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magnificent spectacle of ruins, among which those of the Temple salem, to which Solomon used to resort. (Ant. Jud. lib. viii. c. 7.) of the Sun are most conspicuous. The splendid work of Messrs. It is highly probable that this was the site of one of King Solo Wood and Dawkins, published at London in 1753, and reprinted mon's houses of pleasure, where he made him gardens ana in 1827, will convey some idea of the magnificence of these re- orchards, and pools of water. (Eccles. ii. 5, 6.) In the vicinity mains of ancient art; of which some accurate views will be found of this place was in the “ Landscape Illustrations of the Bible," edited by the 2. The rock Etam, to which Samson retired after he had burned author of this work. The population of Baalbec, which in 1751 the harvest of the Philistines. (Judg. xv. 8.) was five thousand, in 1835 was reduced to two hundred persons. GADARA, page 423. col. 2. after last line but 13. add :—The The modern town consists of a number of mean huts, and a few ruins of the ancient city are very considerable. “Besides the half-ruined mosques. A description of the ruins of this place, as foundations of a whole line of houses, there are two theatres on they appeared in the autumn of 1835, is given by Mr. Addison, the north and west sides of the town, the former quite dein his Damascus and Palmyra, vol. ii. pp. 51–72.; and by Lord stroyed, but the latter in very tolerable preservation, and very Lindsay, as they appeared in the summer of 1837, in his Let- handsome. Near it the ancient pavement, with wheel-tracks of ters from Egypt, &c., vol. ii. pp. 191–204.
carriages, is still visible. Broken columns and capitals lie in BABEL, the name of a lofty tower, which the descendants of every direction.” (Lord Lindsay's Letters from Edom, &c., vol. Noah began to build about one hundred and twenty years after ii. p. 97.) the deluge: it was so called (Babel signifying confusion), be- Gath-HEPHER, the birth-place of the prophet Jonah (2 Kings cause God there confounded the language of those who were em- xiv. 25.), was a town in the allotment of the tribe of Zebulon. ployed in the undertaking. (Gen. x. 10. xi. 9.) Their object (Josh. xix. 13.) It was probably situated in the land of Hepher, was to build a city and a tower, in order to prevent their further mentioned in 1 Kings iv. 10. dispersion over the earth. But, as this was contrary to the divine GEBAL. purpose of replenishing the earth with inhabitants, God caused 1. Gebal, Mount, see p. 30. them to be scattered: the tower was left apparently incomplete : 2. Gebal, a Phoenician city between Tripoli and Beyroot, situbut the foundations of the city were probably laid, and a portion ated on a hill, and inhabited by mariners and builders. Its caulkers of the builders continued to dwell there.
are specially mentioned in Ezek. xxvii, 9., where its chiefs are Benotiat, a town in the territory of Hadadezer, king of Syria, termed wise men. The Arabs still call it Djeble and Djobail. which was conquered by David, and from which he took away 3. Gebal (the Gebalene of the Romans), was a mountainous much brass. (2 Sam. viii
. 8.) Hence it has been inferred that district, inhabited by the Edomites, and extending from the Dead there were mines in its vicinity. It is impossible now accurately Sea southwards to Selah or Petra. It is mentioned in Psal. to determine its situation. "The similarity of the name would lxxxiii. 8. By the Arabs it is called Djebal. lead us to conjecture that Berothai or Berothah was not different Gesuur, a district of Syria, bordering north of the Hebrew from Berytus, the modern Beirut (Beyroot), a seaport town which territory (2 Sam. xv. 8. i Chron. ii. 23.), and situated on the is still of importance." (Rosenmüller's Bibl. Geogr. vol. ii. eastern side of the river Jordan, between Mount Hermon, Maap. 266.)
