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ABSOLUTE, in Metaphysics, refers to a being which This abolition of their name happened about the end of the ABSORR. ABSORB.
does not subsist by virtue of any other being; in which first century after Christ; for after tliat we hear no more mentioned
of the name of the Edonites or Idumeans, it being by that line
wholly absorbed in the name of Jews.
Circe in vain invites the feast to share;
Absent I ponder, and absorb in care :
While scenes of woe rose anxious in my breast,
The queen beheld me and these words adurest:
Pope's Homer's Odysry, book x.
The learned tell you, that they [colours) are nothing but a certain
configuration in the surfaces of objects, adapted to reflect some ABSOLUTE ABLATIVE. See GRAMMAR, Div. i.
particular ray of light and absorb the rest. ABSOLUTION, in Civil Law, a sentence by which
Tucker's Light of Nature. the party accused is declared innocent of the alleged
Those twinkling tiny lustres of the land, crime. Among the Romans, the ordinary method of
Drop one by one from Fame's neglecting hand; pronouncing judgment was this : after the cause had
Lethean gulphs receive them as they fail, been pleaded on both sides, the prætor used the word
And dark oblivion soon absorbs them all. dixerunt, q. d. they have said what they had to say;
Couper's Poems. then three ballots were distributed to each judge, ABSORBENT MEDICINES, are all those testaceous and as the majority was found, the accused was powders, or substances into which calcareous earth absolved or condemned, &c. If he were absolved, the enters, and which are taken internally for drying up prætor dismissed him with videtur non fecisse, or jure or absorbing any acid or redundant humours in the didetur fecisse.
stomach or intestines. They are applied externally to Absolution, in Canon Law, a juridical act, by which ulcers or sores with the same intention. the priest, or minister, remits the sins of such as are ABSORBENTS, or ABSORBING VESSELS, in Anatomy, penitent.-- This is supposed to be done by the Roman a minute kind of vessels found in animal bodies, which Catholic priests more directly and immediately, by imbibe fluids that come in contact with them. virtue of their holy office; and by the clergy of the ABSORBENT Eartus, in Chemistry, those substances established church of England, by “ a power and which are capable of imbibing large quantities of water authority given to Christ's ministers to declare and by capillary attraction. pronounce forgiveness” to the truly penitent. In the ABSORPTION of the Eartu. Kircher, and other Greek church.absolution' is deprecatory, as she lays geologists, use this phrase to denote the swallowing no claim to the infallible powers of the Roman hie- np of great portions of land by earthquakes, and other rarchy. The form that Tetzel used in vending the subterraneous convulsions or accidents. Several inindulgencies which first awoke the indignation and stances of these alarming commotions have occurred resistance of Luther, has been often quoted, but is in various countries. The mountain of Cymbotuş, and said by Catholics to be unauthentic. They have thus the town of Curites, seated on its declivity; the city stated their opinions upon this subject :-“ Every of Tantalis, in Magnesia; the mountain Sypilus; catholic is obliged to believe that when a sinner Galanis, and Garnates, two Phænician towns ; the repenteth him of his sins from the bottom of his heart, promontory of Phegium, in Ethiopia ; the mountain and acknowledgeth his transgression to God and his Picus, and several others are mentioned as having ministers, the dispensers of the mysteries of Christ, sunk into the earth, at different times. Later instances resolving to turn from his evil ways and bring forth have occurred in China, France, and Switzerland. A fruits worthy of penance; then is (then and no other- mountain belonging to the chain of the Cevennes, in the wise) an authority left by Christ to absolve such a south of France, was precipitated, with an awful crash, penitent sinner from his sins : which authority Christ into the valley below, on the 23d of June 1727; one block gave to his apostles and their successors, the bishops of stone, ninety feet long, and twenty-six in diameter, and priests of the catholic church, in these words, sunk vertically, and the village of Pradines, situated when he said, “Receive ye the Holy Ghost; whose on the declivity, being overwhelmed by the rocky fragsins ye shall forgive, they are forgiven unto them, &c.” ments, its inhabitants were only saved from destruction
ABSOLution is chiefly used among Protestants for in consequence of having gone to some distance to a sentence, by which a person who stands excommu- celebrate Midsummer-eve. nicated, is released from that punishment.
To these, and other instances of absorption which ABSORB', r. Ab: sorbeo : to sup or suck up. might be mentioned, may be subjoined a circumstance ABSORB'ENT,
To swallow, imbibe. To be wholly which occurred on the 3d of September 1806, at ABSORB'ING, occupied by, or engaged in, devoted Schweitz, a canton in Switzerland. Between the lakes of
ABSorr’tion. ) to, immersed, plunged, or lost in Zug and Lowertz, and the mountains of Rosenberg and the contemplation of.
