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contrary, he was completely master of it, and declare against one of them, with a simul cum, frequently employed it. He spoke in high terms but if a man bring an original writ against one of the analytical works of Mr. Cotes, and of the only, and declares with a simul cum, he abates iwo Bernouillis, as well as of an improvement of his own writ. Comber. 260. the infinitesimal calculus by D'Alembert and SIM'ULAR, n. s. Lat. simulo. One that De la Grange. That Dr. Simson was master of counterfeits. Obsolete. this calculus, in general, appears from two valu Hide thee, thou bloody hand, able dissertations in his posthumous works ; the Thou perjurer, thou simular of virtue, one on logarithms, and the other on the limits of That art incestuous. Shukspeure. King Lear. ratios. Having never married, he lived entirely SIMULATION, n. s. Fr. simulation ; Lat. a college life; and thus, instead of the commodi- simulatio.. That species of hypocrisy which preous house to which his place in the university tends that to be which is not. entitled him, he contented himself with chambers,

Simulation is a vice rising of a natural falseness, good indeed, and spacious enough, but without

or fearfulness ; or of a mind that hath some main any decoration. His official servant sufficed for faults; which, because a man must needs disguise, valet, footman, and chambermaid. As this it maketh him practise simulation.

Bucon. retirement was devoted to study, he entertained For the unquestionable virtues of her person and no company, but in a neighbouring house, where mind, he well expressed his love in an act and time his apartment was sacred to him and his guests. of no simulation towards his end, bequeathing her Retired from promiscuous intercourse, he con- all his mansion-houses, and a power to dispose of his

Wotton. tented himself with a small society of intimate whole personal estate. friends, with whom he could lay aside every re

For distinction sake, a deceiving by word is comstraint, and indulge in all the innocent frivolities monly called a lye ; and deceiving by actions, ges.

tures, or behaviour, is called simulution or hypocrisy. of life. Every Friday evening was spent in a

South. party at whist, in which he excelled. The cardparty was followed by an hour or two of playful Acting together ; existing at the same time.

SIMULTA’NEOUS, adj. Lat. simultaneus. conversation. Every Saturday he had a less select party to dinner at a house about a mile If the parts may all change places at the same from town. The doctor's long life enabled him time, without any respect of priority or posteriority to see the dramatis personæ of this little theatre crowded in a box, move by a like mutual and simui

to each other's motion, why may not bullets, closely several times completely changed, while he

taneous exchange ?

Glanville. continued to give it a personal identity : so that it became, as it were, his own house; and be, as

SIMULUS, an ancient Latin poet, who wrote its father and head, was respected and beloved a poem on the Tarpeian rock. Plut. in Rom. by all. lle never exerted his presidial authority,

SIMYRA, an ancient town of Phænicia.

SIN, n. s. unless to check some infringement of good

Sax. sýn; Goth. synia. breeding, religion, or purity of manners; for

Sin'rul, adj. An act against or in conthese he had the highest reverence. Having a

Sin'FULLY, adj.

tempt of the laws of God. fine voice, and most accurate ear, he sometimes.

Sin'FULNESS, n. s. See below.

Used by sung some lines of a Latin hymn to the divine geo

Sin'less, adj. Shakspeare for a very meter, with a kind of celestial rapture. Dr. Simson

Six'LESSNESS, n. S.

wicked man: to sin is so

Sin'ner. was of an advantageous stature, with a fine

to act; to offend against countenance; and, even in his old age, had a

right: the derivatives all corresponding. graceful carriage, and always, except when in The flesh of the bullock shalt thou burn without mourning, dressed in white cloth. He was of a the camp: it is a sin offering.

Ex. xxix. 14. cheerful and affable disposition; and strangers Stand in awe and sin not.

Psalm iv. 14. were at perfect ease in his company

He en-
He shall ask, and he shall give him life for them

1 John, y. 16. joyed a long course of uninterrupted health, and that sin not unto death. died in 1768, aged eighty-one. He left to the

Thrice happy man, said then the father grave, university his valuable library, which is con

Whose staggering steps thy steady hand doth lead, sidered as the most choice collection of mathe, who better can the way to heaven read.

And shews the way his sinful soul to save, matical books and MSS. in the kingdom, rendered

Faerie Queene. doubly valuable by Dr. Simson's notes.

All this from my remembrance brutish wrath Simson (professor), a younger brother of Sinfully plucked, and not a man of you the learned "Dr. R. Simson. This gentleman Had so much grace to put it in my mind. was professor of medicine in the university of

Skakspeare. Richard III. Si. Andrew's, and is famed for some works of Here's that which is too weak to be a sinnet, reputation; particularly a Dissertation on the honest water, which never left man i' th' mire.

