library at Basle, but none of them are of very great antiquity. For the first edition he had only one mutilated manuscript of the Apocalypse (since totally lost); he therefore filled up the chasms with his own Greek translations from the Latin Vulgate. The publication of this edition, in which he omitted the controverted clause in 1 John v. 7. because it was not in any of his manuscripts, involved him in a literary contest with the divines of Louvain, and with Stunica, the most learned of the Complutensian editors.2 The editions of 1516, 1519, and 1522, were published before he saw the Complutensian Polyglott, from which he corrected the edition of 1527, particularly in the Apocalypse. Erasmus's editions were repeatedly printed after his death, particularly at Basle, Frankfort, and Leipsic. All his editions are much esteemed, notwithstanding their faults, and in some respects they are considered as equal to manuscripts. In the first edition Dr. Mill discovered about five hundred vitiated passages, and about one hundred genuine ones; a copy, on vellum, is in the Cathedral Library at York. Mr. Nolan has satisfactorily vindicated the character of Erasmus, as a sound critic and editor of the New Testament, from the charges of Dr. Griesbach. (Inquiry into the Integrity of the Greek Vulgate, pp. 410-419.)
2. Novum Testamentum, Græce et Latine. Compluti, 151-4. This forms the fifth volume of the Complutensian Polyglott noticed in p. 19. infra. Though it bears the date of 1514, yet as it was not allowed to be sold generally until 1522, before which time Erasmus had printed three editions of the New Testament, it is in fact entitled only to the second place in our list. The Greek text of this edition is printed without spirits, but the vowels are frequently accented. The characters seem to have been cut in imitation of those found in manuscripts of the twelfth century; and were probably taken from some manuscripts of that age, which were consulted by the Complutensian editors. The Complutensian edition contains the celebrated text relative to the heavenly witnesses in 1 John v. 7, 8., of which we have given an engraved facsimile in another part of this work. Wetstein, Semler, and other Protestant critics charged the editors with having altered the text, in order to make it conformable to the Latin Vulgate; but this charge has been refuted by Goeze and Griesbach. Their vindication is pronounced satisfactory by Michaelis (who considers the Apocalypse to be the best edited part of the Complutensian Greek Testament); and also by his annotator, Bishop Marsh, who states that this charge, in general, is not true. For though he is of opinion, that in some few single passages,-as in Matt. x. 25. and 1 John v. 7-they follow the Vulgate in opposition to all the Greek manuscripts, he has ascertained, from actual collation, that there are more than two hundred passages in the Catholic Epistles, in which the Complutensian Greek text differs from the text of the Vulgate, as printed in the Complutensian edition. The manuscripts used for this edition are characterized as being very ancient and very correct, but this assertion is contradicted by internal evidence (see p. 20. infra.); and it is a most remarkable fact, that "wherever modern Greek manuscripts, manuscripts written in the thirteenth, fourteenth, or fifteenth centuries, differ from the most ancient Greek manuscripts, and from the quotations of the early Greek fathers, in characteristic readings, the Complutensian Greek Testament almost invariably agrees with the modern, in opposition to the ancient manuscripts. There cannot be a doubt, therefore, that the Complutensian text was formed from modern manuscripts alone." (Bishop Marsh's Divinity Lectures, part i. p. 95.) The researches of the Danish professor Birch have shown that the Complutensian editors have made no use whatever of the Codex Vaticanus, though they boasted of valuable manuscripts being sent to them from the Vatican library.
3. Simonis COLINI.-'H Kawn seadman. Ev AUTETI TWY παρησίων, παρα τω Σίμωνι Κολιναίω, δεκεμβριου μηνος δευτερου φθίνοντος, ετσι απο της θεογονιας α.φ. λ.δ. (Paris, 1534. 8vo.)
An edition of singular rarity, beauty, and correctness. Colinæus was a very careful printer. He has been unjustly charged with partiality in following some unknown manuscripts; but from this accusation he has been fully exonerated by Dr. Mill and Wetstein. 4. Novum Testamentum, Græce. Lutetiæ, ex officina Roberti STEPHANI Typographi, Typis Regiis. 1546, 12mo. 1549, 12mo. 1550, folio.
The FIRST of these editions is usually called the O mirificam Edition, from the introductory sentence of the preface, O mirificam regis nostri optimi et præstantissimi principis liberalitatem. It has always been admired for the neatness of its typography, as well as for its correctness, only twelve errata (it is said) having been discoThe first portion ever printed was executed by Aldus Manutius at Venice, in 1504. A copy is in the Royal Library of Wirtemburg at Stutgard. The whole of St. John's Gospel was published at Tubingen, in 1514.
