pered and violent, he seemed to repel all the straw in a barn, while the Sister had sympathy. The Sister of Charity took this been taken in by the housekeeper of a counman by the hand to lead him to the Inva- try curé. The Sister passed the night in lides, where, she said, he would find an prayer. Next day, as they were stopping asylum. As they travelled along on foot, for a short rest, the Sister said to the soldier, through rain and snow, often in want, and Your eyes were not directly affected by the the soldier often complaining, the Sister wound. At the ambulance, the surgeons sustained his courage, and made him blush could only heal the wound in the head. I for his weakness ; she begged for him, giv. dare not give you hope, which perhaps is ing him always the best, and making herself only a dream ; but I have a plan; instead his servant. Little by little, she spoke to of leading you to the Invalides, I shall take him of God, of another life, and he began you to the first surgeons, the best oculists in to listen. One morning the blind man Paris, and I will pray them on my knees to heard the song of a lark. He stopped to give you their service for the love of God, listen, and a ray of brightness seemed to and also for the sake of patriotism. If the come over his face. Then the Sister made good God restores your sight, be a good him kneel down. On the highway, this Christian for the rest of your life. Do you man, bronzed by war, hardened by excesses, promise ?' The veteran fell on his knees, without belief, without faith, and almost and remained a long time prostrate without without ideas, knelt: his face raised to speaking a word, his whole frame shaken heaven, his hands clasped, his staff and his by sobs Three months later the miracle of • képy' in the dust near his knapsack, and charity was accomplished; the soldier had standing before him, the Sister of Charity recovered his sight, and the Sister, having made him repeat his first prayer: Our returned to her school, was teaching little Father who art in heaven, ....! From peasant girls to read. If you go to the that day the conscience of the old soldier Church of Notre Dame des Victoires, toawoke from its long sleep; he understood wards five o'clock in the evening, you will the act of the Sister, and from this act his see a man kneeling by the altar-railing-it thoughts rose to him who had inspired it is the soldier, who is praying for the Sister to God. One night the soldier slept upon of Charity."


Tom says he always tells the truth,

Though an unpleasant duty;
While Jack, a less punctilious youth,

Would praise a Satyr's beauty.
But somehow, when you hear them both,

Their diff'rent manners trying,
You take Jack's praises nothing loath,

And hope that Tom is lying.
You know that Jack is not sincere,

While Tom is full of virtue;
But one can sometimes please your ear,

The other's sure to hurt you.
Jack's ready lie has such success,

'Twill please you though you doubt it ;
Tom never tells the truth, unless

You'd rather be without it.
Falsehood a paltry vice may be-

Plain-speaking may be grander-
But, though I hate Hypocrisy,

I loathe too fulsome Candor.