Rossi, lay a beautiful valley, overspread with several
About five o'clock in the evening For no thyug as Luther sayeth can damne a Christen man, saue pleasant villages. oncly lacke of beliefe. For all other synnes (if beliefe and faith stād of the 3d September, the Spitzberg, or north-east profaste) be quite absorpt and supped up he sayth in that fayth. jection of the mountain Rosenberg, fell into the valley, Sir Tho. More's Il'orks, p. 267.
from the height of 2000 feet, and overwhelmed the Beholde, a bryghte cloude ouershadowed tha postls, lest they villages of Goldau, Busingen, and Rathlen, and a part shulde be absorpte and ouercummed with the greatnes of the syght.
of Lowertz, and of Oberart. The earth and stones Erasmus' Paraphrase of N. 7.by P. Udall, on Matthew, chap. xvii. f. 70. c. 2.
rushed like lava into the valley, and covered more than The rays of the sun are reflected from a white body, but absorbed
three square miles of a fertile vicinity; filling up, by a black one.
Bacon's Distribution of Knowledge. at the same time, nearly a fifth of the lake Lowertz.
ABSORB. The immense swell of the water which immediately were admitted again to their share of all the privileges that were ABSTAIN.
took place, submerged two inhabited islands, and the given in common to Christians. ABSTAIN.
Burnet's Hist. Ref. ABSTI. village of Leven, on the northern extremity; by which
NENCE. accident, between 1500 and 2000 inhabitants perished. and the philosopher, was connected with some strict and frivolous
The temperance which adorned the severe manners of the soldier The most probable cause to be assigned of this dread- rules of religious abstinence ; and it was in honour of Pan or Merful calamity, was the sinking in of the earth, which cury, of Hecate or Iris, that Julian, on particular days, denied himsupported the base of the Spitzberg.
self the use of some particular food.
Call'd to the temple of impure delight,
He that abstains, and he alone, does right.
If a wish wander that way, call it homne ;
Ile cannot long be safe whose wishes roam.
ABSTEINACH, a district in the duchy of Hesse, departe fro the feith ghyuynge sent to spiritis of errour and to formerly subject to the elector of Mentz. "Also a town techingis of deuelis that speken leesyng in ipocrisie, and haue her
of Germany. 7 m. N. E. of Heidelberg. conscience corrupt forbedynge to be weddyd, to absteyne fro metis
ABSTEMIOUS, a. whiche God made to take with doyng of thankyngis to feithful men
Ab: temetum (quasi, to metu, aud hem that han knowe the treuthe,
ABSTE'MIOUSLY. S Vossius,) from wine. An ab
Wiclif, 1 Tymo. ch. iv. stemious man refrains from wine; ab abstinentia Moost dere I biseche you as comelingis and pilgryms to absteine temeti dictus. But the word is now applied generally you fro fleischli desires that figten agens the soule.
to that which is temperate, moderate, restrained or Ib. 1 Petcr, ch. ii.
withheld from excess. Darly beloued, I besecho you as straungers and pylgremes,
A man so much divine, ebstayne from feshly lustes, whiche fyght against the soule.
That only thrice a week on homely cates he fed,
And three times in the week himself he silenced,
That in remembrance of this most abstemious man,
Upon his blessed death the Englishman began
To name their babes.
Drayton's Poly Olbion, 24th song.
The pearch is not only valiant to defend himself, but he is a bold Ayenst glotonie the remedie is abstinence, as sayth Galien : but biting fish; yet he will not bite at all seasons of the year; he is very that I holde not meritorie, if he do it only tor the hele of his body. abstemious in winter.
Walton's Angler. Seint Augustine wol that abstinence be don for vertue, and with
If yet Achilles have a friend whose care patience. Abstinence (sayth he) is litel worth, but if a man have
Is bent to please him, this request forbear: good will therto, and but it be enforced by patience and charitee,
Till yonder sun descend, oh let me pay and that men don it for Goddes sake, and in hope to have the blisse
To grief and anguish one abstemious day. in heven. Chaucer. The Personnes Tale, vol. ii. p. 360.
Pope's Homer's Iliad, b. xx.