In his disputes with Stunica, Erasmus professed his readiness to insert this verse if it were found in a single manuscript. Though Stunica could not produce one, yet as it was afterwards discovered in the Codex Britannicus (or Montfortianus), a manuscript of no great antiquity, Erasmus felt himself bound to insert it, and accordingly admitted it into his third edition
vered in it. Robert Stephens compiled this edition from the Complutensian, and the edition printed at Basil, in 1531, and again in 1535, by John Bebelius (which last followed the editions of Erasmus, and that of Aldus, printed in 1518,) together with the fifth edition of Erasinus according to Griesbach, and from fifteen ancient manuscripts in the Royal Library at Paris. Griesbach (tom. i. proleg. pp. xiv.-xxxi.) has given a long and critical examination of this edition, and of the manuscripts consulted by Stephens for his three editions. Stephens's first edition differs from the Complutensian text in five hundred and eighty-one instances, exclusive of the Apocalypse, in which he closely follows Erasmus. The SECOND edition closely resembles the first in its exterior appearance, but differs from it in sixty-seven places; of which four are doubtful readings, thirty-seven not genuine, and twenty-six genuine; so that this latter edition has eleven readings of less authority than the former, to which, however, it is preferred on account of its greater rarity and correctness. It is this second edition which has the remarkable erratum pulres for plures, in the last line but one of the first page of the preface, occasioned by the transposition of a single letter. The THIRD edition of 1550, in folio, is a chef-d'œuvre of splendid typography. It was once supposed to have been formed entirely on the authority of Greek manuscripts, which Stephens professes, in his preface, to have collated for that purpose, a second and even a third time. So far, however, was this from being the case, that the researches of critics have shown that, except in the Apocalypse, it is scarcely any thing more than a reprint of Erasmus's fifth edition. Though its value as a critical edition is thus considerably reduced, the singular beauty of its typography (which has rarely been exceeded in modern times) has caused it to be considered as a distinguished ornament to any library. Robert Stephens reprinted the Greek New Testament at Geneva in 1551, in 8vo. with the Vulgate and Erasmus's Latin versions, and parallel passages in the margin. This is the scarcest of all his editions, and is remarkable for being the first edition of the New Testament divided into verses. (Marsh's Michaelis, vol. ii. part i. pp. 446. 448. part ii. pp. 848, 849. Griesbach, Nov. Test. p. xv.) The character of Robert Stephens, as an editor of the Greek Testament, has been elaborately vindicated against the criticisms of Professor Porson, by the Rev. C. P. Greswell in the first volume of his "View of the early Parisian Greek Press" (Oxford, 1823, 8vo.); and also by the Rev. Francis Huyshe, who has inserted a series of papers in the third, fourth, and fifth volumes of the British Magazine, for 183334, in which the statements of Porson, Griesbach, and some other modern critics are minutely investigated.
5. Novum Testamentum, cum versione Latina veteri, et nova Theodori BEZE. Geneva, folio, 1565, 1576, 1582, 1589, 1598. Cantabrigiæ, 1642, folio.
The New Testament of 1565 is the first of the editions conducted by Theodore Beza, who was a native of France, and a Protestant, and fled to Switzerland on account of his religion. "The critical materials which he employed were for the most part the same as those which had been used by Robert Stephens. But he had likewise the advantage of that very ancient manuscript of the Gospels and the Acts, which he afterwards sent to the university of Cambridge, and which is known by the name of the Codex Bezæ. He had also a very ancient manuscript of St. Paul's Epistles, which he procured from Clermont in France, and which is known by the name of the Codex Claromontanus. Lastly, he had the advantage of the Syriac version, which had been lately published by Tremellius, with a close Latin translation. But the use which he made of his materials was not such as might have been expected from a man of Beza's learning. Instead of applying his various readings to the emendation of the text, he used them chiefly for polemical purposes in his notes. In short, he amended Stephens's text in not more than fifty places; and even these emendations were not always founded on proper authority." (Bishop Marsh's Lectures, part i. p. 109.) Beza's third edition of 1582 is considered as the most complete of those printed under his own eye; but all his editions have the Vulgate Latin version, and a new one of his own, together 1598, being esteemed the most accurate of any that had before been with philological, doctrinal, and practical notes. The edition of published, was adopted as the basis of the English version of the New Testament, published by authority in 1611. This testimony of the Anglican church is highly honourable to its merit. The reprint of Beza's Testament, at Cambridge, in 1642, with the addition of Joachim Camerarius's notes, is considered as the editio optima.
6. Novum Testamentum Græcè. Lugdum Batavorum. Ex Officina ELZEVIRIANA, 12mo. 1624.
This is the first of the celebrated Elzevir editions, and deserves (says Bishop Marsh) to be particularly noticed, because the text of the Greek Testament, which had fluctuated in the preceding editions, acquired in this a consistency, and seemed, during upwards of a century, to be exposed to no future alterations. The text of this edition has been the basis of almost every subsequent impression. Wetstein adapted his various readings to it; and it has acquired the appellation of "Textus Receptus." "The person who conducted this edition (for Elzevir was only the printer) is at present unknown; but, whoever he was, his critical exertions were confined within a narrow compass. The text of this edition was copied from Beza's text, except in about fifty places; and in these places the readings were borrowed partly from the various readings in Stephens's margin, partly from other editions, but certainly not