454 God faithful to the Jews, merciful to the Gentiles.

HOMIL. Wrath unto them by being transgressed, and thenceforward XXVIII. deprived them of that promise made unto the fathers. There

fore the Son came and wrought with the Father, in order that those promises might come true, and have their issue. For having fulfilled the whole Law in which He also fulfilled the circumcision, and having by it, and by the Cross, freed them from the curse of the transgression, He suffered not this promise to fall to the ground. When then he calls Him a Minister of the circumcision, he means this, that by having come and fulfilled the Law, and been circumcised, and born of the seed of Abraham, He undid the curse, stayed the anger of God, made also those that were to receive the promises fit for them, as being once for all freed from their alienation. To prevent then these accused persons from saying, How then came Christ to be circumcised, and to keep the whole Law? he turns their argument to the opposite conclusion. For it was not that the Law might continue, but that He might put an end to it, and free thee from the curse that lay on thee, and set thee entirely at liberty from the dominion of that Law. For it was because thou hadst transgressed the Law, that he fulfilled it, not that thou mightest fulfil it', but that He might confirm to thee the promises made unto the fathers, which the Law had caused to be suspended, by shewing thee to have offended, and to be unworthy of the inheritance. And so thou also art saved by grace, since thou wert cast off. Do not thou then bicker, nor perversely cling to the Law at this unsuitable time, since it would have cast thee also out of the promise, unless Christ had suffered so many things for thee. And He did suffer these, not because thou wert deserving of salvation, but that God might be true. And then that this might not puff up him of the Gentiles, he says,

Ver. 9. And that the Gentiles might glorify God for His mercy.

But what he means is about this. Those of the Jews had promises, unworthy as they were. But thou hadst not this even, but wert saved from love towards man alone, even if, to put it at the lowest, they too would not have been the

a See on Rom. 8, 4. p. 220.


gooxsxgovnivas. not 'stumbled,' but

'struck against' a person, same word as 'alienation' just before.

God glorified by Unity. Hope is through the Spirit. 455

15,10-13 1 or tem

better for the promises, unless Christ had come. But yet Rom. that he might amalgamate' them, and not allow them to rise up against the weak, he makes mention of the promises. per But of these he says that it was by mercy alone that they κεράση were saved. Hence they are the most bound to glorify God. And a glory it is to God that they be blended together, be united, praise with one mind, bear the weaker, neglect not the member that is broken off. Then he adds testimonies, in which he shews that those of the Jews ought to blend themselves with those of the Gentiles; and so he says, As it is Ps. 18, written, For this cause I will confess to Thee among the Gentiles, O Lord, and will sing unto Thy Name.



Ver. 10-12. And, Rejoice, ye Gentiles, with His people. Deut.32, And, Praise the Lord, all ye Gentiles; and laud Him, all Ps. 117, ye people. And, There shall be a root of Jesse, and He1. that shall rise to reign over the Gentiles, in Him shall the 10. Gentiles trust.

Is. 11, 1.

Now all these quotations he has given, to shew that we ought to be united, and to glorify God; and also, to humble the Jew, that he may not lift himself up over these, since all the prophets called these, as well as to persuade the man of the Gentiles to be lowly, by shewing him that he had a larger grace to answer for. Then he concludes his argument with a prayer again.

Ver. 13. Now the God of hope fill you with all joy and peace in believing, that ye may abound in hope, through the power of the Holy Ghost.

That is, that ye may get clear of that heartlessness2 towards 2 is one another, and may never be cast down by temptations. And this will be by your abounding in hope. Now this is the cause of all good things, and it comes from the Holy Ghost. But it is not simply from the Spirit, but on condition of our contributing our part also. This is why he says, in believing. For this is the way for you to be filled with joy, if ye believe, if ye hope. Yet he does not say if ye hope, but, if ye abound in hope, so as not to find comfort in troubles only, but even to have joy through the abundance of faith and hope. And in this way, ye will also draw the Spirit to you. In this way, when He is come ye will continually keep to all good things. For just as food maintaineth our

456 Grace and effort mutually encreased. Use of Psalms.


HOMIL. life, and life ruleth the body, so if we have good works, we shall have the Spirit; and if we have the Spirit, we shall also have good works. As also, on the other hand, if we have no works, the Spirit flieth away. But if we be deserted by the Spirit, we shall also halt in our works. For when this hath gone, the unclean one cometh: this is plain from Saul. For what if he doth not choke us as he did him, still he strangles us in some other way by wicked works. We have need then of the harp of David, that we may charm our souls with the divine songs, both these, and those from good actions. Since if we do the one only, and while we listen to the charm, war with the charmer by our actions, as he did of old; the remedy will even turn to judgment to us, and the madness become the more furious. For before we heard, the wicked demon was afraid lest we should hear it and recover. But when after hearing it even, we continue the same as we were, this is the very thing to rid him of his fear. Let us sing then the Psalm of good deeds, that we may cast out the sin that is worse than the demon. For a demon certainly will not deprive us of heaven, but doth in some cases even work with the sober-minded. But sin will assuredly cast us out. For this is a demon we willingly receive, a self-chosen madness. Wherefore also it hath none to pity it or to pardon it. Let us then sing charms over a soul in this plight, as well from the other Scriptures, as also from the blessed David. And let the mouth sing, and the mind be instructed. Even this is no small thing. For if we once teach the tongue to sing, the soul will be ashamed to be wishing1 the opposite of what this singeth. Nor is this the only good thing that we shall gain, for we shall also come to know many things which are our interest. For he discourseth to thee both of things present, and things to come, and of things seen, and of the invisible Creation. And if thou wouldest learn about the Heaven, whether it abideth as it is or shall be changed, he will give

1 Ms. devising


So Ms. Sav. distributeth this,' mar. and thus the body is ruled.'

d 1 Sam. 16, 14. LXX. iwwyty. E. V. troubled. see Mat. 8, 32.