Id. Timon. Nervous System, occasioned by the Dissection of a Brain completely Ossified.

It is great sin to swear unto a sin,

Shakspeare. SIMUL Cum (together with), in English law, But greater sin to keep a sinful oath. words used in indictments and declarations of

But those that sleep, and think not on their sins,

Pinch them. Id. Merry Wives of Windsor. trespass against several persons, where some of them are known, and others not known: as, the Thou scarlet sin, robbed this bewailing land

Thy ambition, plaintiff declares against A. B. the defendant, to- of noble Buckingham. Id. Henry VIII. gether with C.D., E. F., and divers others un

I am a man known, for that they committed such a trespass, More sinned against than sinning. Shukspeare. &c. 2 Lil. Abr. 469. If a writ is generally Light from her thought, a summer's careless robe, against two or more persons, the plaintiff may Fell cach affection of this sin-worn globe. Brooke.

Id.

Is there no means, but that a sin sick land be something void, both of number and measure: Should be let blood with such a boisterous hand ? by way of contradiction to virtue, which he makes

Daniel. lo consist in musical numbers ! Simplicius, and Dishonest shame

after him the schoolmen, assert that evil is not Of nature's works : honour dishonourable,

any positive thing, contrary to good; but a mere Sin-bred, how have ye troubled all mankind !

defect and accident. Sins are distinguishred into Milton.

original and actual. Nature herself, though pure of sinful thought, Wrought in her so, that seeing me, she turned. Id.

Original sin has been divided by some divines I am sent

into inherent and imputed: the former term being To shew thee what shall come in future days used to denote that corruption or degeneracy of To thee, and to thy offspring : good with bad nature which is said to be propagated by the laws Expect to hear ; supernal grace conlerding of generation from the first inan to all his offWith sinfulness of men.

spring, by reason of which man is utterly indisInfernal ghosts and hellish furies round

posed, disabled, and made opposite unto all that Environed ihee ; some howled, some yelled, some is spiritually good, and wholly inclined to all evil,

shrieked, Some bent at thee their fiery darts, while thou

and that continually. Hence, it is said, proceed

Id. Sat'st unappalled in calm and sinless peace.

all actual transgressions. The general cause and

ground of this propagation of a sinful nature are We may the less admire at his gracious conde- referred originally to man's common interest in scensions to those, the sinlessness of whose condition the guilt or condemnation of Adam's first sin; will keep them from turning his vouchsafements into but the manner in which this hereditary corrupany thing but occasions of joy and gratitude.

Boyle's Seraphick Love.

tion is conveyed is not particularly explained, No thoughts like mine his sinless soul profane, though some have supposed that it may result Observant of the right.

Dryden's Ovid. from the constitution of the body, and the deOver the guilty then the fury shakes

pendence of the mind upon it. Malebranche The sounding whip, and brandishes her snakes, accounts for it from men at this day retaining in And the pale sinner with her sisters takes. Dryden. the brain all the traces and impressions of their

The Stoicks looked upon all passions as sinful de- first parents! All animals, he argues, produce fects and irregularities, as so many deviations from their like, and with like traces in the brain ; right reason, making passion to be only another word whence it is that animals of the same kind have for perturbation.

South.

the same sympathies and antipathies, and do the The humble and contented man pleases himself in

same things on the same occasions; and our first nocently and easily, while the ambitious man attempts to please others sinfully and difficultly, and deep traces in the brain by the impression of sen

parents, after their transgression, received such per haps unsuccessfully too.

Let the boldest sinner take this one consideration sible objects, that it was very possible they might along with him when he is going to sin, that, whether

communicate them to their children. Now as the sin he is about to act ever come to be pardoned it is necessary, according to the order established or no, yet, as soon as it is acted, it quite turns the by nature, that the thoughts of the soul be conbalance, puts his salvation upon the venture, and formable to the traces in the brain, it may be said makes it ten to one odds against him.

Id. that, as soon as we are formed in the womb, we Did God indeed, insist on a sinless and unerring are infected with the corruption of our parents; observance of all this multiplicity of duties, had the for, having traces in the brain like those of the Christian dispensation provided no remedy for our persons who gave us being, it is necessary we lapses, we might cry out with Balaam, Alas! who have the same thoughts, and the same inclishould live, if God did this?

