pofing their courts. He knew that James while Duke of York, having fallen in love with Arabella Churchill, had caufed Winftan Churchill her father to be knighted; that he had procured for him the lucrative pofts of Commiflioner of the Court of Claims in Ireland, and eldest Comptroller of the Board of Green Cloth; that moreover he had extended his fpecial protection to his three fons. George Churchill, afterwards admiral of the Blue, and principal manager of the Admiralty for the High Admiral, he had originally placed in the navy, and had very early preferred to the command of a fhip of war. Charles Churchill, another brother, afterwards Lieutenant-General of the British forces, at the fame time Lieutenant-Governor of the Tower, governor of Bruffels and of Guernsey, alfo colonel of the fecond regi. ment of guards, had been by the Duke of York placed in the army, and rapidly advanced to the command of a regiment along with another brother, John Churchill, his favourite page. So eminently was John diftinguished by that Prince's fingular affection, that he was kept conftantly near his perfon. In his paffage to Scotland, in the Gloucefter frigate, ftranded on the Lemon and Ore in Yarmouth road the 5th of May 1682, the Duke of Hamilton certainly knew that the Duke of York had thewn greater anxiety for the prefervation of John Churchill's life than for his own, and had made him fi:ft ftep into his barge before he would go in himfelf; that he had fared him in preference to his own brotherin-law the Honourable Mr. Hyde, who had unfortunately perished in the frigate, A few months after, he had feen this John Churchill, at the preffing intance of the Duke of York, railed to the dignity of Peerage, by the title of Lord Churchill of Eyemouth in the county of Berwick in Scotland, made a general officer, and intrufted with the command of the firit regiment of dragoons. On James's acceffion, he had feen Lord Churchill appointed ambaffador to the Court of France, named one of the Lords of the Bed-chamber, created an English Peer by the title of Baron Sandridge in Hertfordihire, further complimented with the command of the third troop of life guards, and his wife appointed firft Lady of the bed-chamber to The Princets of Denmark. He had like

wife, with horror, feen this fame Lord Churchill heading a plot on the 17th of November 1688, for feizing James, and delivering his perfon into the hands of the Prince of Orange. He was well apprised that on a debate among the confpirators about the nodes of effecting this defign, Lord Churchill, as a return for wealth and honours lavished on himself and his obfcure family, in return for the prefervation of his own life, had undertaken to execute the traitorous deed, and, in cafe of refittance, had even bound himself to lay this very fovereign, his own and family's kind benefactor. He had seen him prowling for his prey, repair to Salifbury. He had happily fucceeded to defeat his black purpofe; and, in his difappointment, he had feen him, cafting off the mafk, bafely defert his bounteous Prince. He had been perfonally much wounded in his feelings, by his having feduced away his own bofom friend the Duke of Graf ton. He had witneffed another atrocious intance of his depravity, in his fpiriting up his wily confort to rob the distracted Monarch of his beloved daughter, by conveying her to Northampton, far from the fcene of defolation, and precluding her from adminiftering comfort to a defponding parent in the height of his affliction. He had witneffed the pungent grief of the forlaken Prince; had heard his doleful. exclamations, and had seen the royal cheek moistened with tears on receiving the cruel intelligence of his daughter's flight t. Twice, at his wicked initigation, had he himself fuffered long and painful imprisonments. From that time the Duke of Hamilton had pursued Marlborough's infidious tracks. He had marked the progref five ftrides of his ambition to attain an uncontrouled power, and establish in the land an odious oligarchy. He had darted forth, and had refcued both his Sovereign and his country out of the monster's fangs. Had he not caufe to deteft him? Was he rath or unfounded in his opinion of that character? From a plant so tainted, could any healing juices flow? This hideous picture will not appear overcharged, on re viling the former part, or perufing the fequel of this work. Not a fyllable is here fet down but what has been variously recorded. I have not added to or diminished from a fubject, handed down to pof

Death-bed confeffion of Sir George Hewit, one of the confpirators at Mr. Hatton Compton's logings in St. Alban's Street. Rerefby's Memoirs further celebrate Captain, Churchill, for having been the first who gave the fleet the example of defection.