chah, and Bashan. (Deut. iii. 13, 14. Josh. xii. 3, 4.) The GeBethsaida, page_414. col. 2. after line 10. of this article, shurites and Maachathites were not expelled by the Israelites add :-2. The other Bethsaida lay in the region of Gaulonitis, on under Joshua. (Josh. xiii. 2. 13.) In the reign of David, Geshur the eastern side of the sea of Tiberias, and near the place where had its own king Talmai, whose daughter Maachah was the the river Jordan enters it. This city was enlarged by Philip, who mother of the rebel Absalom. (2 Sam. jii. 3. xiii. 37. xv. 8.) The was Tetrarch of that region (Luke iii. 1.), and who called it Ju- Geshur signifies a bridge, and corresponds to the Arabic Djisr : lias, in honour of Julia the daughter of the emperor Augustus, and in the same region, where (according to the above data,) we though it is not known by that name in the New Testament must place Geshur, there still exists an ancient stone bridge of This Bethsaida is mentioned in Luke ix. 10., where Jesus is said to four arches over the river Jordan, called Djisr-Beni-Jakub, or the have withdrawn himself to a desert place belonging to Bethsaida, Bridge of the Children of Jacob. after the murder of John the Baptist by Herod; and whence also GETHSEMANE, page 425. col. 2. line 12. add :- Although we he is said to have returned across the lake to Capernaum, after he are informed by Josephus that Titus cut down all the trees within had miraculously fed five thousand men with five loaves and two one hundred furlongs of the city, yet it is not improbable that small fishes. (Matt. xiv. 22—34. John vi. 17.)
these trees, which are unquestionably of remote antiquity, may Bozrah, a celebrated city of Edom or Idumæa, which was have arisen from the roots of the ancient trees; because the olive afterwards called Bostra by the Greeks and Romans. It is now is very long-lived, and possesses the peculiar property of shooting "for the most part a heap of ruins, a most dreary spectacle. Here up again, however frequently it may be cut down. The trees and there the direction of a street or alley is discernible, but that now standing in the garden of Gethsemane are of the species is all: the modern inhabitants, a mere handful, are almost lost in known to botanists as the Olea Europæa. Mrs. Bracebridge, from the maze of ruins.” (Lord Lindsay's Letters from Egypt, &c. whose sketch the beautiful drawing was made, which is given in vol. ii. p. 151.) In pp. 135—150. his lordship has given a very the “ Landscape Illustrations of the Bible," states that they are interesting description of the remains of this once celebrated city, wild olives, and appear pollarded from extreme age; and their together with a sketch of its ancient history.
stems are very rough and gnarled. “The soil between these CENcuREA, page 416. col. 1. After Acts xviii
. 18., line 3. of trees is bare, without a flower, vegetable, or verdure of any kind this article, add In 1834, the site of ancient Cenchrea was growing on it. A footpath intersects the place in an oblique dioccupied by a single farm-house: close to the sea; and in parts rection, which is walled off from the rest, and is looked upon as even covered by its waters are the foundations of a variety of accursed; being that (as it is said,) in which Judas walked when buildings, the plans of which may yet be traced, as the walls still he betrayed his divine Master with a kiss.” The view from the remain to the height of from two feet to three feet and a half garden of Gethsemane is one of the most pleasing in the vicinity (Major Sir G. Temple’s Travels in Greece and Turkey, vol. i. of Jerusalem. (Robinson's Travels in Palestine, vol. i. p. 122. p. 57.)
Lord Lindsay's Letters from Egypt, &c.. vol. ii. p. 61.) EKRox, page 420. col. 2. After (2 Kings i. 2.), line 8. of this Halah, a province of Assyria, into which Shalmaneser transarticle, add -The site of this city is not known, thus attesting ported part of the ten tribes. (2 Kings xvii. 6. xviii. 11.) the literal fulfilment of the prophet Zephaniah (ii. 4.), that Ekron Haran, page 427. col. 1. after line 42. add :-Haran is enushall be ROOTED UP.
merated among the towns which had been taken by the predeces. EPIesus, page 422. col. 1. last line but 6. add :—The soil of sors of Sennacherib king of Assyria (1 Kings xix. 12. Isa. xxxvii. the plain, on which the ruins of Ephesus lie, appears rich: in 12.); and it is also mentioned by Ezekiel (xxvii. 23.), among the summer of 1835, when visited by Mr. Addison, it was covered the places which traded with Tyre. Haran was favourably with a rank burnt-up vegetation. This place (he states,) is a situated for commerce, inasmuch as the great road, which led from dreary uncultivated spot: a few corn-fields were scattered along the Euphrates to the countries of the east, branched off in two the site of the ancient city, which is marked by some large masses directions eastward to Nisibis and Assyria, and southward into of shapeless ruins and stone walls. (Addison’s Damascus and Babylonia. (Rosenmüller's Bib. Geogr. vol. ii. p. 187.). Palmyra, vol. i. pp. 340, 341.)
