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cation of this expression, it certainly was not coined by Dickens in 1861; for I knew it sixty years ago. An old game at school was so called. One boy was Tom Tidler, and his ground was marked off with a boundary line. He had heaps of sticks, stones, &c., supposed to be his treasures. The game consisted of a lot of boys invading his ground, and attempting to carry off his treasures, each calling out, "Here I'm on Tom Tidler's ground, picking up gold and silver." Meanwhile Tom was by no means a sluggard, but briskly defended his property, and drove off the thieves with a whip or switch. F. C. H. ST. TERESA'S AUTOGRAPH HER LIFE, ETC. (3rd S. iv. 460.)—Allow me to inform your correspondent CLARRY that I must decline answering his Query respecting the authenticity of St. Teresa's autograph. As the evidence satisfies myself, I see no necessity for entering into any details, especially as I consider the Query is put in a way very offensive to a Catholic priest, such as I have the happiness to be.
I am pained that your correspondent should consider it necessary to repeat the unjust and unbecoming expression of Mr. Ford, who in his usual off-hand and scoffing manner terms a Saint -who is loved and revered by the whole Catholic world-" the crazy nun of Avila." If CLARRY supposes - -as he seems to do that Mr. Ford is the great authority for "the life, death, and miracles" of St. Teresa, he is sadly mistaken. Much as I esteem his Handbook for Spain for its most valuable and interesting information connected with the manners, customs, literature, and general history of Spain, &c., I certainly lament in common with every candid Protestant— that he should have spoken in such a flippant and irreverent manner of the religion of the Spanish nation, and should have so unnecessarily wounded the religious feelings of his numerous Spanish friends, by whom he was always treated with such kindness and hospitality.
Your correspondent appears to confound legends with miracles as if they were both one and the same! No Catholic is bound to believe a word, either of the miracles or legends connected with Saint Teresa (or any other saint), except so far as the "law of evidence" may incline his understanding to accept the proofs of the miracles.
If your correspondent would peruse the proper authorities for the life and miracles of St. Teresa-such as her Life by Diego de Yepez and Francisco de Ribera, referred to by Mr. Ford himself-he will, I hope and trust, have a much higher idea of the glorious saint than calling her "the crazy nun of Avila." In English, Alban Butler, in his admirable Lives of the Saints, gives a very excellent sketch of St. Teresa's life and
miracles (Oct. 15). But the most valuable and interesting work that has ever been published on St. Teresa, is that written by the Bollandists, and entitled Acta Santa Teresia à Jesu (Brussells, 1845, folio). What a vast difference between its learning, solidity of reasoning, and critical acumen, displayed on every page, and the superficial scoffing tone unfortunately adopted by Mr. Ford, in the sketch he gives of the saint, when speaking of Avila in his Handbook for Spain! (Edit. 1855, vol. ii. p. 745, &c.).
It is, however, only just to the memory of Mr. Ford to state, that before he died, he expressed to a friend how much he regretted having spoken of religious subjects as he did connected with Spain-subjects that had little or nothing to do with the real object of his invaluable work. J. DALTON.
P.S. It is to be hoped that your correspon dents will endeavour to avoid all subjects which might lead to unpleasant religious controversy in "N. & Q." I consider the Query of CLARRY was unsuitable for your esteemed publication, with all due deference for your own opinion.
Some derive this name from enpaths, a hunter; others from the Island of Therasia, one of the Sporades; or from Theresia, Therasia, Tarasia, feminines formed from a proper name, Tarasius. Qu. From eapoùs, eîa, bold; or the Arabic turs, a "shield," ," "buckler." The Sp. and It. have Terésa (Sp. dim. Teresíta); Fr. Thérèse, Eng. Theresa; whence Tracy, Tracey, Treacy, Traies; and perhaps Thres, Tress, Tresse, Truss, Tressal, and Tressan. R. S. CHARNOck.
"ROBERT ROBINSON" AND "COUSIN PHILLIS " (3rd S. iv. 458.)-My account appeared on October 30, and the novel two days before. I do not know who is the author of the novel, and I have not the least reason to suppose that the novelist and myself using Geo. Dyer's Life about the same time was anything but mere coincidence.