+ Such was James's fondness for the Princess of Denmark, that he never in his life had thwarted her, not even on the fcore of religion. Vide Clarendon's Diary.

terity under different fhapes. I have heen cautious and faithful in retracing the outlines, and fcrupulously have confined myfelf to the pourtraying of features already too well known. The only merit by me claimed is to have hung it out in full view, that all future parricides of their country, fhould any monsters fo depraved again xift, may behold and tremble."

The Duke of Marlborough was foon afterwards difmiffed from the Queen's fervice on a charge of peculation in fupplying the army with provifions; and his trai. toreus projes, as Mr. Hamilton calls them, defeated; and indeed there are in this publication extracts from Marlborough's correfpondence with the Court of St. Germain, in which he fignifies his unalienable attachment to the Pretender, whom he calls his King: but we have the authority of Lord Bolingbroke to believe that, although there were particular men

who at this time correfponded indirectly, and directly too, with the Pretender, and with others for his fervice, and by their apparent zeal and large promifes raifed fome faint hopes, yet they never were fin cere. By this difmiffion, however, the Duke loft all power of continuing his negotiation, and was deprived not only of the promised fruits of his corruption, if hẹ really was corrupt, but was alfo finally bereft of the enormous emoluments which during near eleven years, he and his Duchefs had jointly enjoyed from the Briti Crown, amounting by computation to 62,3251. a year, not including his proâts by the war, which, fays Mr. Hamilton, exceeeded "all computation." The Duke of Hamilton was afterwards killed by Lord Mohun in a duel, which was certainly attended with circumstances that will amply justify its being called an “ affaffination."

Extracts of Letters from Arthur Phillip, Efq. Governor of New South Wales, to Lord Sydney; to which is annexed, A Defcription of Norfolk Island, by Philip Gidley King, Efq. 4to. 1s. 6d. Debrett.

THE Reviews which we have before given of the progrefs made towards eftablishing a new Colony at Botany Bay, from the publications of Capt. Tench and Mr. White upon this interefting fubject, will perhaps have left upon the public mind fome doubts refpecting the eventual fuccefs of this humane though expenfive project. We are therefore happy in being able, from the prefent publication, to ftate that time, and the care of the mother country, feem only neceffary to raise this infant fettlement to profperity and greatnefs. The first of thefe Letters is dated from Sidney Cove, the 12th of February 1790, and announces in its opening the probability of both COTTON and cocoa being the fpontaneous produftions of fome of the adjacent islands. On Rofe-Hill, a delightful spot, fituated at the head of a creek about four miles up the harbour, on a fertile foil of twenty miles circumference, and enjoying all the advantages of wood and water, the Go vernor has formed a fettlement, where a barn, granary, and other neceffary buildings are erected, and twenty-feven acres in corn promife a good crop. At Syd. ney Cove all the officers are in good huts, and the men in barracks; thofe who have been any ways indufurious have vegetables plenty; and buildings of brick and

fone are going on with great rapidity. The Governor's houfe contains fix rooms, is well built, and ftands upon a good foundation. It is now certain, that no dangor is to be apprehended from the natives; and the only animals by which they are in any degree annoyed are rats. The convicts behave in fo orderly a manner, that no robbery has been committed for feveral months. "As to the climate," fays the Governor, "I believe one finer or more healthy is not to be found in any part of the world; and fuch is the fertility of the foil, that if fettlers are fent out, and the convicts divided amongst them, this fettlement will very fhortly maintain tielf." The fecond Letter is dated from Sydney Cove, 13th February 1790; defcribes an excurfion made by the Governor round the Settlement, and the finding of a river, from 300 to 800 feet broad, near Broken Bay, and navigable for the largest merchant fhips to the foot of Richmond-Hill, which he named the Hawkefbury, the banks of which are covered with timber, the foil light and rich, and a fertile country to a confiderable extent. The foil of Richmond-Hill, over which there is a fall of water, is good, and lies well for cultivation; and the river Hawkesbury abounds with wild-ducks, quails, and black fwans. The Governor

State of Parties at the Acceffion of George the First.
Vol. xv. p. 449; vol. xvi. p. 261.