Helion, a city of Syria, celebrated for its wines, which formed ETAM.
an important article of commerce. (Ezek. xxviii. 18.) In the 1. A city in the tribe of Judah between Bethlehem and Tekoah, apocryphal second book of Maccabees (xiii. 4.), it is mentioned which was rebuilt and fortified by Rehoboam. (2 Chron. xi. 6.) under the name of Berea, which had been given to it by Seleucus Josephus says, that there are very pleasant gardens, abounding Nicatur, who greatly embellished this city. It is the same as the with water, at Etham, about fifty furlongs or six miles from Jeru- present Haleb, or, as it is termed by Europeans, Aleppo. In 1822 it was almost annihilated by the tremendous earthquake which|(John iv. 5.) After the ruin of Samaria by Shalmaneser, Shedevastated Syria.
chem became the capital of the Samaritans, a remnant of whose Hena, a city of Mesopotamia, the same probably which was sect, now reduced to a very small number, still reside there. It is afterwards called Arah : it was situated on a ford of the river about forty miles north of Jerusalem. Shechem stands in a deEuphrates. (2 Kings xviii. 34. xix. 13. Isa. xxxvii. 13.) lightful situation at the foot and on the lowest slope of Mount
MESHECH, the sixth son of Japhet (Gen. x. 2.), who is sup- Gerizim, and is “embowered in groves of the richest verdureposed to have been the father of the Moschi, a people inhabiting figs, mulberries, olives; one solitary palm tree towering over the mountainous region between Iberia, Armenia, and Colchis. them; and hedges of the prickly pear, with its fantastic boughs
Non, Land of:-"When Cain after the murder of his brother, and yellow blossoms, guarding every plantation.” (Lord Lindsay's went forth from the presence of Jehovah, he settled in the land Letters from Egypt, &c. [in 1837), vol. ii. p. 74.) This place is of Nod, which lay to the east of Eden. (Gen. iv. 16.) The word now called Napolose or Nablous (a corruption of its Greek name Nod signifies, in Hebrew, wandering, flight, banishment : and Neapolis). the region doubtless obtained that name from the circumstance of SMYRNA, page 451. col. 1. last line but 7. adu:—The condithe fratricide having been condemned by God (Gen. iv. 14.) to tion of the Christians residing here is said to be better than in wander as an exile." (Rosenmüller's Biblical Geography, vol. i. any of the sites of the seven churches mentioned in the Apocap. 85.) It is now impossible to ascertain its precise situation. lypse; as if the promise was still in some measure made good to
Paycellus, a Christian of Asia, who being at Rome during Smyrna Fear none of those things which thou shalt suffer. Paul's second imprisonment, A. D. 65, basely deserted him, with Be thou faithful unto death, and I will give thee a crown of life. Hermogenes, in his necessity. (2 Tim. i. 15.)
(Rev. ii. 10.) RAAMSES, or Rameses, a city erected by the Hebrews during Tadmor, page 453. col. 1. line 21. add :-Mr. Addison has their bondage in Egypt. (Gen. xlvii. 11. Exod. i. 11.). It was described the ruins of Palmyra, as they appeared in 1835, in his situated in the Land of Goshen, and appears to have been the “Damascus and Palmyra," vol. ii. pp. 284_326.; and Lord capital of that country. Most probably it was the same with Lindsay, as they appeared in 1837, in his “Letters from Egypt," Heroopolis, which stood on the great canal between the Nile and &c., vol. ii. pp. 168–178. But the reader who would see these Suez.