Rogers. Peevishness, the general fault of sick persons, is of course, we must be born with concupiscence

nations, with regard to sensible objects. Thus, equally to be avoided for the folly and sinfulness.

Wake.

and original sin. With concupiscence, if that Whether the charmer sinner it or saint it,

be nothing but the natural effort the traces of If folly grows romantick, I must paint it.

the brain make on the mind to attach it to senAnd who but wishes to invert the laws

sible things ; and with original sin, if that be noOf order, sins against the eternal cause.

thing but the prevalency of concupiscence; no

Id. Essay on Man. thing, in reality, but these effects considered as Vice or virtue chiefly imply the relation of our ac victorious, and as masters of the mind and heart tions to men in this world; sin and holiness rather of the child. imply their relation to God and the other world.

lluis's Logick.

Imputed original sin denotes that guilt or Sad waste! for which no after thrift alones ;

obligation to punishment to which all the posThe grave admits no cure for guilt or sin ;

terity of Aslam are subject by the impitation Dewdrops may deck the turf that hides the bones, Adam's first sin, in which the sinfulness of that

of his transgression. This is called the guide of But tears of godly grief ne'er flow within.

Cowper.

stale into which man fell, is said partly to conNever.consider yourselves as persons that are to be sist; and it is denominated original sin, in order seen, admired, and courted by men ; but as poor to distingu sh it from actual sin, or personal sinners, that are to save yourselves from the vanijes guilt. This doctrine of imputed guilt has and follies of a miserable world, by humility, devo- been explained and vind cated by supposing a tion, and self-denial.

Law.

covenant made with Adam (called hy divines Sin, in theology, has been defined to be any the covenant of works,) as a public person, want of conformity to the law of God, and under not for himself only, but for his posterity, this definition are comprehended both the sins of in consequence of which he became the federal omission and of commission. Plato defines sin to head, surety, or representative of all mankind;

Pope.

.