What makes your correspondent call Robinson a dissenting l'arson Trulliber ?" Ever since I learnt at Cambridge that the way to detect a wrong-armed balance is to make the weight and the goods change scales, and see if they then match, I have employed this method in trying similes, and have got much amusement thereby; and never more than when, this day, I hunted up Joseph Andrews, and read the account of the illiterate and brutal pig-feeler as that of an "assenting Pastor Robinson." Surely A is as like B as B is like A: or else the absurdity as it is usually called- -"Cæsar and Pompey are very much alike, especially Pompey," is no absurdity
at all. But if, which I hope is not the case, the simile be an application of the satirical rule of three-as Robinson is to Trulliber, so is dissenting minister who farms to assenting minister who farms, I must say, from knowledge of several who come under the fourth term of the proportion, that the sum is far from correctly stated. A. DE MORgan.
EXECUTIONS (3rd S. iv. 186, 282.)—A voluminous work, Mémoires of the seven hereditary executioners in Paris, between 1688 and 1847, has recently been published by the present representative of the Sanson dynasty: authenticated by his armoiries parlantes—a cracked bell, with the motto, "Sans son," and the significant supporters of a brace of bloodhounds. An out-and-out sensational drama this: worth a hundred Thurtell-gigs or Camberwell-cabs, to any London theatre-royal or penny gaff! But I "make a note of it" for an incident's sake, which throws into shade the carnificial curiosity of Selwyn and Boswell.
In 1793, when the Reign of Terror had reached its perihelion, and the followers of this and that faction were alternating to the scaffold by daily dozens and scores, an Englishman offered Sanson the sixth 107. sterling for admission as one of his valets to the next morning's guillotinade; and, the bribe being declined, went off in a huff, vowing that he would accomplish his purpose, malgré Monsieur l'Exécuteur des Hautes Euvres. (How much more euphuistic than our curt "Jack Ketch!")
Not long after, it being a grand field-day in the Place de Grève, as the charettes were emptying their respective companies at the scaffold's foot, and Monsieur de Paris was telling off his gibier, he descried his English visitor bustling among them, suitably got up as a death-flunkey, and sporting the bonnet rouge. Seemingly unaware of the trick, he bade the trickster drive the charettes back to the prison stables, and disappointed him
of his amusement.
Who was this sanguinolent sight-seeker? Nimble-witted Selwyn is reported to have ridden post to Paris for an autopsy of Damien's long agony; and biographic Boswell parsonified an extraordinary for a seat in the same vehicle with Hackman to Tyburn; but what were they, compared with the Tom Noddy, who defiled an English head with a French bonnet rouge, and sought service among the valetaille of the guillotine?
E. L. S.
BERRY, OR BURY (3rd S. iv. 304, 401.) - Your correspondent will find a curious dissertation on this word in Verstegan's Restitution of Decayed Intelligence, p. 211. THOMAS E. WINNINGTON.
DERIVATION OF "PAMPHLET" (3rd S. iv. 379.)In support of Dr. Ash, I append an extract from
Thomas Hoccleve's Poems, printed (for the first time) in 1796, p. 77 :
"Go litil pamfilet, and streight thee dresse Unto the noble rootid gentillesse
Of the mighty prince of famous honour, My gracious Lord of Yorke
SINGAPORE (3rd S. iv. 395.) The European residents do not understand Chinese, but there is a mongrel language vulgarly called pigeon (pidgin bidgin, bidg-ness business) English, which answers ordinary purposes. In order to protect our authority in a place where we are so out-numbered, it is necessary to have a popular Chinaman in office; and accordingly, one who was originally a cooly, is now on the bench (magisterial), and has done good service. Mr. Oliphant was quite correct with regard to a knowledge of the real Chinese language. S.