superb remains of ancient art accurately delineated and described, Rabbath, page 445. col. 2. line 6. add :-Various ruins, lying is referred to Messrs. Wood and Dawkins's “Ruins of Palmyra," on both sides of a stream, attest its ancient splendour. “The which were first published at London in 1753, in one volume dreariness of its present aspect” (says Lord Lindsay) “ is quite folio. The modern village of Tadmor, or (as the Arabs call it) indescribable. It looks like the abode of death : the valley stinks Thadmor, contains 12 or 15 families, among whom there are not with dead camels; one of them was rotting in the stream; and more than 20 able-bodied men : their chief wealth consists of a though we saw none among the ruins, they were absolutely few herds of goats and dromedaries, with poultry. (Addison, covered in every direction with their dung. That morning's ride vol. ii. p. 333.) would have convinced a sceptic how runs the prophecy. I will Tel-ABIB, a place to which some of the Israelites were carmake Rabbah a stable for camels, and the Ammonites a couch- ried captive. (Ezek. iii. 15.) Gesenius and Rosenmüller think it ing-place for flocks. (Ezek. xxv. 5.) Nothing but the croaking not improbably to be the place now called Thelabba, in Mesopoof frogs and the screams wild birds broke the silence as we tamia, on the river Chebar. advanced up this valley of desolation.” (Letters from Egypt, &c., Thelasar, or Telasar, a province of Assyria, mentioned in vol. ii. p. 112.) In pp. 113–117. Lord Lindsay has graphically 2 Kings xix. 12. and Isa. xxxvii
. 12. Its precise situation has described the ruins of Rabbath-Ammon, which is now deserted not been ascertained: but it is supposed to be towards Armenia except by the Bedouins, who water their flocks at its little river. and Mesopotamia, and about the sources of the rivers Tigris and
RiPhath, the second son of Gomer, and grandson of Japhet Euphrates, from the circumstance of the children of Eden in(Gen. x. 3.' 1 Chron. i. 6.) The region peopled by his descend- habiting that country. ants is supposed to be the mountainous range extending from the TIBERIAS, page 454. col. 1. line 19. add :—This town was left west of Europe to that part of Asia which is situated on the east in ruins by the earthquake which devastated Syria, on Jan. 1. of the Black Sea. “But” (Rosenmüller is of opinion) “it is 1837: its walls were cast down to the ground, its towers split impossible to fix with precision upon any one chain of hills, or asunder, and their galleries laid open. (Lord Lindsay's Letters tribe of people, with which the Riphath of Scripture may cer- from Egypt, &c. (in 1837), vol. ii. p. 88.) tainly be identified.” (Bibl. Geogr. by Morren, vol. i. p. 113.) Tipsau, an important city on the western bank of the river Rosh (Ezek. xxxviii
. 2, 3. xxxix. 1.), the proper name of a Euphrates, which was the frontier town of the north-eastern exnorthern nation, mentioned together with Tubal and Meshech; tremity of Solomon's dominions: it is a day's journey to the east bý whom (Gesenius says) are doubtless to be understood the Rus- of Tadmor or Palmyra. Here was a celebrated passage or ferry sians; who are described by the Byzantine writers of the tenth over the Euphrates. (1 Kings iv. 24.) By the ancients it was century, under the name of 'püs, as inhabiting the northern part called Thapsacus: its modern name is El Deir. of Taurus; and also by Ibn Fosslan, an Arabian writer of the TogarmAh, the name of a northern region and people sprung same period, under the name Rûs, as dwelling upon the river Rha, from Gomer the son of Japhet. (Gen. x. 3.). This country that is, the Wolga.
abounded in horses, which were sold to the Tyrians. (Ezek. Shera, probably the Saba of the Greek geographer Strabo, was xxvii. 14.) Most probably it was Armenia, part of which couna region situated towards the southern part of Arabia, at a distance try was celebrated for its horses. Such also is the opinion of the from the coast of the Red Sea. The queen of Sheba who visited modern Armenians themselves, who claim Torgom the son of Solomon (1 Kings x. 2. 2 Chron. ix.), appears to have been the Gomer as the founder of their nation, and call themselves the sovereign of this region. The tradition of her visit has main. House of Torgom. tained itself among the Arabs, who call her Balkis, and affirm Tobal, or THUBAL, the fifth son of Japhet (Gen. x. 2.), whose that she became the wife of Solomon. In Matt. xii. 42. she is descendants are supposed to have peopled a region of Asia Minor, said to have come from the uttermost parts of the earth, to indi- near the Euxine Sea, on the west of Meshech. Compare Rosencate (according to the Jewish idiom) that Sheba was a remote müller's Biblical Geography, vol. i. pp. 130, 131. country from Judæa.
