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active and affectionate correspondence. I which the proposed reform was then caus Lamb, as we shall presently see, went to ing – democratic tyranny be styled itIreland in 1827, and whilst there the first he had, indeed, from first to last, very really grave reports of Lady Caroline's little sympathy. He frankly admitted condition reached him. It soon became that he was against reform because it evident that her death was rapidly ap. “could not be moderate,” but, as he deproacbing. In October, her doctor wrote clared on the second reading, the bill must to her husband at her dictation a letter, be persisted with until passed as "the will the hopefulness of which was evidently of the country left the legislature no alter. feigoed. “God bless you, my dearest native.” William,” it concluded, "I will write to When the ministers met in July, 1834, you myself very soon; do not forget to to learn from Lord Grey that his resigwrite a line to me." So soon as he could, nation had been accepted, the ex.preLamb came to England and was constantly mier himself handed Lord Melbourne the with her till her death, early in the follow- king's command to attend him at Wind. ing year. In after years, whenever he sor. He received the summons with his spoke of his wife, it was of her during the usual air of nonchalance, and told his earlier and latter part of their married secretary he thought it a “d-d bore" life ; let us hope that the intermediate having to go on such a mission. At their years — years of little mental peace for meeting, William IV. urged a coalition Lamb were really obliterated from his with the conservatives, but Lord Mel. memory.
bourne convinced him of the impossibility We will now turn to consider a little of of such an arrangement, and the king Lamb's public life after failing to gain a rather reluctantly consented to the contin. seat in Parliament at the general election uance of a Whig ministry, with Lord Mel. of 1812. Brougham then believed him to bourne at its head. Thus the prophecy be a Conservative, and whilst viewing given both by Lord Castlereagh and by affairs from outside the House, his lean. George IV., as regent, was fulfilled and the ings towards the policy of Canning be- dearest wish of old Lady Melbourne (who came avowed; so that the minister - had been dead for sixteen years) realized ! when in 1827 he formed his first adminis- The session was soon wound up, but tration — caused no surprise by offering the new premier did not join the Cabinet Lamb, who had again entered Parliament, in the precipitate bolt from London - it the post of Irish secretary: George IV. matters not whither which was then was especially glad to think that Canning becoming fashionable. He remained in proposed to include their mutual friend in or near town and spent much of his time the administration : “William Lamb, Wil. at Holland House in company with Gre. liam Lamb," he said, when Canning men ville, and corresponding with his col. tioned his name, "put him anywhere you leagues on various topics - many purely like.” The success of Lamb's rule at social. The Cabinet, or at least the govDublin showed the wisdom of Canning's eroment, was not as was well known choice. Lamb always kept up with his united, and when Lord Spencer's death Canningite friends, who, after the death took Lord Althorpe to the upper house, of Mr. Huskisson, became more closely Lord Melbourne went to Brighton and allied with the Whig section of the Lib- told the king plainly that he doubted the eral party. Thus Lord Grey was, on possibility of continuing in office. Wilforming his administration in 1830, with-lian IV., who under the queen's influence out party difficulty enabled to offer to his was now a pretty thorough-going Tory, old friend and relative the post of home was glad of an excuse to change the min. secretary, and Lord Melbourne at the age istry, and on leaving Brighton, Lord Melof fifty became for the first time in his life bourpe consented to be the bearer of the a Cabinet minister.
king's summons to the Duke of Welling. The official experience acquired during ton. the short time he was Irish secretary That night, in London, he made the now stood bim in good stead, and, as the head famous statement to Lord Brougham of of the Home Office, he gave rapid proof what had passed at Brighton. Brougham of administrative ability that won praise called in to see him on his way home from from political foes as well as friends. He Holland House, and the premier told him has surprised all about him, said Greville, the news, not probably from any certain by a “rapid and diligent transaction of opinion that the remarkable politician to business for which nobody was prepared." whom he spoke would keep the news a With the popular violence and excitement | secret, but because he thought the late.
ness of the hour would preclude him from the most unwilling to undertake them, and divulging it to the press. The unfortu. those who are least qualified, most eager nate result is well known. Brougham was to obtain them.” soon closeted in the Times office, and that Though the general election which fol. journal, next morning, announced the dis- lowed the queen's accession did not matemissal of the ministers (before they re- rially add to the government's strength, ceived official intimation of what had taken still it added something, and the removal place), adding on the authority of their of a sovereign who was manifestly opposed informant “the queen has done it all!” to the government as a whole was a de.