ABSTERG'ENT, Ab: tergo, lo scour from. To
ABSTERSE', wipe off; to cleanse--by wiping
ABSTER'SION, or scouring
Gillius reckons up 155 publicke haths in Constantinople, of faire nence pacience, in pacience pitee, iu pitee loue of britherhood, and
building; they are still frequented in that citie by the Turkes of all in loue of britherhood charite.
sorts, men and women, and all over Greece and those hot countries; Wiclif, 2 Peter, ch. i.
to absterge, belike, that fulsomeness of sweat to which they are then
Burton's Anat. Melancholy.
Nor will we affirm that iron indigested, receiveth in the stomach of
suspect this effect rather from some way of corrosion, than any of
digestion And abstinence ingenders maladies.
; but rather some attrition from an acide Id. Love's L. Lost, p. 135. act iv. sc. 3.
and vitriolous humidity in the stomach, which may absterse and shave
the scorious parts thereof. Pac. Be abstinent, shew not the corruption of thy generation; he
Brown's Vulgar Errours. that feeds shall die, therefore he that feeds not shall live.
A tablet stood of that abstersive tree,
Where Æthiop's swarthy bird did build her nest,
Drawn from the jaws of Afric's prudent beast. not nourish. Taylor's Dissuasive from Popery.
Denham on the Game of Chess. He that can apprehend and consider vice, with all her baits and seeming pleasures, and yet abstain, and yet distinguish, and yet
The seats with purple clothe in order due ; prefer that which is truly better, he is the true way-faring Christian.
And let th' abstersire sponge the board renew :
Let some refresh the vase's sullied mould,
Sonne bid the goblets boast their native gold.
Pope's Homer's Odyssey, b. xx.
ABSTERGENT MEDICINES, those employed for re-
solving obstructions, concretions, &c. such as soap,
&c. The more common term is detergent. They are
supposed to operate by loosening the cohesion of the
ABSTINENCE, is the act or habit of refraining worship, and an abstention from the sacrament, they (the penitents] from something to which there is a strong propensity.
ABSTI. Various kinds of abstinence were ordained by the Jewish drinking, as the tortoise, bear, dormouse, serpent, &c. ABSTT.
animal food, with the exception of the remains of sacri- veral species of birds, and almost the whole tribe of
who used them. This reason having now days. The eggs of lizards are observed to increase in
but air; as the eggs or spawn of fishes are nourished Ritual ab- The abstinence which may be called ritual, consists with the water. stinence. in abstaining from particular meats at certain seasons ; Pliny says, a person may live seven days without any Ancient
the rules by which it is regulated are called rogations. food whatever,—and that many people have continued testimonies.
lived to her tenth year, without food or drink: and,
and lived like other people in respect to diet, and had Examples
ABSTINENCE is more particularly used for a spare children. Decad. i, paradox 2.-Clausius, et Garcia of great age diet, or a parsimonious use of food; of the effects of ab Horto mentions, that some of the more rigid Banthrough ab- which physicians speak in the highest terms. The nians in India, abstain from food frequently for twenty
noble Venetian Cornaro, after his life was despaired of days together. Hist. Arom. lib. i.--Alburtus Krant-
themselves irreparable injury by fasting too long. Sylvius, says, there was a young woman in Spain, aged Abstinence Among animals, the serpent kind can endure an extra- twenty-two years, who never ate any food, but lived of animals. ordinary degree of abstinence. Rattle-snakes have entirely on water. And that there was a girl in Nar
lived many months without any food, still retaining bonne, and another in Germany, who lived three years
. Adver. Famem. -- It is said, that Democritus
APSTIcurious data for the study of physiology, if we subjoin “ Gilbert Jackson, or Carse-Grange, Scotland, about ABST?. MENCE.
NENCE. a few facts of more detail.
fifteen years of age, in February 1716, was seized with “ In a former visit to this place (Barmouth), July a violent fever, which returned in April for three weeks, Gilbert Mars Tho- 18th, 1970, my curiosity," says Pennant, “ was excited and again on the 10th of June; he then lost his speech, Jackson.
to examine into the truth of a surprizing relation of a his stomach, and the use of his limbs, and could not
his father prevailed on him to take a spoonful of milk “ On examining her, she informed me, that at the boiled with oatmeal: it stuck so long in his throat, age of seven she had some eruptions like the measles, that his friends feared he had been choaked; but ever which grew confluent and universal; and she became since that time he took food, though so little, that a so sore, that she could not bear the least touch: she halfpenny loaf served him for eight days. All the received some ease by the application of a sheep's skin, time he fasted, he had no evacuation; and it was fourjust taken from the animal. After this, she was seized, teen days after he began to eat, before he had any : at spring and fall, with swellings and inflammations, he still continued in pretty good health.” during which time she was confined to her bed; but “ In the year 1724, John Ferguson, óf Killmelfoord, John Verin the intervals could walk about, and once went to in Argyleshire, overheated himself in the pursuit of gason, Holywell in hopes of cure.