ZOBAH, or Aram-ZOBAH, was the name of a city and petty Sichem, Srcuan, or SAECHEM, a city in the allotment of the kingdom of Syria, whose sovereign carried on war with Saul and tribe of Benjamin, near which Jacob bought a field which he gave David. (1 Sam. xiv. 47. 2 Sam. viii. 3. x. 6.) It seems to have to Joseph, who was buried there. (Gen. xlviii. 22. Josh. xvii. 7. been situated near Damascus, and not only to have included the xxiv. 32. Acts vii. 16.) In its vicinity was Jacob's well or foun- city Hamath (2 Chron. viii. 3.), but also to have extended towards tain, at which Jesus Christ, conversed with a woman of Samaria. the Euphrates. (2 Sam. viii. 3.)
THE SYMBOLICAL LANGUAGE OF THE SCRIPTURES.
[Designed to facilitate the perusal of the Prophetic Books, analysed in this Volume.]'
tions.--Ezek. xvi. 50. They ... committed abomination before me. have made the earth ... by my great power, and by my outstretchea
arm. See also Jer. xxxii. 17."
38. To whom is the arm of the Lord revealed ?
Rome.- Rev. xvii. 4. Having a golden cup in her hand, full of hath displayed his great power, which for a long time seemed to be
hidden and unemployed.—Isa. lii. 10. The Lord hath made bare his
count of its ensigns and images which the soldiers worshipped, and Armour.-Such graces and spiritual weapons, as are for the defence
light.-Eph. vi. 11. Put on the whole armour of God.
1. Calamities, or judgments of God.—Job vi. 4. The arrows of the
2 Sam. xxii. 14, 15. compare Psal. xxxviii. 2, 3. and Ezek. v. 16.
the daughter of Jerusalem or the Jewish church and people. Isa. arrows of the Almighty, we have abundant proces: one single
once demanded of the fourth Khalif (Ali), on whom be the mercy
earth were the cord thereof; and if calamities were arrows: if man-
Jer. iii. 8, 9. When backsliding Israel committed adultery ... with tremendous and the glorious, were the unerring archer, to whom
saying, • The sons of Adam must flee unto the Lord.' This fine
where it listech ; and thou hearest the sound thereof, but canst not tell man may let fly these arrows, let loose his hand, to destroy and cut
. 4,5. As arrows are in the hand of a mighty
man; so are children of the youth. Happy is the man that hath his
himself; to denote that, as he is the Creator, so he will be the final and valiant sons the arrows and darls of their parents, because they
is, among them, to get brave and valiant sons.” [Burder's Oriental
Literature, vol. ii. p. 53.]
the Amen ; Truth, i.e. He who is true says, &c.
sentence. Rom. i. 25. Gal. i. 5. Eph. iii. 21. Phil. iv. 20. 1 Tim. BABES.
. 4. I will give children
to be their princes, and babes (or infants) shall rule over them. This
from the death of Josiah to the destruction of the city and temple,
and the taking of Zedekiah, the last of them, captive by Nebuchad-
ploys, as the ministers of his providence or of his judgments.-Rev. could not speak unto you ... but as ... unto babes in Christ.
BABYLON.-Papal Rome with all her idolatrous rites.-Rev. xiv. 8.
Babylon is fallen. See also Rev. xvii. xviii.