Peel's administration, which followed, cided gain. But the Whigs benefited only was but short-lived, and fell on the 8th of for a short time. Soon the internal differApril, 1835. Three days later, Lord Melences in the party showed signs of bring. bourne was again summoned to the king ing the ministry to the ground. To the and formed a ministry, though with pros- speaker — who was quarreling with Lord pects the reverse of hopeful, for their John Russell - Lord Melbourne majority was small, and, what is worse, pressed the hope that if the government unreliable.
was to fall it would do so “in the open Things mended but little as time wore light” and not from internal embarrass. on, and prior to opening the session of ment, unintelligible to the great body of 1837 it was seriously debated if the mid-sits supporters. istry should again face Parliament. How- Lord' Melbourne's ministry fell, over ever, in the end, it was agreed to do so, the Jamaica Bill, in May, 1839. The prethough a sense of relief was experienced mier was sorry to resign for oply one by the disheartened Cabinet, when the reason, and that was ceasing to advise the death of William IV. gave a reasonable queen.* His sorrow was probably inpretext for winding up the session. Of creased tenfold by the annoyance caused the premier's opinion of the king, his to his youthful sovereign over the misunalways guarded tone leaves us in some derstanding with Peel as to the retention doubt, but of the king's opinion of the of the ladies of her household, and there premier, there is no doubt. He consid. can be no reasonable doubt that it was, so dered him “a Conservative in the truest far as possible, to check this annoyance sense of the word, and to as great a de- that Lord Melbourne consented to resume gree as his Majesty himself.” What more office, and he probably felt when he did could William IV., during the last year of so that little personal felicity awaited any his life, have said in praise of any man? of the Cabinet. As he said in the House
The age and sex of the sovereign who of Lords the ministry resumed office be. now ascended the throne gave Lord Mel. cause they were unwilling to abandon the bourne an opportunity of bringing into queen “in a situation of difficulty and display all that was kindliest and most gen. tress.” It was after this unselfish reerous in his nature. The recent editor of sumption of office that there came for the his letters observes, that the time for lay- premier's consideration a matter which ing open all his political dealings with the from his intense love for the queen gave queen has not yet come, but what we do bim probably the gravest anxiety of all; know of their correspondence leaves us he had to advise her as to the wisdom of little doubt that Greville was as accurate her choice of a consort. as he usually is when he tells us that he Grave as was this responsibility, his un.
was passionately fond of Victoria – as selfishness caused him the first real satis. he might be of a daughter;" who will say faction at being premier that he had felt that this affection was not most cordially since he resumed office; how much that reciprocated? See the tone of kindly en- feeling of satisfaction was heightened couragement in the letter to the young when court rivalries had to be considered queen over one of the first difficulties of and smoothed over on the question of her reign – filling up the household ap- Prince Albert's precedence, may be judged pointments :
by remembering Lord Melbourne's intense “Lord Melbourne trusts that your Maj. honesty ; for real honesty, will prevent esty will not feel either surprised or dis- inodest feelings from disguising the couraged at the difficulties which occur knowledge of having acted with wisdom in making the arrangement, and which and discretion. Lord Melbourne's experience enables him It is needless, in a short biograghy of to assure your Majesty always do occur in Lord Melbourne, to follow the Whig party transactions of this nature. The persons
• Lord Melbourne for a time undertook the duties of who are the best fitted for offices are often private secretary to her Majesty.