THE BROTHERS OF MRS. HEMANS (3rd S. iv. 323, 360, 421.)—In reference to the anxious inquiries of my friend MR. WM. KELLY, I beg leave to say that I have abstained to the present from giving him the information he desires, expecting that some other person would do so; and apprehending that I might be intruding upon the privacy of my highly respected friend Lieut.-Colonel George Browne, C.B. I am truly happy in being able to state that this gentleman -the youngest brother of the late Mrs. Felicia Hemans, the celebrated poetess-is well, hearty, and happy: the life and soul of the circle in which he lives and shines. He is, I should say, the officer whose charming gaiety and friendship made such an agreeable impression upon the father of Mr. Kelly in America: for my gallant friend served with his regiment in that country, and he is still the man to repeat the pleasant scene so graphically described by my worthy neighbour.
Not long since, I had the pleasure of meeting Colonel Browne in France; and although the French knew well he was their active enemy in the Peninsula, upwards of half a century ago, they evidently honoured, esteemed, and admired him. Not quite so much, however, as he is honoured, esteemed, and admired in the city of Dublin. Why, you may ask, should allusion be thus made to the Irish metropolis? For a long time (not less than twenty years prior to 1857, when he retired), Colonel Browne acted as Chief Commissioner of Police in Ireland; and those who know anything of the wild agitation-political, and something more-which prevailed there throughout the greater part of his service, may form an opinion of the arduous duties imposed upon him. Owing to his singular good temper, kindness of heart, and forbearance, combined with unceasing care of the important force under his command, and also care for the public peace, the heavy hand
of justice generally stopped dangerous enthusiasts, and would-be-rebels, ere they had proceeded too far on the road to ruin. Notwithstanding this most trying position, the name of my gallant friend was never mentioned by any party with disrespect, or disapprobation. In 1857, the government acknowledged his valuable services by allowing him to retire from his Commissionership on full salary; which, with good health, may he long enjoy. He had an elder brother, Lieut.General Sir Thomas Henry Browne, K.C.H.; the date of whose death I have no convenient means SUTTON CORKRAN. of ascertaining. Leicester.
ST. MARY OF EGYPT: CURIOUS PAINTING ON GLASS (3rd S. iv. 433.) —The Life of this celebrated penitent was written by a grave author of the fifth century, named Sophronius. In the course of it, he relates what undoubtedly gave rise to the painting alluded to by W. D. The saint, in relating the history of her life to Zosimus, the priest who discovered her in the desert, acknowledged with great humility and compunetion, that she had abandoned herself at an early age to a life of infamy; and that one time seeing a number of pilgrims about to embark at Alexandria for Jerusalem, she had a great wish to accompany them, not out of any devotion, but to find among the crowd of people further opportunities of sinful gratification. She added that, having no money to pay her passage, she resolved to abandon herself to the first whom she might meet. And that, during the voyage, she induced many to fall; which made her now tremble to think of, and wonder why the sea was not allowed to swallow her up, or that she had not been struck with lightning from heaven.
Here we have the origin of the extraordinary painting, described in the extract from Sainte Foix: Comment la Sainte offrit son corps au batelier pour son passage." It probably formed one of a series, representing the principal events of her wonderful history; but, with every allowance for the good intentions of the artists of olden times, both in sculpture and painting, it was certainly high time for a representation so grossly unbecoming to be removed.
F. C. H.
CHOAK-JADE At Newmarket (3rd S. iv. 410.) The Devil's Dyke on Newmarket Heath, said to have been formerly the boundary between the East Angles and the Mercians, is cut through by No doubt it derived the name of the race-course. from the ignobile vulgus of the "Choak-Jade running horses beginning to indicate at about that spot that they had had enough of it. Who VEBNA. were Messrs. Heber and Pond?
ST. MARY MATFELON (3rd S. iv. 5, 419, &c.)—
ed. p. 371, that he does not make the supposed
NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC.
The Works of William Shakespeare. The Text revised by the Rev. Alexander Dyce. In Eight Volumes. Vol. 1. Second Edition. (Chapman & Hall.)