It is probable that from the most was much improved by Ctesibius of remote times there have been meth- Alexandria. It was probably a mere ods of different kinds, and instru- float with a rod fixed upon it like a ments of various forms and principles mast, and placed in a vessel with a used to keep some kind of an account hole in the bottom; as the water of time. Indeed the variation of ran out the float descended, and lengths and different positions of the figures marked on the rod, at proper shadows cast by vertical objects (a intervals, showed the number of phenomenon that was open to the hours elapsed. It is evident, howobservation of all) must have caused ever, that these water-clocks would the morning, noon, and evening to be far from perfect, for the water have been readily distinguished. would not run equally, as a greater The “gnomon,” which subsequent quantity must pass out in any given improvements converted into a “so- time when the vessel was full than laria" or sun-dial, was doubtless after it was emptied of a portion of one of the first instruments em- its contents. A reference to the ployed in the measurement of time; nature of hydrostatic pressure will the exact date of its invention is not sufficiently account for this fact. clearly known, but it was evidently The sand-glass, made like the modat a very remote period. The dial ern minute-glass, was also used by of Achaz, mentioned by Isaias, must the ancients, as appears from a bashave existed about 713 years before relief representing the marriage of the birth of Christ; and it is a cu- Peleus and Thetis, in which a figure rious example of the scanty commu- of Morpheus is represented holding nication which then existed between a glass of this description. the various nations of the earth that Having glanced at the early histhis instrument was unknown to the tory of time-measuring previous to Greeks until about 80 years after- the introduction of clock-work, or wards. The first sun-dial employed more properly wheel-work, we will at Rome was placed near the Temple pass at once to a brief description of Quirinus by Papirius Cursor, the Ro- two of the most curious of the clockman general, 293 B.C.; prior to that spheres of the ancients. The first period it appears that they had no of these is that mentioned by Eusemode of calculating the intermediate bius, which belonged to Sapor, one points of time which occurred in the of the Persian kings. According to calendar but what was furnished by Cardan, an illustrious mathematician the sun's rising and setting. Soon of the middle of the sixteenth century, after this the sun-dial became so it appears to have been a large and pegreat a favorite with the Romans culiarly constructed sphere, and that that they offered large sums of money Sapor could sit in the middle of it for instruments of this description. and see its stars rise and set, and that But it will be apparent to all that the it was made of glass. But he does sun-dial would be useless to distin- not state whether this curious maguish the hours at night and in chine was moved by wheel-work or cloudy weather. Accordingly we not, but as he states that the stars in find that the “Clepsydra," or water- it appeared. to rise and set we may clock, was employed at a very early therefore infer that it was. period; and Vitruvius states that it The second, the most celebrated of all the clock-spheres of the an- them their proper motions and posicients, is that of Archimedes, un- tions given to them; and this moquestionably one of the greatest ge- tion curiously enough is assigned by niuses of the age in which he lived, Claudian as the work of some kind and who, as his works now extant spirit, for he says: Inclusus variis amply testify, was deeply versed in famulator spiritus astris." What this all the mechanism then known, and inclosed spirit really was, will not which his transcendent genius greatly take us much time to discover, for improved. Both friend and foe bear from the great mechanical celebrity testimony to his great mechanical of Archimedes we may assume it to skill, as more especially exemplified have been neither more nor less in his glorious but unfortunate de- than a well-contrived combination fence of Syracuse, against the Ro- of wheels, weights, springs, pulleys, man legions under Marcellus. or some such kind of clockwork,

With respect to this clock-sphere which being artfully concealed from it is not a little remarkable that it is the public view, would in those times not mentioned by him in any of his be readily accounted the agency of works, and we are therefore com- some spirit or divine power; but we pelled to resort to contemporary must not suppose the poet to have historians; and what is more to be been entirely ignorant of the action, regretted, these authors do not give for he states in effect the Archimedes any clear account of this celebrated stars “are governed by human art." clock-sphere, being in many in- French historians describe a clock stances nothing more than mere sent to Charlemagne in the year 807, passing remarks; from which we by the famous Eastern caliph, Hagather that Archimedes constructed roun al Raschid, which excited cona sphere which combined in it the siderable attention at the French motion of the sun, the moon, and the court. In the dial were twelve small planets. Though these brief and doors, forming the divisions for the imperfect allusions are sufficient to hours; each door opened at the hour let us know that such a machine had marked by the index, and let out been made by Archimedes, yet they small brass balls, which falling on a convey no satisfactory information bell struck the hour, a great novelty with regard to the nature of its con- at that time. The doors continued struction and the purposes to which open until the hour of twelve, when it was applied. By far the most ac- twelve mounted knights came out curate description is that given by and paraded round the dial-plate, Claudian :

and afterwards went in at the open “When Jove espied in glass his heavens made,

doors, which they closed after them. He smiled, and to the other gods thus said : This clock must certainly have been ''Tis strange that human art so far proceeds To ape in brittle orbs my greatest deeds,

furnished with some kind of wheelThe heavenly motions, nature's constant course. Lo, here old Archimede to art transfers

work, although the motive power is The inclosed spirit, here each star doth drive, said to have been water. And to the living work some motions give. The sun in counterfeit his year doth run,

