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CHAPTER XV.THE CARBONARO.
appear to think and feel in it with greater ease hand, to stroll leisurely across the bridge, as if and delight. It is like the diminutive mummy at he had been merely out for a walk, and would an Egyptian feast, bidding us enjoy ourselves return into the town. I watched the operation rapidly, before we depart hence, and are no more with considerable interest. lle alighted as we
Thoughts like these crowded on my mind approached the river, and, preceding the carriage as I gazed on the rolling waters of the Ticino, a little, moved slowly towards the corps des gardes rendered bright by the setting sun, but a thousand at the end of the bridge. There, instead of times more bright by those glowing classical asso- appearing in a hurry to pass, he leaned upon the ciations which clothe every inanimate object in parapet, and chatted with the German soldiers, Italy, and impart to it the accumulated beauty of whom his loose wit immediately provoked to two thousand years. The breath of the old Ro- laughter. He then wished them a good morning, man republic seemed to breathe softly around us, and proceeding infinitely at his ease, in a few minrebuking Teutonic despotism, and whispering that utes found himself in Piedmont. As we were dea day of deliverance is at hand.
tained to have our passports examined, the jolly exile was several miles on his way before we over
took him, when he bounded up to his place with a Next morning we were stirring with the dawn, light spring and a laugh, saying he had felt Prince and had already made some way when the sun rose. Metternich's fingers at the nape of his neck till he There is nothing so fleeting as those phenomena was fairly over the Po. “ But now a fig for the of nature which we denominate sunrise and sunset ; old rascal,” said he; “his downfall must be and yet they sometimes paint themselves so vividly approaching; and my most earnest wish is that I on our memories that the picture never wholly may assist in producing it.” He was rather young fades away, save with the crumbling of the canvas. for a conspirator, not, certainly, above five-andThe beauty of that morning I still remember dis- twenty, perhaps much less. But, like Monsieur tinctly. The sun rose out of an ocean of ruddy Flocon, he seemned to have lived nearly all his life and saffron vapor, and shed over all the woods and in secret societies, and some portion of it, perhaps, copses, now moist and glittering with dew, a in prison. I asked him what the members of the splendor and a gorgeousness of coloring which no secret societies chiefly aimed at. He replied, art can imitate. The mystery of creation seems to ". There are two sections, one of which dreams of be renewed every morning in the south, for, as the a kingdom of Upper Italy, while the other thinks world emerges from darkness, it appears to put on of nothing but the establishment of a republic. I the robes of a virgin, and to stand smiling in eter- belong to the latter class, and have sworn to plot nal innocence in the presence of its Creator. The and conspire against kings while I have breath. deep blue of the overhanging sky completes the So here's to you, Prince Metternich !” said he, mighty picture ; and our imagination ascends its turning round and spitting at Lombardy. luminous arch to the very footstool of the throne I had exchanged the interior, notwithstanding of God.