through its stumbles and falls till the gov- port in the press. He felt this very acutely ernment resignation in 1841. The queen and the careless manner he generally bad now an adviser, so that the only adopted with regard to a personal slight reason which had before induced Lord could not disguise his annoyance; it was Melbourne to remain in office had been the first rude intimation his sensitive na. removed. “It is so different now," he ture had received of the fact that, though told the queen, in taking his official leave not himself forgetting the world, by the of her, “the prince understands everything world he was already, in a way, forgotten. so well.”. If he had a regret at quitting The impending resignation of the Peel the premiership, it was that his party had ministry in 1846, seemed to give his ener so far fallen in the public estimation. The gies a fresh impetus and he resumed an policy of the new government gave little active correspondence with his old coloccasion for attack, but he came pretty leagues, on the situation. His words in regularly to the House and often spoke ; to speaking or writing left them in no doubt his former colleagues he wrote frequently, of the fact that, if a Whig ministry was discussing the principal event of the day. formed he expected to be in it; the im
But perhaps it is time to pause for a possibility of such a thing, his unfitness moment and think of the physical condi- any further for public life, was obvious tion of the late premier; this — never par- and this thirst for a return to office, a thirst ticularly strong, but ever sustained by which could not be satisfied, gave his old mental activity and excitement — had fricods very considerable pain. After shown, during a rest from ministerial wear the queen had sent for Russell, Lord and tear, a tendency to give way, which, Melbourne waited anxiously for his col. by his colleagues, was not wholly unex- league's letter, which he felt sure would pected, since Lord Melbourne himself had contain the offer of a ministerial office ; told them that cares preyed the more upon that of lord privy seal was what he exhim the more he was at leisure. " For pected. The letter reached him on the myself,” he wrote to Russell, in August, 3rd of July, 1846, and ran thus : 1840, “I can neither eat nor sleep for anxiety, and I suffer much more from the of the new ministry. I have not proposed to
I submitted to the queen yesterday the list pressure of responsibility during the re- you to form a part of it, because I do not cess than during the sitting of Parlia. think your health is equal to the fatigues ment." The seriousness of the break up which any office must entail. in Lord Melbourne's health showed itself
Between the lines he could read the on the 23rd October, 1842, whilst stop- real reason for excluding his name from ping at Brocket, when he was seized with the list submitted to the queen, and the an attack of paralysis. He speedily re
care with which this real reason was discovered, but the shock to his nervous system never wholly passed away, though heart, his eyes filled with tears as he
guised touched the tenderest chords of his he called the seizure "only a runaway scribbled in answer:knock," and said he thought so little of it that he “ did not care to know the fellow You have judged very rightly and kindly in who gave it." Still, when he came into making me no offer. I am subject to such the House of Lords at the beginning of frequent accesses of illness as render me inthe following session, his changed appear
capable of any exertion. ance and manner were noticed, and a good As far back as 1835, he had expressed deal talked about in political circles where his firm belief that there was physical break-up is generally indecently sign of weakness or decline than bad discussed. Throughout the session he writing. His own handwriting, as it apspoke very little, but in December felt peared in this letter to Russell was an himself strong enough to pay a visit to instance of the truth of the observation. the queen and prioce consort at Windsor. At a period a little before this just
His Parliamentary silence had no doubt after Lord Melbourne had been attacked driven him a good deal from newspaper, by his first paralytic stroke – the present and consequently public, notice, and by Lord Cowper tells us how he remembers the new Liberal party bis power had never seeing him : "a somewhat massive though been experienced. How far he noticed not corpulent figure, reclining in an arm. this, it is difficult precisely to say, but chair, a white, or nearly white head, there is no doubt that it was very sharply shaggy eyebrows, and a singularly keen brought home to him when his last public and kindly eye, fits of silence occasionally speech, made at a dinner in Hertfordshire, broken by an incisive and rather paradox, received but a scanty and inaccurate re-lical remark, accompanied by a genial
laugh and a rubbing of hands together. I|Radicals alike. It is in fact a survival remember also noticing how easily the with two sides. On the face of its coins tears came into his eyes, not so much, as are seen its three mediæval castles, on the I have heard it said, at anything tender or obverse is read the magic word Republica, affecting as at the expression of a noble magic indeed, for this amulet has saved or generous sentiment." After his.exclu- its life over and over again. Thus it is sion from the Whig Cabinet of 1846, the that intelligent Americans, in whose eyes old man aged apace; the genial laugh was republics are always right, will fondle San heard less often, and leaning back in bis Marino as a little long-lost sister, older it chair he would quote to some old col. is true by far, but fallen into Rip Vao league that came to see him :
Winkle's slumber on an Italian mountain.
