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troops collected in one place was thing about “ deploying upon No. unknown to the people, accustomed One Company; but feeling we to large armies, but these hitherto were getting beyond our depth, we
, always composed of foreigners; and boldly requested to see them form we drove out one afternoon to pay square to receive cavalry—a safe a visit to General Floresco, then and simple command to give, but Minister of War and Commander- not so easy to perform, as became in-Chief. It was a burning after- apparent when they attempted to noon, and a ha
of yellow dust do it, and all tried to get into the almost obscured the horizon ; and middle together, a feat physically as the sun set, a hot glow, pain- impossible, so we looked cynically fully reminding one of Eastern triumphant. The General changed nights in the desert, radiated from the subject, and asked us if we the flat plain upon which the tents should like to see them dance their of the brave army were pitched in national dances, which they perlines. Water-carriers' were laying formed with greater perfection than the dust near the General's tent, their military evolutions, and finaland the spray seemed to hiss as it ly marched past when it got dark, fell upon the ground. That distin- with lanterns swung from their guished officer received us with the muskets. Some of the men were greatest empressement, and actually fine muscular fellows, more espeturned out some regiments for our cially the regiments of frontier special benefit. He showed us mus- guards. The total strength of kets bought from French contrac- Prince Couza's army, of all arms, tors, worth about a shilling apiece, is 30,000 ; but he is daily increasfor which enormous sums had been ing it and modelling it upon the paid—the Prince and the contrac- French system. tors probably sharing the spoils— We did not think it worth while and gave us a conical bullet, which to go to bed after seeing the review, would not fit, as a specimen. The as we had determined to start the fact was, they were all sorts of same night for Kronstadt, in Transizes; and the inconvenience of the sylvania. Morning found us apbullet not fitting the rifle had been proaching the lower spurs of the painfully tested in the recent skir- Carpathians; and we thoroughly mish with 250 Poles, in which the enjoyed the lovely drive up the latter kept a division of the army wooded valleys which lead into the at bay, and only succumbed to the Tæmischer pass, and, gradually leavappearance of the whole force.
ing the dusty plains now so famiAs for the General himself, he liar to us, looked with delight upon was one of the most charming of overhanging masses of rock, upon all of his very plausible country- a picturesque mountain population,
He seemed very popular upon pendulous beech-woods, and with the army—too much so to suit gushing torrents flinging themthe Prince, who could not trust selves in white foam down the him for the coup d'état, but replaced steep mountain-sides, until, late in him by General Mano. This latter the afternoon, we reached the sumI have not the honour of knowing; mit and descended to the Austrian but I have a firm conviction that frontier, where we were detained General Floresco will again be some hours before we finally overheard of in connection with these came the prejudices of the officials. provinces. We looked very wise One of these, who was unusually and military while we were inspect- polite, succeeded at last in inducing the troops, and when asked to ing his colleague to allow us to put them through some evolutions, pass the guarded gates, although we traded upon our slender Vol- the legitimnate hour was long past; unteer knowledge, and said some- and then we rattled down a zigzag road through pine-woods, and en- we spent bright clear nights on the tered Kronstadt at an hour too late lofty summits of the Carpathians, to see its beauties, but not too sleeping round blazing log - fires late to experience the sensation of under the stars, cooking the game finding ourselves in a quaint old- we had shot, and feasting upon the fashioned town, most romantically same with ravenous appetites. A situated. We devoted the follow- pleasant jovial time it was, after ing day to exploring its interesting politics and town life in the Princienvirons, little known to the travel- palities; and though no admirers of ler in search of the picturesque, but Austrian institutions, we found the well worthy a visit; and so on in change to a more stable governtwo days to Hermanstadt, through ment not unacceptable. Neverprimitive villages of Protestant Ger- theless there is as much to be said mans, contrasting curiously with about politics in Transylvania as in the half-savage professors of the Wallachia, did time and space adGreek faith we had just left, mit; for the British public, doubtwhere all the houses stood with less, know as little of the one as of gables fronting the streets, covered the other; and since they will perwith sacred mottoes and texts from sist in settling their own foreign the Bible,—but in passing through affairs, they ought not to be allowed which, in the dead of night, we, to remain in ignorance of that notwithstanding, had one of our phase of them pertaining to these portmanteaus cut off the back of the parts. For the present, the forcarriage by thieves; and, finally, tunes of Prince Couza are of more wayworn and tired, arrived at the immediate interest ; nor will it be comparatively civilised seat of the his fault if, sooner or later, he does Transylvanian Government, there not appeal to the Roumain poputo partake of the hospitality of the lation of Transylvania, to support General commanding the troops, to him in creating an empire out of accompany him on bear-shooting those materials which lie scattered expeditions, in the course of which round his frontier.