that it contained Carlotta, for the outside and the As I and Semler were enjoying, in silence, the fresh air; and now our Milanese exile came luckpleasure of the morning, we heard a rustbing ily to dissipate the German phlegm of Semler, and among the bushes at the side of the road, and soon put to flight the bashfulness of a young Dalmatian saw a man spring out, with a large bundle in his who had joined our party at Pavia. By these hand. He came bolt up to the carriage, requested two I was infinitely amused. The Dalmatian the driver to stop a moment, and then boldly asked presented the most complete contrast to the Mius for a place. What he was he would explain, lanese. He was tall, muscular, of a dark olive he said, as we rode along. I was struck with his complexion, with hair and eyes as black as jet. physiognomy, which was that of boundless self- His habits had evidently been studious ; although possession and audacious impudence. He had he could not have been more than twenty years of fiery red hair, a highly-flushed complexion, and age, he spoke and reasoned like a man of thirty. light blue eyes. Still, his manners were gentle in politics he was as red as the Milanese; though, manly, and he soon proved himself to be in pos- at his own home, which was at Trieste, he ex: session of large and varied stores of knowledge. pected, he said, to find no sympathy, but, on the He said he had been compromised for some politi- contrary, the most determined opposition and discal offences at Milan, and was now endeavoring to like. “My father," he observed, “is a moneffect his escape froin the Austrian dominions archist of the old school, full of the prejudices of without a passport. We bade him get up, which bigotry, but otherwise a good man. He is adhe did, and began talking at once. He was, of vancing by a double road towards fortune, being course, a Carbonaro, and proved his fitness to be engaged in commerce and the cultivation of the a member of the secret society by pouring forth a soil. We have a pretty little property near the torrent of words with little or no meaning in them. city, where there is a vineyard descending in terHe must have been of German origin. There races towards the stream; and there, at the foot was nothing Italian in his look, or bearing, or tone of a bitter-almond tree, I have hundreds of times of thought. When we came to the bridge across sat reading Machiavelli and Fra Paolo, and medithe Po, he purposed to leave his bundle on the tating the revolutionizing of Italy.” top of the carriage, and, with his little cane in his Seinler either took no interest in politics, or held opinions different from ours, for he remained a long dark tunnel, which suggests to one the idea silent during our discussion, and only emerged of rushing wildly through infinite space ;. but I from his reverie when we spoke of poetry or the certainly should not like to be condemned to travel fine arts. On these he was eloquent, especially all my life in such Cimmerian gloom. A flash of when he could obtain exclusive possession of my darkness does very well now and then, but if ear, and dilate on the praise of Shakspeare. Of Shakspeare's ideas were always surrounded by a late the Germans have cherished the odd opinion Stygian atmosphere, in all likelihood his admirthat we, the countrymen of Shakspeare, have ers would not be quite so numerous as they are. learned through them properly to appreciate him. The country between Pavia and Nove is a dead It may very well be doubted, however, whether flat, though I could perceive everywhere spots any foreigner, German or not, can be said to un- which made pleasant pictures to the eye-copses, derstand our great poet, whose very language is thickets, glades, vistas, lofty trees, and sheets of often caviare to the bulk, even here in England. water, all glowing with the warmth of an autumTo build up dreamy theories about his meaning nal sun. Towards evening we arrived at Nove, is not always to understand him; and this is what where I saw a curious illustration of the way in German critics have generally done. Semler was which a man may sometimes get introduced into modest enough to admit that he admired, without good Italian society. Of course there is a very always comprehending, Shakspeare; and if he great difference between the people you meet with had not understood him at all, he might still, ac- in such cities, and those who inhabit the several cording to his own theory, have admired him, capitals ; but I dare say the man who travels with because he was not one of those who think that an open heart and frank manners through Italy, what Locke calls clear and distinct ideas are nec- will often find openness and frankness in return. essary to the production of intellectual delight. At any rate, I must speak of the Italians accordOn the contrary, he believed that mistiness and ing to my experience; and if they behaved better obscurity are not only a source of the sublime, to me than to others, it is but fair that I should but powerful ingredients of pleasure, since, ac- acknowledge it. We often make our own recepcording to them, it is far more agreeable to move tions, and receive what we give. The Italians in partial or total darkness than in the light. especially like to have faith put in them ; and so
I certainly experience no small degree of enjoy- far as I have seen, they well deserve to be trusted ment from travelling in an express train through | --I mean, of course, as a general rule.
THE DEATH OF THE FLOWERS.
But on the hill the golden-rod, and the aster in the
wood, BY W. C. BRYANT.
And the yellow sunflower by the brook in autumn The melancholy days are come, the saddest of the
Till fell the frost from the clear cold heaven, as year,
falls the plague on men ; Of wailing winds, and naked woods, and meadows brown and sere;
And the brightness of their smiles was gone, from Heaped in the hollows of the grove, the withered
upland, glade and glen. leaves lie dead,
And now, when come the calm mild days, as still They rustle to the eddying gust, and to the rabbit's such days will come, tread.
To call the squirrel and the bee from out their winThe robin and the wren are flown, and from the
try home; shrubs the jay,
When sound of dropping nuts is heard, though a , And from the wood-top calls the crow through all the woods are still, the gloomy day.