Vel. xviii. p. 103. 203. 276,


alfo difcovered another river of fresh water, near Port Jackfon, which he called the Nepean, the banks of which, covered with walnut-trees, are as fine for tillage as moft in England: This tract the Governor propofes for thofe fettlers who may be lent out from England, allowing each twenty men, and from five hundred to one thoufand acres for his farm. The neceffity of having fettlers is fo great, that from the genial increafe a number of poultry, hogs, and goats, have been obliged to be killed, for want of corn to fupport them. The third Letter is dated from Sydney Cove, 11th April 1790, in which the Governor defcribes, that the goodness of the foil on Norfolk Island, and the induftry of thofe employed there, had rendered the Inland a certain refource in cafe the fore-fhips from England fhould be loft, or the fettlement otherwife difap pointed of receiving the fupplies. The defcription of this ifland by Mr. King is, with respect to its luxuriance and fertility, fomewhat like the celebrated defcription of Juan Fernandez. Its form is cblong, and it contains from twelve to fourteen thousand acres. The face of the country is variegated by hills and dales, covered with a thick wood, through which run many streams of very fine water, fufficiently large to turn any number of mills,

and well stored with very large eels. From the coaft to the fummit of Mount Pitt is a continuation of the richest and the deepest foil in the world, varying from a rich black mould to a fat red earth. The pine, the live oak, a yellow wood, a hard black wood, and a wood not unlike English beech, abound. The flax plant grows fpontaneously in many parts of the inland and there is no doubt but that Norfolk Inland will very foon clothe the inhabitants of New South Wales. There are a great quantity of pigeons, parrots, hawks, and other smaller birds; but there is no quadruped on the island except the rat. The coafts abound with very fine fih, among which is the turtle. The island is furrounded with a number of bays, and the air is fine, pure, and healthful. The fpring is visible in Auguft, but the native trees, and many plants in the island, are in a conftant ftate of flowering. Vines, oranges, and potatoes, thrive well, and yield a very great increafe; infomuch that two crops a year may be got with great cafe.

To this publication is appended an account of the number of convicts which have been fent to Botany Bay, and the particular expences which Government have been at to establish this fettlement.

An Effay on Vital Sufpenfion: Being an Attempt to investigate and afcertain thofe Difeafes in which the Principles of Life are apparently extinguished. dical Practitioner. 8vo. Rivington and Sons.

THIS little tract adds ons to the many

which have been written by gentle men of the profeffion, as well phyficians as furgeons, verfed in the medical icience, and well killed in anatomy, to demonftrate, beyond a poffibility of contradiction, that there are many cafes in which the human body has the appearance of death, and preferves it for a confiderable time, without the reality; the vital principle being ftill unfubdued, and a restoration of all its powers and functions practicable, by the administration, in due time, of proper


It is addressed, with great propriety, to Dr. Hawes, who, by his patriotic zeal, and indefatigable affiduity, has promoted and extended the benefits of the Humane Society to all parts of the kingdom. And we tuit, that after this corroborating teftimony of the deceitful appearances of death, no perfon who has a grain of humanity in his compofition will prefine to fet truth at defiance, and either wantonly attempt to turn the inftitution into ridicule, or

By a Me

hardily deny the evidence of thofe living objects of the benevolent care of the Society who have been rescued from an untimely grave.

We moft heartily with that our anony. mous author had not concealed his name and rank in his profeflion, for in all probability it would have added great weight to his inveftigation of a fubject which has been fo varioudly treated, and engaged fo much of the attention of mankind for fume years paft. In fact, it is ferving a good caufe by halves, not to stand forth openly in its defence; and it is the more to be regretted, because the fcoffers at the generous exertions of the Humane Society, and the vilifiers of the worthy character who has devoted " his best days, the fummer of his life," to this labour of love, have continually attacked him from the fame mafked battery, anonymous publications, the fcreen of timid or mal-volent


Having faid thus much chiefly in the view to excite the author of the Effay before

fore us to reprint, without lofs of time, and to annex his name to fuch profeffional skill, found arguments, and undeniable facts in fupport of his propofitions as we have found in it, we proceed to lay before our readers fome of his moft ufeful obfervations. And let it be conftantly borne in mind, that he who faves a body from death, may likewife "fave a foul alive!" Sudden death gives no time for repentance; if, therefore, as Chriftians, we believe what we profefs, we cannot but wish to recal to life thofe unhappy perfons whofe difeafes, by putting on all the external appearances of it, would terminate in real death if relief were not timely adminiftered.