side. They will complacently gaze upon So much I feel my genial spirits droop, My hopes all flat, Nature within me seems
it as upon a miniature photograph of their In all her functions weary of herself.
own Columbia, with its superfluous exu.
berance shaded down. Those who have My race of glory run, not race of shame, And I shall shortly be with those that rest.
half read and half forgotten the “ Politics
of Aristotle seem to remember that be asThe division to be taken on the bill for serted Republicanism to be the most stable removing Jewish disabilities, passed in form of government; for there are some 1848, gave him an opportunity of once to whom Republic and Democracy are but more voting in favor of religious liberty synonyms. Yet deeper perhaps is the and he stirred himself to take it. This love of those who, standing now on the was not his last appearance in the House, great level plain of modern Europe, yet but it was the last occasion on which he turn their eyes back to the devious moun. voted.
tain-tracks of mediæval Italian life. To At the close of the session he went back them the crags of San Marino are as to to Brocket, where, about the middle of the scholar is the Pompeii of the plain, November, he was seized with another more, indeed, for San Marino is a Pompeii paralytic attack; gradually the power of undestroyed. Older, also, for though we expression or articulation left him; and have called it mediæval San Marino is in so, as far as could be judged, did the essentials prehistoric,
- a rural commune sense of pain. On the twenty-fourth of or group of rural communes such as exthe month he passed peacefully away. isted in the Umbrian hills before Rome
W. J. HARDY. was known or Florence thought of, when
Naples was a barren shore and Venice but a bank of mud. How, then, has San Marino not only maintained its communal
existence but struggled into political From Macmillan's Magazine.
sovereignty? The answer to the first half THE REPUBLIC OF SAN MARINO.
of the question is the easier. In the abA SURVIVAL is usually interesting, but sence of ethnological deluges — and these rarely exhilarating. It is wrapped in an usually leave the Ararats unswept - it is atmosphere of spiritual depression. The the nature of rural organizations to surConservative would wish it away, as a vive. It is only towns that change. In mockery of the good old times. It in the chronicle of the country there are no spires him with an active, painful feeling births and deaths. It is past all the of regret. It is the old yellow love-letter, weight of the Bishop of Oxford and Prowhen life has out-grown love. The past fessor Freeman to smother or drown the had better die than linger. To the Radical crone of the pre-Saxon village. The old at once sour and sanguine, sceptically con- witch will not sink, nor will she strangle. temptuous of the past, servilely supersti. He who on a winter's day is plied with tious as to the future, the survival is a mead in an upland Dorset farm blesses grievance. Its subdued and faded tones the continuity of rural life, and realizes are an eyesore, which his rose-colored that it must have been as old as its spectacles will not quite correct. It is a weather. But sovereignty is quite another constant source of conscious annoyance. thing. Rural communities bow readily to It has no right to be there - the past had sovereignty; partly because they are not better be killed than die.