And twinkle in the smoky light the waters of the Where are the flowers, the fair young flowers, that The south wind searches for the flowers, whose lately sprung and stood
fragrance late he bore, La brighter lights and softer airs, a beauteous neigh-And sighs to find them in the wood and by the borhood?
stream no more. Alas! they all are in their graves, the gentle race of flowers
And then I think of one, who in her youthful beauty Are lying in their lowly beds, with the fair and died, good of ours.
The fair meek blossom that grew up and faded by The rain is falling where they lie, but the cold
my side ; November rain
In the cold moist earth we laid her, when the forest Calls not from out the gloomy earth the lovely ones cast the leaf, again.
And wept that one so lovely should have a life so
brief; The wild flower and the violet, they perished long Yet not unmeet it was that one, like that young ago,
friend of ours, And the briar-rose and orchis died amid the sum- So gentle and so beautiful, should perish with the mer's glow;
From the Examiner, of 20th Oct.
who have escaped from a foundering vessel, and FRANCE AND ITALY.
find themselves at sea in an open raft, without helm The French, who put so much interest into their or sail, exposed to the tempest and to the mercy theatres, are not successful with their political of the tide. All they think of is, to reach dry drama. It is wearisome and disgusting to contem- land, the nearest land, and keep alive till then. plate. And yet it is full of stirring events, startling They are in that state of doubt and danger where changes, strange surprises, great fortunes involved, intense selfishness is the only feeling and motive. the fates of men and empires hanging on a thread. Talk to such a people of philanthropy, of liberty, Yet, with all these materials for tragedy, it turns out of humanity, of national pride, or of the sentiments to be a most vulgar and common-place drama after they most prized before their wreck, and they not
And the reason we believe to be, that there only do not assent, but they do not comprehend is no character in the personages. Amid the num- the language. They are embruted by selfishness bers brought upon the public scene, of all ages, and fear. ranks, color, and profession, not one stands forth as It is hopeless and melancholy to see the fate of truly great, or eminent, or magnanimous in any way; Italy, for example, entrusted to such hands. That few as even honest. The truth is, we suppose, that fate the French have completely in their power. a certain degree of simplicity is necessary to great-With an army of from 20,000 to 30,000 men in ness; and that there is no simplicity in the men Rome, and the whole of the population ready to who have served half-a-dozen dynasties, and set up follow a liberal call, the French have but to say scores of political aims in the course of their tor- the word, and it is law. They have but to insist tuous career.
on constitutional government, nay, to install it and In likening French political life to the stage, convoke it. Naples could not resist. Tuscany let us not forget the quick metamorphose of char-could not hold out. A popular government, estabacter and costume indulged in by the actors. For lished in any one corner of Italy, would, by its example, when the National Assembly last broke light, its happiness, its preëminence, alone command up, we left the magnates of the conservative party and force all others to ruin themselves by imitation, plotting, or pretending to plot, how they should or to perish by the contrast. The French at Rome extend Louis Napoleon's three years' lease of power have in their power to say either, Let there be day, to ten years.
Were they serious and sincere at or Let there be night. Such is the alternative. the time? It is to be doubted. Certain it is, that It is upon this alternative that the French not only has the idea been abandoned, but another Assembly is about to debate and the French idea now peeps out. The conservative party no government to decide. M. Thiers has drawn up longer looks to any consolidation of power under a report in the name of the committee, and this Louis Napoleon, but simply to making the present report may be construed and concentrated in the president a stepping-stone to the restoration of a few words of Let there be Night over Rome and legitimate monarchy. This is the plain English Italy—the old night of papal despotism. The of the situation.
French republicans, to their honor, held up their M. Thiers has divulged it, by holding a language hands and voices for Day. Louis Napoleon timidly, on the Roman question, such as no politician but generously, proposes a middle term. He wants could hold that did not look to a legitimist prince at least twilight, the dawn if not the fulness of as his future master, and to the priesthood as his liberal institutions. The request is modest. But main support.