Lancifi's claffification of all cafes of sudden suspension of the vital vires under one genus diftinguished by the term morbi attoniti, feems, lays our medical practitioner, to be founded in an agreement with facts: His refolution of this genus into its fpecies does not appear to be equally confentaneous to physical truth; and this feems to be confirmed by his own confeffion in another part of his work, "That the apoplexia of the brain, the facope of the heart, and the fuffocatio of the lungs, are often infufceptible of difcrimination;" yet all phyfical writers, so far as our acquaintance extends, have, without any helitation, diftinguithed apoplexia and fyncope by certain diagnoftica. Upon this principle they have established a number of fpecies under each genus, and the illuftrious Cullen adopts thefe diftinctions; for he fays, " in apoplexia the brain, in fyncope the heart is firit af fected;" and, retting on this affumption, he has undertaken to establish various cafes of afphyxia.-To controvert this opinion is the arduous task of our medical Profellor, and his reafoning upon the fubject is interefting not only to the faculty, but to the public. Under the apprehenfion, however, that the regulars of the College may not pay any attention to an anonymous author, attacking the principles and opinions of fuch celebrated Profeffors as Cullen and the rest that follow, we must take the liberty to introduce him in this place pleading his own caufe.

“But what axiom or poftulate does natural or medical philofophy afford, which can furnish a folution of fo extraordinary an operation, as that by which difagreeable fenfations or affections of the mind muft produce any malady that makes its first

attack upon the heart; that fuch, how ever, are amongst the most frequent causes of fyncope, is a fact well known to every man converfant with phyfical fcience.

"The Philofophical Tranfactions, Vol. LXIX. give an account of a man who, having rafhly and unknowingly infpired fome inflammable air, was attacked with all the fymptoms peculiar to fyncope; notwithstanding which, guided by that ve nerable Chief of Phylic, we should refer this difeafe to apoplexia."

"All the fymptoms of that peculiar difcafe under which the body labours when in an apparent state of diffolution, seem to correfpond in every circumstance, cujufvis momenti, with that ufually defcribed under the title of fyncope. That this last agrees with that, which is the confequence of ftrangling, is demonftrable from reafon, experience, and authority; although a numerous holt of diftinguished physical names, as Cullen, Boerhaave, Albert, Litzens, Wenfer, Bruhere, &c. have referred to apoplexia.

Sudden and immoderate joy is faid to produce fyncope; a vehement electrical hock, apoplexia. Do not these causes act in the fame way? Who hath ever even attempted to point out a difference in the modus operandi of these causes? Do not both produce their effects by exceffive incitation? Dr. Priestley's experiments inform us, that in an electrical fhock of the brain, the texture of that organ does not undergo any change that is perceptible to fenfe.

"What we have advanced will, we prefume, fufficiently juftfiy us in neither referring the difeafe (vital fufpenfion) which is the fubject of this Treatite, to the fyncope occafionalis, nor to the apoplexia fuffecata of the great Cullen. From those proofs we have adduced, we are conducted to this fimple, clear, and obvious inference, that there are certain maladies proceeding from poilons, noxious vapours, ftrangling, drowning, which in the courie of nature are provided to fill up that fpace which intervenes between the cafus exquifiti of fyncope and apoplexia; and that all these form, as it were, one great fhade, the parts of which do not differ in kind er genus, but only in mode and magnitude.

