/ It is your country's flag, my boy,

And proudly drinks the light,
O'er ocean's wave, in foreign climes,

A symbol of our might.


Father, what fearful noise is that,

Now thundering in the clouds ? Why do they wave their hats,

And rush along in crowds ?


It is the voice of cannonry,

The glad shouts of the free;
This is a day of memory,



I wish that I was now a man,

I'd free my country too,
And cheer as loudly as the rest;

But father, why don't you?


I'm getting old and weak; but still

My heart is big with joy;
I've witnessed many a day like this.

Shout you aloud, my boy!



God bless our native land!

And may I live to hold the boon

Of freedom in my hand.


d Well done, my boy, grow up, and love

The land that gave you birth,
A land where Freedom loves to dwell,-

A paradise on earth.

c High pitch; joyous; compound emphasis.

b Orotund; low; manly. Medium emphasis. đ Orotund; moderate pitch; slow but bold.


EXTRACT FROM A SPEECH BY ANDREW JOHNSON, - 1861. « The amendments to the Constitution, which constitute the bill of rights, declare that " a well regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed.” Our people are denied this right secured to them in their own Constitution, and the Constitution of the United States. We ask the Goyernment to interpose to secure us this constitutional right. We want the passes in our mountains opened; we want deliverance and protection for a down-trodden and oppressed people, who are struggling for their independence without arms. If we had had ten thousand stand of arms and ammunition when the contest commenced, we should have asked no further assistance. We have not got them. We are a rural people; we have villages and small towns- no large cities. Our population is homogeneous, industrious, frugal, brave, independent; but now harmless, and powerless, and oppressed by usurpers. C You may be too late in coming to our relief; or you may not come at all, though I do not doubt that you will come; they may trample us under foot; they may convert our plains into graveyards, and the caves of our mountains into sepulchres; but they will never take us out of the Union, or make us a land of slaves-no, never! a We intend to stand as firm as adamant, and as unyielding as our own majestic mountains that surround us. Yes, we will be as fixed and as immovable as are they upon their bases. We will stand as long as we can; and if we are overpowered, and liberty shall be driven from the land, we intend before she departs, to take the flag of our country, with a stalwart arm, a patriotic heart, and an honest head, and place it upon the summit of the loftiest and most majestic mountain. We intend to plant it there, and leave it, to indicate to the inquirer who may come in after times, the spot where the goddess of liberty lingered and wept for the last time, before she took her flight from a people once prosperous, free, and happy.



D. S. DICKINSON, -1861,

a This effort to divide the Union, and subvert the Government, whatever may be the pretence, is, in fact, a daring and dangerous crusade against free institutions. It should be opposed by the whole power of a patriotic people, and crushed beyond the prospect of a resurrection; and to attain that end, the Government should be sustained in every just and reasonable effort to maintain the authority and integrity of the nation; to uphold and vindicate the supremacy of the Constitution, and the majesty of the laws by all lawful means; not grudgingly sustained, with one hesitating, shuffling, unwilling step forward to save appearances, and two stealthy ones backward to secure a seasonable retreat; nor with the shallow craft of a mercenary politician, calculating chances, and balancing between expedients, but with the generous alacrity and energy which have a meaning, and prove a loyal, a patriotic, a willing heart. It is not a question of administration', but of a Government' --- not of politics', but of patriotism!----not of policy, but of principles' which uphold us all'—a question too great for party' — between the Constitution and the laws on one hand, and misrule and anarchy on the other!

a Lold, but pure tone of commencing address. b Orotund; high pitch. Slow but firm o Orotund; compound emphasis; increase. d Gestures elevated to points in circle above the hoad.


Mr. Richard Culver introduces Walker's Theory of Inflection, with the following suggestions :

"All vocal sounds may be divided into two kinds; namely, speaking sounds and musical sounds. Musical sounds are such as continue a given time on one precise point of the musical scale, or leap, as it were, from one note to another; while speaking sounds, instead of dwelling on the note they begin with, slide either upwards or downwards to the neighbouring notes without any perceptible or decisive rest on any: so that speaking and musical sounds are essentially distinct; the former being constantly in motion from the moment they commence; the latter being at rest for some given time, in one precise note.