The reason is admitted on all the Pope will not have it. Austria is indignant hands, is scarcely denied by M. Thiers himself; at it. And the French legitimists are for the and it has excited in the breast of Louis Napoleon supremacy of the priesthood, that great party on a burst of honest indignation, such as that prince which they count to darken the mind of Europe is capable of feeling and expressing, at least for down to the worship of their idols. M. Thiers twenty-four hours. His resolution and sagacity makes himself the mouth-piece of the high priests ; seldom extend beyond that period.
and Louis Napoleon has not the courage to venture Whilst we write, the breach is wide in Paris more than a temporary pretext. between the president and those councillors whom Thus the doom of Italy is to be sealed, as that he has hitherto implicitly trusted. Louis Napoleon, of Hungary has been, and the same withering and however, though a generous steed, has still a curb vindictive spirit hovers over both. The police in his mouth ; that curb being the conservative and the executioner are let loose to select their majority in the Assembly, to which he has lent victims from the population ; and all the liberal, himself altogether, and of which he is the instru- the educated, the intelligent, the high-minded, are ment and slave. The aim of this class is to marked out for their prey. The prisons are gorged, restore their own power, and whatever prince or and the few that escape to starve in exile are almost régime can best serve their purpose. All they as much to be commiserated. Of this sad state clearly see is, that the republic is, of all régimes, of things France is mainly guilty. Her example that which is most unfavorable to the establish- it was, ay, and her exhortations, that excited the ment and permanence of their monopoly. Italians to rise; and now it is her cruelty, apathy,
Foreign policy in France is unfortunately a and Machiavelism, that crush, decimate, and promere corollary to the internal struggles going for- scribe them. So has France served Spain, so is werd. The French are somewhat like sailors she treating Italy, and so is she sinking herself
into the depth of sacerdotal and lawless tyranny. Answer the voice of thy great agony It is but just that a country which has made it her In words of fiery hope that shall not die. boast to crush the liberties and mar the fortunes of Thou blood which dost pollute with hideous dew her best allies and most attached neighbors, should The fields, be fruitful in great deeds! Be quick be ruthlessly and degradingly cheated of her own. O'er all the land, ye martyred hosts that strew
The valleys and the mountains, making sick
The general air with death, and Heaven's clear blue From the Examiner.
A night of poisonous vapors foul and thick! HUNGARY IN OCTOBER, 1849.
Be loud within the soul's intensest life, As one that should behold, driven up and down Thou silence dwelling where has been fierce strife. The skiey fields, some weaker bird hold fight
A deadly sleep is on the nations— Might With eagles twain-so, land of old renown,
Rears its crowned head triumphant; but the flame In dreadful silence Europe saw the light
Of thy uprising, Hungary, shall make bright Of battle hang above thy plains, and crown
The mourning earth with new-born life and Thy hills like a red meteor; till thy right
fame, Yielding to power, swift thoughts and words again As the stars fill with ever-flowing light Leap from the unbarred caverns of the brain.
Their pure, cold, crystal heavens, and thy name From the Tartarian limits of the world
Shall hang above our era's dismal story The northern darkness is rolled over thee,
Like dawn on some out-looking eastern promonStrangling thy morn, whose feeble star is húrled tory.
EDMUND OLLIER. Beneath the founts of Truth's retiring sea : The Imperial dragons round thy sons are curled,
From the Spectator, 20th Oct. And the air saddens with their dismal glee :From tongue to tongue gabbles the brutish hiss,
Austria, throwing off the mask, stands conEchoed afar from kingly palaces.
fessed in her old tyrannous cruelty, her old inex
orable meanness. Count Louis Batthyani has Yet, Hungary, thy freedom is not dead ; It does but sleep, and soon itself will rear :
been made to suffer a penal death at Pesth : and Liberty, girt with stars about its head,
at Arad several military leaders have been slaughWalks in the light of God's unwaning year tered, for the most part by the rope. The charge Secure and calm ; while despots, victory-fed, was high treason. All were condemned to death Still tremble on the brink of some vague fear.
by hanging, and the sentence was only commuted Triumphant kings grow pale, though millions
to death by fire-arms in the case of a favored few. greet Their thrones! but Truth is glorious in defeat.