cattle on the mountains, then drank largely of cold “When she was about twenty-seven years of age, she water and fell asleep. He slept for four and twenty was attacked with the same complaint, but in a more hours, and waked in a high fever: ever since, his stovidlent manner; and during two years and a half re- mach loathed and could retain no kind of aliment but mained insensible, and took no manner of nourish- water. A neighbouring gentleman (Mr. Campbell) to ment, notwithstanding her friends forced open her whom his father was tenant, locked him up for twenty mouth with a spoon, to get something down ; but the days, supplying him daily with water, and taking care moment the spoon was taken away, her teeth met, and that he should have no other food; but it made no closed with snapping and violence: during that time difference either in his look or strength; at the age of she Aung ip vast quantities of blood.
thirty-six (when the account was sent to the Philoso" She well remembers the return of her senses, and 'phical Society) he was of a fresh complexion and as her knowledge of every body about her. She thought strong as any common man." — Phil. Trans. 1742, she had slept but a night, and asked her mother whe- vol. xlii. page 240. ther she bad given her any thing the day before, for she “ A
curious instance of a nearly two years ahfound herself very hungry. Meat was brought to her, stinence from all food and drink, is related in two numbut so far from being able to take any thing solid, she bers of Hufeland's Practical Journal, Vol. viii and ix, could scarcely swallow a spoonful of thin whey. From No. 2; and a pamphlet has since been published rethis she continued seven years and a half without any specting this fact, by Dr. Schmidtmann of Melle, in food or liquid, excepting sufficient of the latter to the bishoprick of Osnabruck. moisten her lips. At the end of this period, she again “ A country girl, sixteen years old, in a village near A girl, near fancied herself hungry, and desired an egg; of which Osnabruck, had enjoyed a good state of health during Osnabruck. she got down the quantity of a nut kernel. About her childhood; but at about ten years of age this time she requested to receive the sacrament; which seized with epileptic fits, against which a number of she did, by having a crumb of bread steeped in the remedies were employed in vain. Since that time she wine. She at this time, for her daily subsistence, eats was mostly confined to her bed, particularly in winter: a bit of bread, weighing about two penny-weights but in summer she found herself a little better. From seven grains, and drinks a wine glass of water : some- February 1798, the alvine and urinary excretions began times a spoonful of wine ; but frequently abstains to cease, though she took now and then a little nouwhole days from food and liquids. She sleeps very rishment. But from the beginning of April of the indifferently: the ordinary functions of nature are very same year, she abstained entirely from all food and small, and very seldom performed. Her attendant told drink, falling into an uninterrupted slumber, almost me, that her disposition of mind was mild ; her temper senseless, from which she only awoke from time to even; that she was yery religious, and very fervent in time for a few hours. Her sensibility was during this prayer: the natural effect of the state of her body, time so great, that the slightest touch on any part of long unembarassed with the grossness of food, and a the body, brought on partial convulsive motions. In constant alienation of thought from all worldly affairs.” this state she had continued for nearly ten months, Journey to Snowden, vol. ii. p. 105-107.
when Dr. Schmidtmann saw her first in March 1799.
ABSTI- Though she had not taken the least nourishment during ninth day: from which time, till the forty-seventh day, ABSTINENCE. all this time, Dr. S. found her, to his utmost astonish- he took nothing whatever. Till the 38th day, too, he NENCE, ment, fresh and blooming. For the last two months remained out of bed; but weakness at length obliged
ABonly, the intervals of sleep began to be longer ; her him to lie down. The return to food was followed by a STRACT. senses of sight and hearing were in perfect order; temporary cure of his insanity. — Hist. de l'Academie but her feeling she seemed to have quite lost, as she des Sciences, 1769, p. 45. . could suffer pinching of the arms and legs without In the Philosophical Transactions we have an acpain ; her gums bled frequently, and the pulse was count of four Colliers, who were confined twenty-four scarcely perceptible in the arms, but beat strong and days in a coal-pit, at Herstol, near Leige, with nofull in the carotids, about 120 in a minute. Dr. S. thing to support them but water: and in the medical attempted to make her drink a little milk, but she pro- commentaries (Dec. vol. iv. p. 360) there is a histested she could not swallow it. The alvine and urinary tory of a girl, who had lost her way, and remained excretions had quite ceased.