• Such was the case of Stagirius. vit. Chrys. a Montf. p. 97. See St. Chrysostom's Exhortation to him, t. 1. Ben. t. vi. Sav. Bingham, art. Energumens.


S. Aug. de C. D. 19, 4. §. 2. and 21, 14. A messenger of Satan was given to St. Paul himself, 2 Cor. 12, 7. and it was in hope of their salvation he delivered Hymeneus and Alexander to Satan, 1 Tim. 1, 20. and another, 1 Cor. 5, 5.

The various instructions contained in the Psalms. 457


14, 8.





a clear answer, and will say, The heavens shall wax old Roм. as doth a garment, and as a vesture shalt thou fold them up, Ps. 102, O God, and they shall be changed. And if thou wishest to 27. hear of the form of them again, thou shalt hear, That spread- 1 díğğır eth forth the Heaven like a curtain. And if any one be minded to know further about the back of them, he will tell thee again, that covereth His upper chambers with waters. Ps. 104, And even here he does not pause, but will likewise discourse with thee on the breadth and height, and shew thee that these are of equal measure. For, As far as the east, he says, is Ps. 103, from the west, so far hath He set our iniquities from us. Like as the heaven's height above the earth, so is the Lord's mercy upon them that fear Him. But if thou wouldest busy thyself with the foundation of the earth, even this he will not hide from thee, but thou shalt hear him singing and saying, He hath founded it upon the seas. And if of earthquakes Ps.24,2. thou art desirous to know, whence they come, he will free thee from this difficulty also, by saying, That looketh upon the Ps. 104, earth, and maketh it tremble. And if thou enquire the use of the night, this too mayest thou learn, and know from him. For therein all the beasts of the forest do move. And in Ib. 20. what way the mountains are for use, he will tell thee, The Ib. 18. high mountains are for the stags. And why there are rocks, he tells thee, The rocks are a refuge for the porcupines and the hares. Why are there trees yielding no fruit? learn from him, for there the sparrows build their nests. Why are there Ib. 17. fountains in the wildernesses? hear, that by them the fowls of Ib. 12. the heaven dwell, and the wild beasts. Why is there wine? not that thou mayest drink only, (for water is of a nature to suffice for this,) but that thou mayest be gladdened and delighted, For wine maketh glad the heart of man. And by Ib. 15. knowing this, you will know how far the use of wine is allowable. Whence are the fowls and the wild beasts nourished? thou wilt hear from his words, All these wait upon Thee, to Ib. 27. give them their meat in due season. If thou sayest, For what purpose are the cattle? he will answer thee, that these also are for thee, That causeth the grass, he says, to grow for Ib. 14. the cattle, and the green herb for the service of men. What or reneed thou hast of the moon? hear him saying, He made the Ib. 19. moon for seasons. And that all things seen and those not


458 The Psalms contain instruction, relief, and help.


Ps. 148,



Ps. 8, 6.

HOMIL. Seen are made, is a thing that he has also clearly taught us by saying, Himself spake, and they were made, He com5. manded, and they were created. And that there is an end of Ps. 49, death, this he also teaches thee when he says, God shall deliver my soul from the hand of hell when He shall receive Whence was our body made? He also tells us. He remembereth that we are dust; and again, whither goeth it Ps. 104, away? It shall return to its dust. Why was this universe made? For thee: For thou crownest him with glory and honour, and settest him over the works of Thy hands. Have we men any community with the Angels? This he also tells us, saying as follows, Thou hast made him a little lower than the Angels. so Ms. Of the love of God he saith', Like as a Father pitieth his Ps. 103, own children, even so is the Lord merciful to them that fear Him. And of the things that are to meet us after our present Ps. 116, life, and of that undisturbed condition, he teacheth, Return unto thy rest, O my soul. Why the Heaven is so great, this Ps.19,1. he will also say. For it is because the heavens declare the glory of God. Why day and night were made, neither this





so Ms. doth he keep back. Not that they may shine and give us

rest only, but also that they may instruct us. For there are i.e.day no speeches nor words, the sounds of which are not heard. and How the sea lies round about the earth, this too thou wilt night learn from hence. The deep as a garment is the envelopment thereof. For so the Hebrew has it. But having a sample in what I have mentioned, ye will have a notion of all the rest besides, the things about Christ, about the resurrection, about the life to come, about the resting, about punishment, about moral matters, all that concerns doctrines, and you will find the book filled with countless blessings. And if you fall into temptations, you will gain much comfort from hence. If you fall into sins even, you will find countless remedies stored up here, or if into poverty or tribulation, you will see many havens. And if thou be righteous thou wilt gain much


security hence, and if a sinner much relief. For if thou be Ps. 44, just and art ill-treated, thou wilt hear him say, For thy sake are we killed all the day long, we are counted as sheep for Ps. 44, the slaughter. All these things have come upon us, and yet


Ps. 103, me.


f Ps. 104, 6. Where Aquila and would be expected in speaking of the Theodotion have the feminine, which sea. See Theodoret on the Psalm.

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