Count Louis Batthyani differed from some other
Hungarian leaders in his strict adherence to the Storm comes, and noon-day darkness; yet, un- old constitution ; by the constitution he stood shaken,
against imperial encroachment; by it he stood The blue and quiet heavens sleep behind :
He had taken Bleak winter comes; yet dreams of spring awaken against republican encroachment. Beneath the murmurings of a warmer wind :
no lead in the war; he was first seized while enDeath comes; but a new birth, like fire unslaken, deavoring to negotiate a reconciliation ; he had
Kills with its dawn the night of humankind. been tried by a military commission, and acquitEvil transient ;-wrong, and force, and fraud, ted; he sought no refuge in flight, was again By the great future still are overawed.
seized by order of Haynau, and condemned to be Thrones. Kingdoms, Empires, Dominations, fade: hanged. He had challenged a trial according to They are as sand before the blast of Time,
the constitution of his country; he now attempted Which, in quick scorn of what itself has made, to avoid the illegal penalty, by suicide ; but failScatters to voidness their frail shapes; they ing, he was led out to perish by military death. climb
There can be no doubt that this act violates the Through their brief day—then huddle in blank letter of the law, as it violates all civilized usage,
shade; Yet earth remains as in its freshest prime :
and all dictates of humanity and sound policy. Good things, and pure, and simple, keep their Count Louis Batthyani was not, strictly speaking, bloom
a prisoner of war; even if he had been, he might Through the long years; all else is its own tomb. have pleaded a previous acquittal for his conduct Assyria, Babylonia, Persia, Greece,
during the war; but the charge against him, that Rome, and Arabia, held in turn men's fears
of having infringed the Pragmatic Sanction by Black masses in the golden light of Peace, exceeding his duty as a minister, was manifestly
Casting wide shadows; but the fate-ful spheres not one for a military tribunal. The conduct of Wheeled round, and they were gone. Far longer the Austrian government, therefore, is anarchical ; lease
it violates constitutional law and natural justice, and Has Truth, which, fed with dew of human tears, ought to rouse the nations in defence of order and jusMakes music with the winds and tempests rude,
tice. Austria rests on the combination of crowned Turning to sweetness their ungentle mood.
heads and armies to enforce her will by such inTherefore, high-hearted sorrowing one, look forth ; struments as Haynau; her conduct is of a kind to Look forth upon thy heritage awhile !
strike despair into the timid, to rouse a fixed hatred Two comforters, at least, hast thou on earth :The eastern Moon of Mahomet doth smile
in the bold. The Hungarians are not likely to On thy brave sons, and on thy suffering worth ;
forget it. A fortiori, it shows what would have And all the cities of our western isle
been done with Kossuth, had he been surrendered ;
THE SPIRIT OF EVIL.
it justifies Bem in taking refuge from Austro- ' perial claims and old national rights : Batthyani is Russian Christianity, as Amurath Pacha, in the condemned to ignominious death. An imperial more generous good faith of Islam.
government is one that upholds its authority by the flogging of boys and women; revolutionary
leaders disdain brutal and degrading weapons, bui From the Spectator, 20th Oct.
the imperial statesmen and decorated cavaliers of
Austria wield the scourge and the rope, and war Mischief gains the ascendant in the central upon the weak. The scene at Ruakby, where continent of the civilized world, wearing the Madame de Maderspach was scourged by order of crown and wielding the imperial sceptre. The an Austrian officer, was not only brutal in itself, Revolution of 1848 had its ugly traits ; but, for but of necessity it rouses throughout Hungaryall their errors, in their brief possession of power throughout Europe--a spirit of vehement revenge the peoples were generous. At Paris, all pro- that longs to slake its thirst in the blood of the scribed members of royalty were suffered to es- oppressor. The last act of leniency, if it is truly cape without injury to a hair of their heads ; at reported, only casts a slur on these ferocities ; to Berlin, in the very tempest and whirlwind of the the fugitives at Widden the same Haynau has revoli, the king went abroad unharmed-and be granted an amnesty. Thus Kossuth, protected by lieved !-the “ beloved Berliners“' thought that in the Crescent sword, enjoys the imperial mercy; that hour he was surely in earnest. In Milan, the Goergey, who negotiated at the head of an army, horrors of Spielberg, and the intolerable insolent is freely pardoned ; Batihyani, who confided in tyrannies of local oficers, were remembered only law and chivalrous faith, is murdered by the disas provocatives to a generous revenge that struck penser of imperial favor—a favor which spares not a single blow except in the fair fighting of the the strong and wars upon the vanquished. Ausopen streels.