and they, descending from him by ordinary gene- offspring would have been thus corrupt, and thus ration, sinned in him, and fell with him, in his calamitous from their birth. Hence it has been first transgression. It has been debated how far inferred that the covenant was made with Adam, the imputation of Adam's sin reaches: some have not only for himself, but in some measure for his maintained that it extends to final condemnation, posterity; so that he was to be considered as the and eternal misery : others have suggested that great head and representative of all that were to the sin of Adam has subjected his posterity to an descend from him. On the other hand, many diutter extinction of being ; so that all who die in vines have disputed the validity of the arguments their infancy fall into a state of annihilation, ex- alleged in proof of the doctrine of original sin; and cepting those who are the seed of God's people, whilst some of them have disownea the doctrine who, by virtue of the blessings of the covenant in toto, as irrational and unscriptural, others have made with Abraham, and the promise to the seed allowed that part of it which comprehends the of the righteous, shall, through the grace and depravity of the human species, but have rejected power of Christ, obtain a part in a happy resur the imputation of Adam's sin to his posterity. rection, in which other infants shall have no Limborch, rejecting and refurting the imputashare. It seeins best to acknowledge, says Dr. tion of Adam's sın, acknowledges thal men are Doddridge, that we know nothing certain concern now born less pure than Adam was created, and ing the state of infants, and therefore can assert with a certain inclination to sin; but this inclinothing positively; but that they are in the hands nation cannot properly be called sin, or a habit of a merciful God, who, as he cannot consistently of sin propagated to them from Adam; but merely with justice and truth give them a sense of guilt an inclination to esteem and pursue what is agreefor an action they never committed, so probably able to the flesh, arising from the bodily constiwill not hold their souls in being merely to make 'tution transmitted to them by their parents. them sensible of pain for the guilt of a remote an- Inclinations and appetites of this kind, being cestor, their existence in a state of everlasting insen- most agreeable to the flesh, are contrary to the sibility (which was Dr. Ridgley's scheme) seems divine will, as God, by prohibiting them, tries the hardly intelligible; we must, therefore, either fall readiness of our obedience, and of course these in with the above-mentioned hypothesis, or sup- inclinations are inclinations to sin. But if it be pose them all to have a part in the resurrection asked, says this author, whether there be in human to glory, which seems to put them all on a level, nature a certain original corruption or habit of without a due distinction in favor of the seed of sin propagated from Adam to his posterity, which believers; or else must suppose they go through may truly and properly be called sin, by which some new state of trial, concerning which the the understanding, and will, and all the affecScripture is wholly silent. Such is the doctrine tions are so depraved that they are inclined only of original sin, both inherent and imputed, as to evil, and that all mankind are by nature subsome divines, eminent as scholars and theologians, ject to the wrath of God, such kind of corruphave stated it. In proof of their view of the de- tion is consistent neither with Scripture nor with pravity of human nature they have appealed to right reason. The Scripture, he says, teaches no observation and experience, and referred to a such doctrine as that which charges infants with variety of texts of Scripture, in which, according a moral corruption that is truly and properly to their ideas of them, it is either implied or ex sin. See Deut. i. 39; Jonah iv. 11; Rom. pressed. Those who maintain that the sin of ix. 11. Our Saviour recommends it to bis Adam is imputed to all who descend from him disciples to be as little children. See also 1 in the way of ordinary generation, allege, in proof Cor. xiv. 20. This notion, says Limborch, is of this opinion, that we are all born with such contrary to the justice of God, who would not constitutions as will produce some evil inclina- punish men with this moral corruption, from tions, which we probably should not have had which all actual sins proceed, and which leads to in our original state ; which evil inclinations are future perdition and misery. God cannot be the represented in Scripture as derived from our pa- author of sin. Besides it' cannot be conceived rents, and therefore may be ultimately traced up how this sin can be propagated; it cannot belong to the first sinful parents from whom we de- to the mind, which proceeds immediately from scended ;-that infants are plainly liable to God; nor can it exist in the body, which is incadiseases and death, though they have not com- pable of sin. But, as diseases may be propagated, mitted any personal transgression, which, while so may a peculiar temperament or constitution, they cannot know the law, it seems impossible and together with this an inclination to certain they should be capable of (Rom.v.12—14);—that objects, which, immoderately indulged, may bethe seeds of diseases and death were undoubtedly come sinful, but is not sinful in itself. Morederived to children from their immediate parents, over, no sin is liable to punishment which is inand from them may be traced up to the first voluntary; but original corruption is involuntary. diseased and mortal parent, i. e. Adam;-that the Limborch explains many texts, and refutes many Scripture teaches us to consider Adam as having arguments, urged by the advocates of original sin. brought a sentence of death upon his whole Another writer (Dr. Taylor), who has taken a race, and expressly says that many were consti- lead in this controversy on the same side of the tuted sinners, i. e. on account of it are treated as question, proceeds, in the examination of the docsuch (1 Cor. xv. 22; Rom. v. 12—19);—that the trine of original sin, upon the same plan with Dr. sin of Adam brought upon himself depraved in- Clarke in his . Scripture Doctrine of the Trinity,' clinations, an impaired constitution, and at length by citing and explaining all those passages of death :--and there is no reason to believe that if Scripture which expressly speak of the conseman had continued in a state of innocence his quences of the first transgression.