This title-page does not do justice to the book. It is
A History of the World from the earliest Records to the
This is an attempt to supply the English reader with a history of the world similar in character and object to those with which Muller, Schlosser, Von Rotteck, and
Duncker have supplied the readers of Germany. Mr.
This has reached us so long after publication, that we must content ourselves with stating that it is quite equal to the opening number in variety and interest, and with
calling attention to Mr. Panizzi's proof that Francesco da Bologna, the type-founder of the Aldine characters, was Francesco Raibolini, called Francia, the worthy contemporary of Leonardo, Raphael, and Michael Angelo,great as a painter, great as an engraver, great as a medallist, and without equal as a type cutter.
Mrs. Lirriper's Lodgings.
To criticise the Christmas Number of All the Year Round, after it has drawn forth the tears and smiles of half the readers in England, would be a work of supererogation. The mingled humour and pathos with which Mr. Dickens has painted the clouds and sunshine of Mrs. Lirriper's domestic life, prove that his right hand has not lost her cunning, and will ensure a welcome for the announcement that he will, in May next, commence a new story in the good old Pickwickian monthly form.
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WILBERFORCE'S LIFE BY HIS SONS. Vol. II. 1838.
JESSE'S COURT OF ENGLAND UNDER THE STUARTS. Vols. III. and IV. 1840.
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J. WHITELOCKE (Amboise). W. G. Freeman, Esq., of Fawley Court, is now the patron of the living of Fawley.
H. JACKSON, A view of Fotheringay Castle has already been inquired after in our 2nd S. vi. 91, 152, 258.
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LONDON, SATURDAY, DECEMBER 19, 1863.
CONTENTS. -No. 103.
NOTES:-Stray Notes on Christmas, 485- "Jolly Nose," 488-A Christmas Mystery of the Eleventh Century, 489 Folk Lore: The Grasshopper and Cricket-Pen-tooth - Genii, Jin, Genius, Yin-French Folk Lore - Stepmother's Blessings-St. Clement's Day-Chiltern Customs: Egg Hopping, 491-Mackinlay and the Laird of Largie: the Chieftain and his Fool, 492-"The Wonder of all the Wonders that the World ever Wondered at," 494. MINOR NOTES:- Removing Oil-stains from Books-"Stirup" Sunday-Potato and Point-Boyle-Army Move
ments-Revalenta -Author of Grandsire Bob Self. esteem of the English - Bede and De Morgan, 495. QUERIES:-Anonymous-Blotting-paper-Robert Burns, Jun.-Chartularies of Carrow Abbey, Norwich: Nathaniel Axtell, Esq.- Capnobata - John Guy Colonel and Mrs.
Lucy Hutchinson - David Lamont, D.D. - Bequest for Rood Lofts-Manucel, Maunell, or Mawnell - Melanchthon-"Orbis Sensualium Victus"- - Pomeroy FamilyProcess at Berne- The Prophet in the Passion Mysteries - Quotations Wanted, &c., 497. QUERIES WITH ANSWERS:-Wassail-Laurence Braddon
Rev. James Struthers-Samuel Smith-Forrest: Windham-Private Soldier-Sir Henry Caverley, 499. REPLIES:- Sir Francis Drake, 502 - Potheen, 503-Robert Deverell, Ib. - Dancing in Slippers Bowden of Frome-Lady Reres- Thynne's Will-Hedingham Registers Jane, Lady Cheyne-Executions for MurderHawkins Family-Joseph Addison and the "Spectator" Merchants' Marks-Irish Union-The Earl of Sefton Simon Frazer, Lord Lovat-Capacity for Religion in the Inferior Animals, 504. Notes on Books, &c.
STRAY NOTES ON CHRISTMAS.
1. The Druids' Misletoe Festival in Brittany.-II. SemiPagan and Christian mode of celebrating New Year's Day.-III. Ancient Mummers.-Iv. Roman Catholic "Feasts of the Fool' and 'the Ass.""-v. Abuses in Lutheran Churches at Christmas.-VI. Abuses in Italy. VII. Polydore Virgil on Masquerading at Christmas.