The earliest complete clock moved And Cynthia to her monthly circle turn,

by weights, of which there is any Since now bold man worlds of his own descried, He joys, and the stars by human art can guide, Why should we so admire proud Solomon's cheats,

in the thirteenth century. When one poor hand nature's chief work re

It was peats.'"

the work of a Saracen mechanic, who And here again, although we have received £2000 for his ingenuity, quoted at much length, we have de. This clock, which is stated to have rived but little information respect- kept time very accurately, was preing the mechanism of the sphere; sented to the Emperor Frederick II however, we have learned that in it by the Sultan of Egypt, under whose the sun, moon, and stars had each of direction it was made.


Striking clocks moved by wheels The clock in Exeter Cathedral and weights are first mentioned by was erected by Bishop Courtenay in Dante, the Italian poet, who flour- the year 1480. It is on the Ptoleished during the early part of the maic system of astronomy, and of a fourteenth century. About the same curious construction for the age in time one was put up in the south which it was put up. The earth is transept of Glastonbury Abbey. It represented by a globe in the centre; was constructed by Peter Lightfoot, the sun by a fleur-de-lis; and the one of the monks of that justly cele- moon by a ball, painted half black brated monastery, and by means of and half white, which turns on its a communication tolled the hours on axis, and shows the different phases the great bell of the central tower, of that luminary. whilst the quarters were struck by Mr. Gainsborough, of Henley-onautomata on two small bells in the Thames, who died October 27th, transept. The dial showed the hours 1775, made a clock of peculiar conand also the changes of the moon struction. It told the hour by a and other astronomical motions; on little ball, and was kept in motion its summit there was a horizontal by a leaden bullet, which dropped frame, which exhibited by aid of from a spiral reservoir at the top of machinery eight knights on horse- the clock into a little ivory bucket. back, arnied for a tournament, and This was was so contrived as to dispursuing each other with a rapid ro- charge it at the bottom, and by tatory motion. At the dissolution means of a counter weight was carof the monastery this clock was re- ried up to the top of the clock, moved to Wells Cathedral. In 1835 where it received another bullet the works were so worn away that which was discharged as the former. they were replaced by new ones. This was evidently an attempt at the curious old dial and equestrian perpetual motion. This clock was knights being still retained.

presented to Mr. Philip Thicknesse, The famous astronomical clock who gave it to the British Museum, made by Richard de Wallingford, where it is now deposited. Abbot of St. Albans, in the reign of In the year 1850 a most curious Richard II, continued to go until clock was exhibited in London. It the reign of Henry VIII, at which was richly gilt and elaborately entime it is mentioned in high terms of graved ; it stood about four feet high, admiration by Leland, saying that independent of the pedestal. It was all Europe could not produce such of architectural design, and divided another. This celebrated piece of into three stories having detached mechanism represented the motions columns at each corner. The two of the sun, moon, and stars; the lower stories contained the dials in ebbing and flowing of the sea, and the front; the upper story exhibin short the figures, operations, and ited a group of moving silver figures, effects of all the heavenly bodies. which struck the hours and quarters, The inventor of this curious clock and moved in procession during the was the son of a blacksmith, and was playing of a tune by a chime of bereft of his parents at the early age bells. The whole was surmounted of ten years. On which the Prior by a dome whereon was placed a of Wallingford took him under his silver cock, which flapped its wings care and prepared him for the Uni- and crowed when the clock struck. versity of Oxford. He was elected It was made by Isaac Hahrecht (one Abbot of St. Albans on the 30th of of the artisans employed in the erecOctober, 1326, succeeding his friend tion of the clock at Strasbourg Caand patron, Hugo, the twenty-sev- thedral) in 1589. It performed all enth abbot.

the feats of that celebrated clock, which is regarded as one of the most It subsequently came into the possescurious in Europe. Its reputed his- sion of the King of the Netherlands, tory, as set forth in the printed ac- and was afterwards purchased by Mr. count of it is, that it was made for O. Morgan, in whose valuable collecPope Sixtus V, and was for more than tion of curious clocks and watches it two hundred years in the Vatican. now is.