easily defensible, partly because they The Republic of San Marino is a sur- barely realize its meaning. Sovereignty vival unique in the political world of Eu. in its essence is identical with taxation. rope, and yet it has escaped the common the rural commune does not feel the lot. It is praised by Conservatives and weight of taxation so heavily. It is the
rich bourgeois, not the poor agriculturist, chio, would willingly have made the wbo kicks against the prick of taxation. whole ridge the backbone of their state of
The sovereign independence of San Rimini. But this very fact secured for the Marino is due to a series of happy acci- Sammarinesi the constant friendship of dents which were crystallized into a senti. the lords of Urbino, whose magnificent medt. The origin of the State is ascribed fortress of San Leo is only a few miles to a Dalmatian saint who fled from the beyond the little river Marino which early persecutions at Rome and dwelt in forms the western boundary of the State. a hermitage on Mount Titanus. But it is Neither power could allow the other to impossible to believe that there was no appropriate so invaluable a strategic posiearlier population. The mountain is a tion. Florence by conquest or a system detached block standing free of the Apen- of commendation absorbed many of the pines - a short twelve miles from the communes of the Apennines, but her influ. seacoast, easily defensible and command. ence did not extend so far over the hills, ing a fertile, undulating district. The hill- unless indeed in the case of important villages must have existed before the outlets such as Forli which commanded a towos of the coast. As old as Illyrian main highway from the Adriatic. The pirates were the highland townships of action of Visconti and Sforza was too inVerucchio, San Leo, Urbino, Osimo, Lo-termittent in this part of Romagna to be retto, and above all San Marino. Yet, a source of serious danger. But when but for the saint and his noble benefac. Cæsar Borgia had mastered all sur. tress Felicitá, San Marino would have rounding towns and was consolidating his shared the fate of other highland como principality upon the Adriatic, the Same
This lady was a Countess Ma. minaresi expected invasion from hour to tilda on a small scale. She gave to the hour. They appealed in vain to Venice young congregation the proprietorship of for protection. Cæsar Borgia had little the mountain, and the lower table-land sentiment either religious or republican, was acquired by subsequent purchase and and Europe now would be a State the less by the generosity of Pope Æneas Sylvius. but for the fateful supper in the gardens But Felicitá could not give sovereignty of Hadrian of Corneto. The Venetians
- she could give no more than she pos- who succeeded Cæsar at Rimini cared sessed. The sovereignty had rested with little for the conquest of mountain-towns; the Roman republic — the empire - the they were content if they could appropriate Goths — the Greeks — the Germans. The by degrees the seaports of Italy. Far papacy itself had as much claim to Sao more dangerous was the re-establishment Marino as to anything which it possessed. of the papacy under Julius II. in her old It was included at all events in the dona- nominal dominions. The saint was likely tion of Pepin. In the pontificate of John to be but a poor protector against the XXII., the Bishop of Feltro, who claimed pope. Paul V. would fain have given San the ownership of the town, proposed to Marino to his notorious nephew Pier sell it, partly because he needed money to Luigi Farnese. It was at this time also restore his church, partly because the that the adventurous Florentine exile Sammiparesi were rebellious subjects, Piero Strozzi actually sent troops which "pot recognizing superiors here on earth, were to converge from Bologna and from and perchance not believing upon a supe. Rimini on Mount Titano. But night at. rior in heaven."
tacks are usually failures. The invading Yet the papacy appears in the thirteenth forces apparently walked round and round century to have accepted a judicial deci- the frontiers in' a snowstorm and retired sion as to the sovereign independence of discomfited at daybreak without a blow on the republic, and Pius II. considerably either side. increased its territory in 1463 at the ex- From this time downwards the fourth of pense of Sigismund Malatesta. The sov. June has been at San Marino, as at Eton, ereignty of San Marino is therefore almost a high holiday. The popes of the sevenas complete a puzzle as that of the myste- teenth century behaved with scrupulous rious Royaume d'Yvetot. Neither can be moderation towards their tiny neighbor, explained by the ancient alod and the and entered into formal treaties of alliance. later fief. in after times it is strange But this dignified calm was followed by also that the theoretical sovereignty of the wildest storm that the republic has unthe republic escaped the practical en. dergone. Alberoni became legate of the croachments of more powerful neighbors. March. He was always characterized by The Malatestas, originally lords of the a mania for unexpected annexation. Not neighboring upland fortress of Verruc- I discouraged by his failure to conquer