The continual motion of speaking sounds makes it almost impossible for the ear to mark their several differences; and the difficulty of arresting them for examination has made almost all authors suppose it impossible to give any such distinct account of them as to be of use in speaking and reading; but whether words are pronounced in a high or low, in a loud or soft tone; whether they are pronounced swiftly or slowly, forcibly or feebly, with the tone of the passion or without it, they must necessarily be pronounced either sliding upwards or downwards, or else go into a monotone or song. When we consider this, we shall find that the primary division of speaking sounds is into the upward and downward slide of the voice; and that whatever other diversity of time, tone, or force is added to speaking, it must necessarily be conveyed by these two slides.

o Pure voice; slow; middle pitch, as important narrative, Notice inflections towards tho close and give the last words in bold declamatory style.

These two slides, or inflections of voice, therefore, are the axis, as it were, on which the force, variety, and harmony of speaking turns. They may be considered as the great outlines of pronunciation.

By the rising and falling inflection of the voice is not meant the pitch in which the whole word is pronounced, or that loudness or softness which may accompany any pitch; but the upward or downward slide which the voice makes, when the pronunciation of a word is finishing; and which may, therefore, not improperly be called the rising and falling inflection.

So important is a just mixture of these two inflections, that the moment they are neglected, our pronunciation becomes forceless and monotonous : if the sense of a sentence require the voice to adopt the rising inflection, on any particular word, either in the middle or at the end of a phrase, variety and harmony demand the falling inflection on one of the preceding words; and, on the other hand, if emphasis, harmony, or a completion of sense, require the falling inflection on any word, the word immediately preceding, almost always, demands the rising inflection; so that these inflections of voice are in an order nearly alternate.

We see then, that there are two inflections of voice, Rising and Falling, and that these are united to form the circumflexes, which are Rising and Falling.

These inflections depend upon the style of the composition or address, for their length. If the composition is to be read in pure voice, unimpassioned style, the inflections are moderately long. If grand, or sublime, or bold, requiring the orotund voice, the inflections will be long. If plaintive, or subdued, requiring the tremor voice, low pitch, or slow time, the inflection will be short.

If we understand the principle of utterance, that inflections alternate, we require to know which leads, and then the following cadence will take care of itself. We can decide which is the leading inflection by applying the following rule:

All complete or positive assertions have the falling inflection at the close. All incomplete, or negative sentences have the rising inflection at the close.

Sometimes, the principal word, whieh has the emphasis and the inflection, will not be the closing word in the sentence.

The reason of the above rule, for the closing inflections, is found in emphasis which controls all other rules in expressive reading.

Some who know what inflection a sentence' requires, cannot give it. They need to practice the slides of the voice; in counting, for instance, as 1' 1' 2/ 2' 3' 3' 4! 4', changing the inflections at pleasure. Then the same with the Vowel Elements; then the sub-vocals, until the voice is disciplined.

We append numerous examples of inflections, marked for practice :



As we cannot discern the shadow moving along the dial-plate', so the advances we make in knowledge are only perceivable by the distance' gone



Although I fear it may be a shame to be dismayed at the entrance of my discourse in defence of a most valiant man'; and that it no ways becomes me, while Milo is more concerned for the safety of the state than for himself, not to show the same greatness of mind in behalf of him'; yet this new form of prosecution terrifies my eyes, which, whatever way they turn, want the ancient custom of the former, and the former manner of trials!

Although, son Marcus, as you have now been a hearer of Cratippus for a year, and this at Athens, you ought to abound in the precepts and doctrines of philosophy, by reason of the great character, both of your instructor and the city, one of which can furnish you with knowledge, and the other with examples'; yet as I always, to my advantage, joined the Latin tongue with the Greek, and I have done it not only in oratory, but likewise in philosophy, I think you ought to do the same', that you may be equally conversant in both languages!


If impudence prevailed as much in the forum and courts of justice as insolence does in the country and places of less resort/; Aulus Cæcina would submit as much to the inpudence of Sextus Æbutius in this cause, as he did before to his insolence when assaulted' by him.

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