In profeffing, therefore, to treat of the afphyxia of the drowned, if our obfervations on this very interefting fubject carry any weight with them, or fhall be

* J. Marcus Lancifi, of Rome, a celebrated physician and anatomift, medical, anatomical, and philofophical writer in Latin, was born A. D. 1694, died 1720. Mortimer's Student's Pocker Dictionary.



found to have any coincidence with the exemplar naturæ, they may be easily extended to embrace all the varieties nearly of the fame genus."

Thefe various affections ought not, however, to be treated in a fimilar mode, nor with the fame remedies. The mode of destroying the effect mult neceffarily vary with the caufe, nor is it repugnant to the idea of one genus comprehending them, that the parts conftituting it require different, nay, oppofite remedies.

Our author's next inquiry is into the prognoftica of this malady, and under this head he advances a new hypothefis, which demands, for the benefit of mankind, the strictest investigation by the faculty.

"It follows as a manifeft confequence from the properties we have determined peculiar to this and other diseases incidental to the human body, and still more fully from the history of the animalia bybernantia, that life by no means confifts in the actions of the heart, and the confequent motion of the blood.

"The fame principles and the fame feries of reafoning must demonftrate, that life is neither attached to fenfation, nor to the breath inhaled and exhaled, nor to any other function; and therefore every fign of death, drawn from the extinction of any of thefe actions, must be attended with the most deleterious and pernicious effects to the human race." And if this be fo, what a leffon it gives against hafty interments, ftill practifed in the North of England and elsewhere: corruption should

be visible upon this corruptible body be fore we fuffer interment, or deprive it of warmth, air, and every other aid to restore life, which, without this demonftration, we cannot be certain is totally extinct.

"The faculty of receiving the action of ftimulatives, which difcriminates animate from inanimate matter, and appears to us to conftitute life, is retained with much greater tenacity by the mufcular fibres than the nerves; to determine, therefore, whether life ftill remain or not, let various fimuli be applied to a denudated muscle, and by the degree of contraction it may be collected how far there is any life remaining.

"It is a proof of the temerity and imbecility of human judgment, that we have too many inftances on record wherein even the moft skilful phyficians have erred in the decifions they have pronounced refpecting the extinction of life; this should incite the practitioner never to be deterred, exemplo male perniciofo, in his efforts, abditam dormientemque fcintillulam explorare."

We need add no more to recommend this Effay to the perufal of those who would not run the least risk of being buried, or of fuffering their friends to be buried alive. The remaining chapters, or rather fections, contain an investigation of the causes, and their modus operandi in producing the fymptoms of vital fufpenfion, efpecially in drowned men; and a comparative view of the different modes of refufcitation, with hints for improvements, and thoughts on transfusion.

Confiderations on the refpective Rights of Judge and Jury, particularly upon Trials for Libel, occafioned by an expected Motion of the Right Hon. Charles James Fox. By John Bowles, Efq. Barrifter at Law. 8vo. Sewell.

A Letter to the Right Hon. Charles James Fox on his late Motion in the Houfe of Commons refpecting Libels. By John Bowles, Efq. Barrifter at Law. 8vo. Sewell.

THE refpective provinces of Judge and

Jury as to their exclufive rights to determine on the law and the fact, have, efpecially in the profecutions of fate libels, become a fubject of much heated controversy, and, as in most other political quef. tions, the feveral champions on each fide have contended rather for triumph than for truth. The question is certainly of peenliar importance, and perhaps difficult to decide; for although it must be admitted, that the immediate and direct right of deciding upon queftions of law is inrufted to the Judges, yet it is equally lear that the Jury, in their indifputable right to give a general verdict, must inidentally take cognizance of the law, a

general verdict being neceffarily compounded both of the law and the fact. The learned author of the pamphlets at present before us, appears to have examined the fubject with profound attention, and argues upon it with equal acutenefs, fpirit, and ingenuity; firft maintaining, upon general reafonings, that Juries have no cognizance whatever of the law, but that their juridiction is entirely confined to facts; and then applying this principle, with a confiderable degree of fuccefs, to cafes of libel. To minds that form their conclufions entirely from the dictates of common fenfe, and are altogether unac quainted with the artificial reasonings of law, it must ever feem abfurd, that when a power

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