eighteen days on a barren moor, in the island of Lewis, Although there could hardly be a suspicion of any where she could not possibly have had any other kind kind of imposition, the parents being honest people; of sustenance. Mr. Miller, who relates the case, saw yet to remove all doubt, six sworn men were ap- her two hours after she was found, and describes her pointed from different places in the neighbourhood to as much emaciated. In fact, proofs abo ind as to the watch her day and night, and instructions given to possibility of maintaining life, for a considerable time, them accordingly. This being continued for a fort- and under the most unfavourable circumstances, on night, the men were dismissed, having given evidence small quantities of water, or other liquids. Jejuni maupon oath, that the patient had never taken any food gis sitiunt, quam esuriunt.—The feeling of hunger, if or drink whatever during that time, nor had any excre- not appeased by food, often ceases all together. But tion alvine or urinary. She had been once very ill and the feeling of thirst becomes constantly more urgent; nearly dying, seized with convulsions, feverish, and and if the body be at the same time under the sometimes in a great sweat, which had the extraor- influence of heat, it produces the most aggravated dinary property of turning water black. When Dr. S. distress: saw her again, he found her quite recovered, not in the least emaciated, but rather looking lustier ; her gums,
« Torrentur viscera Namma, however, still frequently bled, and her feeling was not
Oraque sicca rigent squamosis aspera linguis. yet returned ; but her memory was not impaired, and
Jam inarcent venæ, nulloque huinore rigatus
Aeris alternos angustat pulmo meatus;
Rescissoque nocent suspiria dura palato.
Pandunt ora tamen, nocturnumque æra captant."
LUCAN, IV. 324.
ABSTINENCE is sometimes used medically, in the the last severe winter, she could not endure the heat of senses of suppression and of compression. the stove, because she felt then faint and oppressed. ABSTINENTS, or ABSTINENTES, a sect of heretics,
“ Dr. Schmidtmann then enters into an enquiry by of the third century, who originated in France and what means the patient, in this case, was nourished Spain. They opposed marriage, and hence have been and maintained in that state in which she was found ; called Continentes ; and condemned the use of flesh meat and having discussed the matter at large, he is of opi- and wine. In what doctrinal errors their heresy connion, that she drew, by resorption, such elementary sisted, it is difficult to ascertain. particles from the atmosphere, as were sufficient for the nutrition of the body, and that the excretions were
AB'STRACT, adj. Ab: traho, to draw away from.
1. To draw away, or separate References “ However incredible and miraculous this fact may to other
ABSTRACT'ED, some part from other; and thus seem, yet we find similar instances recorded by several
ABSTRACT'EDLY, authors, viz. by Haller, in his Elementa Physiologiæ,
to refine, to purify.
2. Applied to that which is
ABSTRACT'ER, de Sciences de Toulouse, T. I, 1783; and in Prich
general in language or reason
ABSTRACTION, ing, not confined to particular ter's Library devoted to Surgery, (in German), Vol. 12.
Abstract'LY, p. 184. Swieten Comment, in Boerhaav. Aph. T. 3.
qualities or circumstances. p. 508, Histoire de l'Academie Royale de Sciences,
ABSTRACT'ness. l'an 1769; and in Hufeland's Art of Prolonging Life,
Looke heere vpon thy brother Geffreyes face, first edition, p. 67, Halpart van der Wiel Observat.
These eyes, these browes, were moulded out of his;
This little abstract doth containe that large, rar. Centur. Poster. In the London Magazine for Au
Which died in Geffreye; and the hand of time, gust, 1769, there is likewise an account of a young
Shall draw this brecfe into as huge a volume. woman, twenty-four years of age, who had fasted for
Shakespeare, John, act ii. sc. 1. two years, and whose excretions were also entirely
Pal.—But man, the abstract suppressed.”— London Medical and Physical Journal.
Of all perfection, which the workmanship
Of Heaven hath modell’d, in himself contains
Passions of several qualities. officer.
Fori's Lover's Melancholy, act iv. sc. 3. service, and become deranged, took it in his head to refuse food, and continued in that determination, from Abstracting from the offence of persons, which is to be considered the 25th of December till the 9th of February, drink- just as our obligation is to content the persons, it is all one whether
we indulge in them to meet publicly or privately, to do actions of ing only about a pint and a half of water daily, with a religion concerning which we are not persuaded they are truly holy. few drops of aniseed-liquori n each glass, till the thirty
Taylor's Liberty oj Prophesying.