LONDON, as every one knows, command of this busy hive of opecontains a city within a city; and rators. Almost every country is within that inner city there is yet included in their operations, and another, the very heart of the me- almost every State is in debt to tropolis. It is a small place. In them. From gigantic Russia to a couple of minutes you may walk petty Ecuador and Venezuela, they across it from side to side, from hold the bonds of every Governend to end. Yet it is the centre ment (those of Persia, China, and and citadel of our greatness—the Japan excepted). Prosaic as their heart whose pulsations are felt to operations are in detail, taken in the farthest extremities of the em- the mass they constitute a grand pire. There is to be found concen- work, and may be followed as a trated the spare capital of the na- noble as well as an honourable pro
and from thence it flows forth, fession. Daily and hourly it is as from a fountainhead, in irrigat- their business to scan in detail the ing streams, to extend industry and condition of the world. They increase employment and produce weigh the influence
weigh the influence of the seasons, everywhere. There, our traders and they investigate the produce of all producers obtain the loans and manner of harvests—they know the advances by means of which they condition of every mine, the proscarry on their immense business. pects of every railway, the divi. There, lie concentrated the sinews dends of every company. They are of material strength alike in peace ever feeling the pulse of trade, and and in war.
The occupants of the watching the course of politics. They precinct have dealings with all the ponder the chances for the maintenworld ; and from thence proceeds ance of peace or for the outburst of the
power which helps on the civil- war; and when war is on foot, they isation of the globe. The railways follow the fluctuations of the conwhich accompany the ceaseless ad- test with as keen an interest as vance of the White race into the either soldier or statesman. Everyprairies of the Far West of Ame- thing concerns them that affects rica—the companies which explore the condition of countries or the and develop the resources of Cali- solvency of Governments. The fornia and Australia - the iron very spirit and temper of nations, roads and irrigating canals which rebellious or loyal, warlike or inare maturing the prosperity of In- dustrious, is canvassed in that busy dia— the enterprise which covers mart. It is no exaggeration to with tea-plantations the valleys say that the progress of mankind and slopes of the Himalayas, and is mirrored in the operations of which carries our countrymen into this monetary metropolis. It is a new regions everywhere-are creat- city of money-dealers—a sanctuary ed or sustained by the ongoings in of Plutus ; a place where men this little spot in London. The think only of profits, and yet acwastes of Hudson's Bay-trading complish more good than all our companies for the Nile-the cotton- philanthropists. Blot out that inplanting which is invading Africa ner heart of London-paralyse the -ocean-lines of steam-ships, sub- operations of that busy hive-and marine telegraphs connecting dis- the whole world would feel the severed continents, water-works for shock and suffer from the calamity. Berlin, gas for Bombay-these and London is best seen from the a hundred other matters and pro- top of an omnibus. Hail one of jects engage the thoughts and em- those vehicles as they roll in ceaseploy the capital which is at the less stream along the Strand and VOL. XCVI.NO. DLXXXVIT.
Fleet Street,-yield to the solici- stand, a triangular expanse of pavetations of the conductor who with ment-like a spit of sand-over uplifted finger calls out “ Bank ! which the wavelets of human life, Bank!”—and, mounted on the top, the spray of the deep currents proceed eastwards to view the me- which roll around, are ceaselessly tropolis of Gold.
Passing under washing and intercrossing. Watchthe shadow of St Paul's, which ing a favourable moment, dart towers above you like a splendid through the perilous stream of vemountain of stone, you enter Cheap- hicles and foot - passengers which side, and with slow and halting separates you from that haven of course your vehicle wends its way rest, and take your stand (getting through the currents of human life the mud brushed from your boots seething and battling in the too nar- the while by one of the red-coated row street. The din is so great that members of the Shoe Brigade) beeven the famed Bow Bells, as they side the equestrian statue of the ring out from the spire overhead, Great Duke. As you look up at hardly make themselves heard. the bronze figure of the old warAt length you reach the Mansion rior you remember his saying, that House, the civic palace of London, High interest means bad securiwhose festivities are known unto ty;” you think, too, of the words all men, and especially to alder- once placarded all round where men,—and your omnibus stops on you stand, “To stop the Duke, run the very threshold of the Golden for Gold !” and you begin to think City.