No wonder that the Allocution delivered no opposition, was wellnigh irresistible, by the Pope, on March 12th, should have except when it attacked the Church. His excited such universal attention in Europe, history has to be written, but his epitaph It is an arraignment of the crimes and hypoc- might well be, “ Here lies a strong statesrisies of the Italian Government before the man, who, undeterred by the lessons of exwhole world. It pictures in forcible lan- perience, assailed the Church. He failed guage the long series of outrages perpetrated in this, although he could overthrow an emsince the hour when the misfortunes of pire.” France were so meanly taken advantage of Will his work last? Only time can show. by the nation she had liberated, and when Three things are, however, plain; first, that Rome was sacrilegiously seized. He recites Alsace and Lorraine are still discontented the various acts still perpetrated, the seizure with the German Empire; second, that the and sale of the ecclesiastical property, the German Democratic Socialists are becoming suppression of convents, the law by which more powerful; and, third, that Bavaria and the clergy were made subject to the conscrip- the South German States are evidently ill tion, the late law on so-called “clerical at ease. abuses," and the enforcement of the “Regnum Placitum." It also speaks of the condition of Rome,

On the Feast of St. Benedict, the great of the outrages perpetrated on the clergy at

Patriarch of Western Monasticism, the Right large, and it exposes the hypocritical nature

Rev. Innocent Wolf, D.D., O.S.B., first of the so-called guarantees. It rejects the

Mitred Abbot of St. Benedict's Abbey, idea of reconciliation being possible, and it

Atchison, Kansas, was solemnly consecrated again declares that the Pope is not sree, that

and installed. Right Rev. Louis M. Finck, he never can be while Rome is held by the

D.D., O.S.B., of Leavenworth, Right Rev.

J. J. Hogan, D.D., of St. Josephs, and Right Italian Government. In conclusion, after thanking Catholics for their generosity under

Rev. James O'Connor, of Nebraska, were the sad circumstances of the case, he appeals

present and assisted, and Right Rev Rupert to them to still further assist the Holy See

Seidenbent, D.D., O.S.B., Vicar-Apostolic in the midst of these trials, declaring that

of Northern Minnesota, preached the sermon. the aim and object of the revolution is to

Right Rev. Abbot Wimmer, O.S.B., of St. destroy every vestige of the Catholic religion

Vincent's, Pa., and Right Rev. Alexius Edelbrock, O.S.B., of St. Louis on the Lake, were present.

To the intelligent and thoughtful Catholic BISMARCK has received leave of absence there is something very remarkable in the for a year, and it is supposed that this is the revival of the Benedictine Order in Amerbeginning of the end, and that this foremostica, as indicated by the increase in the num“ blood and iron” statesman, who attempted ber of abbots and abbeys. The vitality of to build up and cement the unity of Germany this grand old historic order is astonishing. and succeeded, and who attempted to create Carry the mind back two centuries ago, and also a powerful “ German National Catholic you will see the Benedictines writing learned Church," distinct from the Papacy, and in- treatises in such numbers that it was said dependent of the Holy See, and failed, will “the shelves of Europe groan under the retire for good.

weight of the Benedictine folios," Look Will the retirement of the German Chan- back for five centuries, and you see the memcellor materially alleviate the position of the bers of the same order high in Church and Church in Germany? We suppose it will, for State, assisting in the government of kingBismarck was the soul of the anti-Catholic doms by their wisdom, and aiding the Popes movement, and his iron will, which brooked by their counsels, often themselves occupy.

in Italy.

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