He observes that the consequences of the first verse, as hy the offence of one judgment came transgression are spoken of certainly and plainly upon all men to condemnation;' and therefore but five times in the whole Bible, twice in the they mean nothing more nor less than that by Old, and thrice in the New Testament. The one man's disobedience the many, that is, marifirst passage is Gen. ii. 17. In this passage, he kind, were made subject to death by the judicial says, death is opposed to life, and must be so act of God. The apostle, being a Jew, was well understood. But not one word occurs in this acquainted with the idiom of the Hebrew lantext relating to Adam's posterity. 2. The con guage; and, according to that language, . being sequences of the transgression of Adam and made sinners' may very well signify heing adEve are related in Gen. ii. from the seventh judged or condemned to death. See Exod. xxii. verse to the end of the chapter. The natural 9; Deut. xxv. 1; 1 Kings, viii, 32; Job, ix. 20. consequences were shame and fear, the common X. 2, xxxii. 3, xxxiv. 17, xl. 8; Ps. xxxvii. 33, effects of guilt, whrch was personal, and could xciv. 21; Prov. xvii. 15; Is. I. 9, liv. 17. In belong only to themselves. The judicial conse the Greek text it is not eyevovro, becanie sinners quences pertained either :o the serpent, the wo but karesanoav, were constituted sinners; viz. man, or the man. As far as they relate to the by the will and appointment of the judge. Beman, Adam became obnoxious to death, which, sides, it is here expressly said that the many, as our author conceives, was death in law, or i. e. mankind, are made sinners, not by their eternal death; and, if the law had been immedi own disobedience, but by the disobedience of ately executed, his posterity then included in his another man; and therefore they can be sinners loins must have been extinct. But it is alleged in no other way than as they are sufferers. Upon that there is not a word of a curse upon the souls the whole, our author thinks it plain that by of our first parents, i. e. upon the powers of their ' one man's disobedience many were made sinners,' minds; nor does the least intimation occur with means that by Adam's offence, the many, i. e. respect to any other death, besides that dissolu- mankind, were made subject to death by the tion which all mankind undergo, when they judgment of God. In this passage there is an cease to live in this world. It is also observed evident contrast or comparison between somethat we, their posterity, are in fact subject to the thing which Adam did and its consequences, and same afflictions and mortality here inflicted by something which Christ did and the consequences sentence upon our first parents; but they are of that: by the former the many, i. e. all men, are not inflicted as punishments for their sin, because brought into condemnation; and by the latter, punishment includes guilt; but we neither are, all men are justified unto life. The whole of the nor in the nature of things could be, guilty of apostle's argument and asse ion are supposed their sin. We may suffer by their sin, and ac- by our author to rest upon two principles; viz. tually do suffer by it; but we are not punished that it is by the one offence of Adam that death for their sin, because we are not guilty of it; passed upon all men, and not by their own perand this suffering is eventually a good. Accord- sonal sins; and again, that it is by the obedience ingly it appears evident in our world, that the of one, or the one act of Christ's obedience (in increase of natural evil (at least in some degree) his sufferings and death upon the cross), that al is the lessening of moral evil. 3. The third text men are justified unto life, and not by their own occurs in the New Testament, viz. 1 Cor. xv. 21, personal righteousness. He adds, that through22. Here it is said, the death from which all out the whole paragraph, the apostle says nothing mankind shall be released at the resurrection, of any federal relations or transactions either on is the only death that came upon all men in the part of Adam or Christ, nor of our deriving consequence of Adam's sin; that as all men die, a sinful nature from Adam. 5. The text 1 Tim. all men are mortal; all lose their life in Adam, ii. 14 declares a fact, with regard to Eve, which and from him our mortality commences; and it needs no explanation. is equally undeniable that by Christ came the Dr. Taylor, in the second part of his book, resurrection of the dead. From this place we proceeds to examine other passages of Scripture, cannot conclude, says our author, that any other which some divines have applied to original sin. evil or death came upon mankind in consequence We shall here select two or three of the princiof Adam's first transgression, besides that death pal, that our readers may be able to form a judg; from which all mankind shall be delivered at the ment for themselves; one is Ephes. ii. 3, “and resurrection, whatever that death be. 4. The were by nature the children of wrath, even as most difficult passage is that which occurs in others.' The apostle, our author apprehends, Rom. v. 12—19. A popular advocate of the cannot mean that they were liable to divine wrath doctrine of original sin (Dr. Watts) thinks that or punishment by that nature which they brought Adam's being a federal head, and our deriving into the world at their birth. For this nature, a sinful nature from him, may be collected from whatever infirmities belong to it, is no other than this text. In this passage our author appre- God's own work or gift; and he thinks that to hends that the apostle is speaking of that death assert that the nature which God gives us is the which takes place with regard to all mankind, hateful object of his wrath, is little less than blaswhen the present life is extinguished; and phemy against our good and bountiful Creator. that by judgment to condemnation, or a judicial In his address to the Ephesians, the apostle is act of condemnation, the apostle means the being not speaking of their nature, or the natural conadjudged to the fore-mentioned death. The stitution of their souls and bodies, as they came words, as by one man's disobedience many were into the world, but evidently of the vicious course made sinners,' are (says Dr. Taylor) of the of life they had led among the Gentiles. Nature same signification with those in the foregoing frequently signifies an acquired nature which

men bring upon themselves by contracting either history as that whence the Jewish law was given good or bad habits. Besides, by nature may to Moses. It is situated in a vast desert, the here signify really, properiy, truly; for terva, few inhabited spots of which are occupied by children, strictly signify the genuine children of hordes of Arabs, who render the road impassable, parents by natural generation ; and figuratively unless for a well defended caravan. The range the word denotes relation to a person or thing to which Sinai belongs is called by the Arabs by way of friendship, regard, imitation, obl ga- Jibbel Musa, and consists of several lofty sumtion, &c.; so that children of wrath' are those mits, the valleys of which are composed of imwho are related to wrath, or liable to rejection mense chasms, between rugged and precipitous or punishment. The Ephesians, as the apostle racks. At the foot of the mountain is the Greek tells them, were terva quoel, natural genuine convent of St. Catherine, founded in 1331 by children of wrath, not by natural birth, or the William Bouldesell, and ever since affording natural constitution of their bodies or souls, but hospitality to the few pilgrims who brave the 'they were related to wrath in the highest and perils of this road. It is situated on the slope strictest sense, with regard to sin and disobedi- of the mountain. The edifice is 120 feet in ence :-Nature, in a metaphorical expression, sig- length, and almost as many in breadth, built of nifying ihat they were really and truly children hewn stone, which, in such a desert, must have of wrath, i. e. stood in the strictest and closest cost prodigious labor. The gate of entrance relation to suffering. Another passage, some is never opened, unless on occasion of the visit times referred to in connexion with this subject, of the archbishop. At all other times, men, as viz. Rom. viii. 7, 8, contains not so much as a well as provisions, are introduced by a basket single word that can carry our minds to Adam, drawn up by a cord and pulley over the wall. or any consequences of his sin upon us. The Arabs often fire upon the convent from