BALAAM, Doctrine, error, or way of.–A defection from true religion
. xxv. 41. Everlasting fire prepared for the united with immoral and lascivious practices.- Rev. ii. 14. Thou
hast them that hold the doctrine of Balaam.-Jude 11. They have
... run greedily after the error of Balaam.—2 Pet. ii. 15. Following
the way of Balaam.
a careful perusal of the remarks on this subject by Sir Isaac New? 1. The known symbol of a strict observation of justice and fair deal-
it becomes the symbol of scarcity.--Lev. xxvi. 26. When I have
broken the staff of your bread ; ten women shall bake your bread in
4. Good or evil desires and designs.-Deut. xxviii. 54. His eye shall , FIELD. The World.-Matt. xiii. 38.
come with fire. See Ezek. xxii. 20—22.
sumed them with the fire of my wrath.
3. Afflictions, or persecution.--Isa. xxiv. 15. Glorify ye the LORD God
in the fires.
counteriance, denote his anger.-Psal. xviii. 8. 12, 13.
FIRMAMENT. See HEAVENS.
sed, or slain, as the case may be.-Psal
. lxxiv. 14. Thou breakest
the heads of leviathan in pieces (didst destroy the power of Pharaoh
and his princes,) [and] gavest him [to be] meat to the people inhabiting
the wilderness that is, didst enrich the Israelites with their
spoils.- Isa. xvii. 4. The falness of his flesh shall be made lean. See
also Mic. iii. 2, 3. and Zech. xi. 9. 16.; in all which places the Tar
gum explains flesh by riches and substance.
lands and possessions. In Dan. vii. 5. this expression is used to de-
note the cruelty of the Medes and Persians, many of whose sove
reigns were more like ferocious bears than men. Instances of their
God, whether by reason or revelation : as in Heb. xi. 6. Without
cruelty abound in almost all the historians who have written of
4. The exterior of man; viz.
(1.) External actions, as circumcision, the choice of food, &c. in
which the body is the part chiefly affected.-Rom. iv. 1. What shall
we say then, that Abraham our faiher hath found, as pertaining to the
flesh ? i. e. so far as regards external actions.- 1 Cor. x. 18. Behold
Israel after the flesh; i.e. as it respects the external performance of
their religious rites.--Gal. jii. 3.... Are ye now made perfect by the
flesh? will ye turn again to mere external ceremonies?
(2.) External appearance, condition, circumstances, character &c.-
John vi. 63. The flesh profileth nothing.–2. Cor. v. 16. We know
no man after the flesh.
Lel not the water-flood
overflow me. See River.
Foop. See BREAD.
and fundamental points; as in those passages where we are com-
tiently, slaves were stigmatised in their forehead with their master's
mark; hence to be sealed in the forehead (Rev. vii. 3.,) and to have
a mark in the forehead (Rev. xiii. 16. &c.,) is to make a public pro-
fession of belonging to the person whose mark is said to be re-
FORNICATION.- All those carnal impurities, which were common
Galatians, whether they received the Spirit by the works of the law, Rev. ii. 20. Thou sufferest that woman Jezebel .... to seduce my ser
Epistle to the Romans, where it is opposed to the works of the law. Ezek. xiii. 4. "Thy propheis are like the foxes in the deserts.
it is sinful in us to do any thing, which we are not fully persuaded af their own ways.
2. Good works--Psal. i. 3, He (The pious man) .....bringeth forth
the first propagation of the Gospel, was annexed the performance pentance.
men. - Jer. ix. 7. I will melt them, and try them, that is, in the
so the Greek word miriş is properly rendered in Tit. ii. 10.; as it
been cast off hy the younger widows, being their fidelity to Christ.
the favour of God (Psal. li. 7. Isa. i. 18.,) but also, as being worn
10.) Kings and princes likewise were arrayed in white garments
of fine linen. (Gen. xli. 42. 1 Chron. xy. 27. Luke xvi. 19.) Hence,
iii. 4,5. They shall walk in white...... The same shall be clothed
2. Souls.-Rev. iii. 4. Thou hast a few names in Sardis which have
not defiled their garments.—The Hebrews considered holiness as the
i. 6. If I be a father, where is mine honour ?-Mal. ii. 10. Have we GATES.
which the soul is helped forward in the way of salvation.-Psal. ix.
John viii. 44. When he (Satan) speaketh a lie... he is the father of of Sion.
Imminent danger of death.—Psal. ix. 13. Have mercy upon me, O
gates. Thus it is said in Job xxxviii. 17. Have the gates of death