I. The earliest form of religious worship known in this country is that of the Druids. A very clever antiquary (a Breton Catholic priest) M. Manet, has devoted considerable attention to a study of their proceedings; and we avail ourselves of his researches to give an account of the Druidical manner of celebrating that festival, which coincides with our Christmas.
"The Sovereign Pontiff of the entire Druidical order," observes the Rev. M. Manet, "was, as it were, its Pope. All the Druids, says Cæsar (lib. vi. c. 13), obeyed him, without any exception; and his authority over them was absolute. The divine spirit with which they believed him to be filled, made him to be regarded as infallible, not only in doctrine, but also impeccable in his conduct. The poet Ausonius, in apostrophising Attius Patera, says in his praise, that he was descended from a Druid of Bayeux, a priest of Belenus, or Apollo; and, in speaking of Phobitius, one of the Armorican Druids, that he had been treasurer to the temple of the same god, before becoming professor at Bordeaux:
'Nec reticebo senem Nomine Phœbitium, Qui Beleni Ædituus, Nil opis indè tulit;
Sed tamen, ut placitum, Stirpe natus Druidum Gentis Aremorica Burdigali Cathedram Nati operâ obtinuit.'
Every year in the month of December, or Zerzu, which they called 'the sacred month,' they were bound to meet at Rouvres. When the time for this magnificent solemnity approached, the Supreme Pontiff sent his commands to the Pontiffs of each nation and city, and by them his orders were communicated to the people. Instantly the priests came forth from their forests, and traversed their various districts, inviting the faithful to follow them with the cry of Kal (first day of the year), or that of Kalonna (gifts), to prepare themselves worthily for the holy ceremony of the Gui (misletoe) of the new year. This invitation brought together an immense number of clergy and laity to Rouvres. This fête was invariably fixed for the sixth day of the moon. It opened with a search for the famous misletoe upon an oak that had about thirty years growth. And the misletoe, so found, was to become, by its consecration, the Panchrestum-that is to say, 'the universal remedy:' a specific and panacea against all sorts of poisons, and the true source of happiness to all in whose hands it was deposited. When it had been found, there was raised a triangular altar of earth at the foot of the tree on which it had been discovered, and then was commenced a species of procession. The Eubagi marched the first, conducting two white bulls, which had never been subjected to the yoke. These were followed by the Bards, who sang hymns in honour of the Supreme Being. Next came the novices, students, and disciples, accompanied by a herald clothed in white. These were followed by the three most ancient Pontiffs: one carrying bread that was to be offered up; the second two vessels, filled with water and wine; and the third a hand of ivory, attached to the end of a wand, to represent justice and power. Next came the clergy, preceded by the Supreme Pontiff, in a white robe, and wearing a girdle of gold; and the procession closed with great numbers of the nobles and people. This cortege, having arrived beneath the oak, the officiant, after some prayers, burned a morsel of bread; and poured some wine and water on the altar, and divided what remained amongst the assistant priests. This done, he ascended the tree; it into the robe of one of the principal Pontiffs, who reand cut off, with a golden sickle, the misletoe and flung ceived it with profound reverence. The Supreme Pontiff, aided by the Eubagi, then immolated the two bulls; and concluded this religious ceremony by praying, with his benediction to rest upon the gift he was about to distriarms raised and extended, that God would permit His bute amongst the people, then prostrated on the ground.' Directly afterwards, the inferior order of Druids distributed, as a gift to the assembled multitude, particles of the sacred misletoe. They sent portions of it also to the temples, to the chieftains, who felt honoured in receiving it, and who, as an act of devotion, wore it round their necks in times of war. Sicknesses, enchantments, malevolent spirits, were expelled by it: nothing evil was capable of diminishing the celestial powers of the mysterious branch; and thunder itself would not fall upon the house that received it."
Before passing from Druidism, we wish to quote la Ville de Nantes), which will be found of some a passage from another Breton author (Notice sur importance in connexion with the heathen-Roman manner of celebrating the Feast of Mid-winter :
"The Cathedral of Nantes is built upon the remains of a Druidical temple, consecrated to a god called Balianus