that, after all, the site of his statue Magnificent buildings rising is not so inappropriate as you at aloft on all sides show that you first felt it to be. have reached a peculiar precinct. But circumspice ! The Royal A wide open space is before you, Exchange, with its high pillared which seems, as you look down portico, surmounted by an entablafrom your elevated seat, as if ture in which symbolic figures are paved with the tops of omni- crowded together as densely as the buses, cabs, and vehicles of all living crowds below—with its wide kinds, making their way through archways of entrance, and large a black mass of busy humanity. inner court open to the sky-looks No longer pent up in the defile of gay, affable, and accessible,-a place Cheapside, the current of busy life of easy and lively resort, savourhere branches out into many chan- ing (as the Greek style of archinels. To your right it pours down tecture usually does, whether in Lombard Street, and towards Lon- palace or in temple) of a sunny, don Bridge, the entrance to which everyday world. As
look you see marked by the tall column across Threadneedle Street, the low, of the Monument, rising against the heavy quadrangular structure of the blue sky of this sunny day in June. Bank creates a very different imTo the left, the current spreads pression. It has an imposing look; through Princes Street-to or from and the dead wall all round, scantily Lothbury and Moorgate Street, relieved by short pillars let into the which lie out of sight, hidden by the front, almost windowless and doorsolid quadrangular mass of the Bank. less, and its entrances watched by In front, the busy throng is pouring red-mantled porters with grand along the wide channels
of Cornhill cocked - hats, bespeak a sombre, and Threadneedle Street, leading jealously-guarded sanctuary. It is eastwards from where you stand; the treasure-house of Plutus, the and in an island between these sovereign and deity of the precinct. two channels rises aloft, like a You feel an awe and sombreness rocky promontory, the pillared front in the façade, very accordant with of the Royal Exchange. Stretch- all our notions of the Old Lady of ing out in front of the Exchange Threadneedle Street. These two there projects, almost to where you buildings, which far surpass in size
any of the surrounding edifices, the whole locality. Princes Street fitly represent respectively the two and Lombard Street bound it on powers, or agencies, whose conjoint the west and south; Lothbury and action constitutes the life of this Throgmorton Street on the north; busy little world. The Bank repre- while to the east, beyond Birchin sents money—the Exchange repre- Lane and Finch Lane, it gradually sents trade. Generally they act in merges in the region of the proharmony—sometimes, however, in duce-markets and shipping-offices. rivalry; but at all times they deep- Such are the narrow limits of this ly affect one another. A panic on City of Gold,-a precinct which 'Change makes a crisis at the Bank- rises like an oasis of commercial a crisis at the Bank makes a panic on palaces in the heart of London, 'Change. They are like brother and and in which is concentrated an sister. But Money is the stronger: it amount of wealth and power unis the male principle—sombre and rivalled elsewhere in the world. powerful. Trade is the female- The Royal Exchange, with its gay, lively, and various in its forms; wide expanse of pavement alike in but dependent for its fertility upon front and in rear, forms an islet money, and at times subjected by it amidst the rushing thoroughfares to a cruel bondage. You will not be around; and on these paved open long in the neighbourhood before spaces groups may be seen standing you find what vast issues are de- engaged in absorbing conversation. pendent upon the presence of Gold But all around nothing is to be seen in that gloomy building in Thread- but motion and bustle. The streets needle Street.
are thronged with hurrying vehicles; The mightiness of these two the foot-pavement with bustling powers, which together hold sway but steady-going passengers; the in this little precinct, is evidenced alleys, like Birchin Lane and Finch to the eye by the stateliness of the Lane, which connect the leading capital which they have here built thoroughfares, are equally throngfor themselves. All great phases ed ; and hurrying steps are ever of national life find expression in racing through those covered pasarchitecture. The present is pecu- sages, lined with offices on either liarly an age of money and of side, which form a peculiar feature monetary trade; and Banks and in this part of London, and before financial companies adorn this sanc- whose entrances the stranger naturtuary of money-dealers with con- ally halts, fearing to trespass on spicuous edifices. The place looks what seems, and indeed is, private like an acropolis—a civic citadel – ground. Young men and old men a peculiar precinct, where palatial alike are seen hurrying to and fro, edifices, clustering together, rise in and all appear absorbed in their close contact, and in marked con- work. You may easily tell the trast with the ordinary buildings office - clerks, racing on their erof the city. Brick and dinginess rands to learn the latest price of give place to Portland-stone, iron- some particular stock, from the less palisading, and highly-burnished mobile but more absorbed seniors door-panels. Banks, credit - com- of this busy world. Engrossed panies, discount-houses, insurance- as all are, you nevertheless see (in offices, are yearly raising for them- ordinary times at least) that theirs selves fine premises; and the area is not a sad work. The sight, in of the golden metropolis is grad truth, is rather disappointing to a ually extending itself at the ex- stranger who has heard of the cares pense of the meaner districts which of wealth and the deceitfulness of surround it. Stand at the north- riches. As he looks upon the men east corner of the Royal Exchange, who go past him, the sight does not and you are in the centre of the realise the conception of City” precinct. From that point a radius life which he has formed from of three hundred yards will include books or from his own imaginings.