While Manin governed Venice, she tria is fustering the bad passions of the dark ages. had regained the noble senwments of her prime; Nay, the manly Rudolph, who founded the house while Mazzini held Rome, the Eternal City was of Hapsirurg, would blush for the recreant son again governed by a magnanimous spirit that re- who gives the power and dignity of that house in stored a life of glory to the mouldering bones of keeping to the butcher Haynau. her greatness.
Loud has been the execration for So in France, the literary adventurer Thiers, the murder of Latour--the assassination of a mil- not having much hope of ihe republic as a profititary chief who wielded the sword of a prevari- able investment of his talents, is speculating for cating and treacherous government; of Lamberg, the fall, and warning future revolutionists not to bearer of messages to paralyze the emancipated trust those who have enjoyed the favor of princes. nationality of Hungary. Those were crimes, and They are the crowned and accomplished vindicators the most has been made of them ; but they were of “order" who are teaching the world bad faiin, not the acts of revolutionary gorronments—they cruelty, and degrading cowardice. were the crimes of the mob.
And England ? Alas! she looks on and-preThey have been eclipsed by the deeds of legit- varicates. She utlers sublime sentiments, piquantly imate authority. It is with the return of her composed in essays by llenry John Viscount Palspiritual and temporal prince that meanness, ser- mersion-and suffers the wrong to go on. Does vility, and cowardly oppression return to Rome; she not raise a finger--does she not vindicate ihe it is victorious Russia who is dictating an in- independence of Turkey? No, that would be christian and cowardly breach of hospitality to the uncourteous” in Russia. Do none of her sons Turk ; it is the imperial government of Austria volunteer to avenge the matron whom Austrian which is setting the example of blood to the rebels heroes have beaten with rods in the public marketof Hungary; it is the renewal of "order" in place? No, that would be disagreeable, expenFrance which opens the way for a cruel and jes- sive, and ridieulous.” England cannot help it. sritical treachery. Prussia and Austria are nego- she herself is riot unstained by cowardice at Malta, tiating the partition of Germany among them--and and not undisy raced by prevarication anywhere. ihen, Heaven help patriots or peoples !
Her leading men tolerate the trade in cant, perIt is not alone the crueliy of the ascendant pow- haps share in it; and if other politicians compete ers which is to be deplored, but the lamentable with them in the trade, she cannot help herself ; inoral and material effects that must follow. A she has no rebuke to put down the dangerous bad spirit rules, and its influence is mischief. Aus- quackery of Repeal in Ireland, or more dangerous tria is teaching the Hungarians, and all nations nationalism that winks at crop-lifting. She, too, attempting to change the form or policy of their is possessed by the spirit of evil-a mean and low institutions, 'that victorious governments give no spirit of truckling to bolder diabolisms. quarter to chivalrous foes, and that the only safety This imperial revolution tends to prevent any for nations that rebel is war to extermination. real settlement in Europe ; but that is a truth not Hungary would now be safer if the rebels of Aus- without its consolations. Good only is vital. Evil tria and Bohemia had brought the whole royal is mortal, in its nature as well as its effects ; its family and its adherents to the block—that is the works pass away, its institutions crumble. If the Jesson which Austria has recorded in letters of honor and dignity of the house of Hapsburg are blood. Batthyani attempted to reconcile new im- disgraced by their present guardianship, so like