Gen. vi. 5, expresses the universal wickedness the adjacent rocks we are told; and, when they of the old world, but does not so much as inti- find the monks without the walls, will refuse nate that our nature is corrupted in Adam; for to release them without a considerable ransom. the historian does not charge their sin in any There is an excellent garden at a little distance, way upon Adam, but upon themselves : and reached by a subterraneous passage, secured by besides, Noah is exempted out of the number of iron gates. The climate is temperate here, and the corrupt and profligate; but this could not snow falls in winter. The interior of the conhave been the case if the alleged text is a good vent presents little remarkable, except the church proof that by Adam's transgression the nature of of the Transfiguration. It is eighty feet long, all mankind is corrupted.

and fifty-three broad, paved with marble, adorned Ps. li. 5, 6, is another text which has been with a variety of figures : that event is repreconsidered as of great importance in this con- sented in mosaic. There are many lamps of troversy. “I was shapen in iniquity, and in sin gold and silver, and the great altar is gilt over, did my mother conceive me.' The word in 5510, The ascent of the mountain beyond the convent which we translate shapen, signifies, says our is steep, and rendered practicable only by steps author, to bring forth or bear. Is. li. 2; Prov. cut in the rock, or loose stones piled. The traviii. 24, 25. Again, the word 'nan', conceived veller, after a short ascent, comes to a delightful me, properly signifies warmed me; and the ex. spring of fresh water, a little above which is a pression conveys the idea, not of his being con- chapel dedicated to the Virgin Mary. Higher ceived, but warmed, cherished, or nursed by his up is shown the impression made by the foot of mother, after he was born. Accordingly, the the camel on which Mahomet was carried up to verse is thus translated, Behold I was born in heaven, under the guidance of Gabriel; but the iniquity, and in sin did my mother nurse me;'

Greeks acknowledge that this impression was which has no reference to the original formation made by themselves. The summit is marked by of his constitution, but is a periphrasis for his a Christian church and a Turkish mosque, the being a sinner from the womb, and is as much former of which was once much more extensive. as to say, in plain language, I am a great sinner; It commands a most extensive view over the or I have contracted habits of sin. This, it is Red Sea and the opposite coast of the Thebais; said, is a scriptural way of aggravating wicked- immediately beneath being Tor, once the main

See Ps. Iviii. 3; Isaiah xlviii. 8. In the channel by which the commodities of India were whole psalm there is not one word about Adam, conveyed to Egypt. The descent is steep and or the effects of his transgression upon us. The rongh, and terminates at the monastery of the psalmist is charging himself with his own sin.

Forty Saints, which has suffered much from the But if the words be taken in the literal sense of depredations of the Arabs. On the other side our version, then it is manifest that he chargeth of it is the mountain of St. Catherine, still loftier not himself with his sin and wickedness, but than Sinai, 150 miles south-east of Suez. some other person. But our limits will not

SINAPÍS, mustard, in botany, a genus of pothesis has been ably examined, and, as many tural system ranged under the thirty-ninth order, allow of our enlarging farther. Dr. Taylor's hy- plants belonging to the class of tetradynamia,

and to the order of siliquosa; and in the nadivines think, successfully refuted, by the acute Jonathan Edwards on Original Sin.

siliquosæ. The calyx consists of four expanding SINÆ, an aucient people of India, reckoned bases of the petals are straight; two glandules

strap-shaped deciduous leaves; the ungues or by Ptolemy the most eastern nation in the world. between the shorter stamina and pistillum, also

SINAI, a mountain of Arabia, near the head between the longer and the calyx. There are of the Red Sea, the spot celebrated in Scripture seventeen species :—1. S. alba ; 2. allioni; 3. ar

ness.

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