Specification of the Patent granted to FRANCIS PLOWDEN,

of Essex-street, near the Temple, London, Esquire; for newly-invented Aphthartic Viands; being Butcher's Aleat, animal and comestible Substances, preserved without Acid, Salt or Drying, in a sweet, palatuble and nutritious State, fit for Consumption both at Sea and on Land, for an extraordinary Length of Tine,

Dated June 13, 1807.

To all to whom these presents shall come, &e. NOW KNOW YE, that in compliance with the said proviso, I the said Francis Plowden do hereby declare, that my said invention for preserving butcher's meat, animal and other comestible substances, in a sweet, palatable and nutritious state fit for consumption both at sea and on land, without acid, salt or drying, for an extraordinary length of time, is performed on the principles and in manner following ; that is to say : Putrefaction is a spontaneous decomposition of the elementary com. ponent parts of the putrefying bodies. Although the atmospheric air be not the sole efficient cause of putrefaction, yet the contact of it evidently favours and accelerates putrefaction; consequently the preservation or security of such bodies from the immediate contact, and as much as can be from the influence, of the atmospheric air, must proportionably retard and prevent putrefaction, which is effected by the evaporation of exhalation of elementary parts. "If, therefore, these bodies whilst sound and untainted can be closely enveloped in an airproof medium or substance, so as to prevent evaporation or exhalation, their decomposition must be arrested


as long as the circumambient preservative continues to resist the admission and action of the air. The texture or quality of such incrusting substance or medium of preservation, must not only resist the effects of the atmospheric air, but it must not communicate any noxious quality to its contents. The substance of which I form this incrustation is very highly dried essence or extract of meat. The substance to be preserved being dressed will preserve the longer, and it should be put into the vessel in a cold state, and wiped dry. Care must be had that it contain no insect, vermin, or other immediate active cause of corruption, or any particle of inchoated putrefaction *. Every part of the substance to be preserved should be completely enveloped with: the extract, so that no vacuum or interstice be left

open; and it should be applied in that fusible state as to find its way into every vacuum. The vessels are best of wood, and should be kept as dry as possible.

In witness whereof, &c.

* If this essence or extract be properly made, the advantage of its affording pleasant, wholesome and nutritrive soup or broth, and its general utility for all culinary purposes, will be incalculable. The process of extracting the gelatin from the animal substance will be attended with this further economical effect, that it will leave the membrane and all other parts of the animal substance (except the earth and bone) in the immediate state of preparation for being con verted into soap. And as to the earth of the bones, that will afford phosphoric acid, which may be converted into that species of phosphorus which is in high estimativa and very valuable to refiners,

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Specification of the Patent granted to BRYAN Donkin, of

Dartford, Kent, Millwright, for a Mode of producing, & rotary Motion applicable to useful Purposes. 1.

Dated August 3, 1803.

To all

O all to whom these presents shall come, &c. NOW KNOW YE, that in compliance with the said proviso, I the said Bryan Donkin do hereby declare, that my said invention is described in manner following; that is to say, I carry my new method of producing a rotary motion into effect by introducing a steam beneath the surface of water, or any other dense fluid, at a teinperature too elevated to produce any notable degree of con densation in the same; and I dispose or present within the said water or dense Auid, and immediately over the place of introduction of the said steam, a certain in verted vessel or bucket; which, when filled with (and rendered bunyant by) the said steam, will ascend with considerable force, and carry along with it any other moveable apparatus to which it may be attached, until the arrival of the said vessel or bucket to such a place or position as shall permit the said steam to escape, And I do dispose, arrange, and combine, various other such buckets or vessels as aforesaid along with the first-' mentioned bucket or vessel (either by, fixing the same to the periphery of a wheel, or to a.circulating chain, or by any other convenient and suitable method), in such a manner that the ascent of any bucket or buckets cone taining steam shall regularly and successively cause the other bucket or buckets to arrive at the proper situation


for becoming likewise charged with steam, and ascend. ing in their turns. And I do declare that my said method of producing a rotary motion doth consist in the construction, use, and application, of the apparatus as here described and combined, namely, of the usual steam boiler or boilers, and of the receptacle, with its charge of hot water or other dense fluid, and of the combination of buckets, by a revolving wheel or by an endless chain and buckets, or by any other of the well, known ways of applying buckets (in cases where the direct weight, and not the buoyancy of a fluid, is used as the first mover); and that the motion so produced in the shafts or arbors of the wheels round which the said. buckets, in all and every such case and cases, must pass or resolve, in consequence of their successive ascent in the said heated water, or dense fluid, is the .rotary motion meant and intended to be produced by my said new method; and moreover, that I do apply the said motion or force to mills, and to other useful purposes, by the usual and various means of connecting first movers with the several kinds of work intended to be done : all which are too generally known and understood to be repeated in my present specification. In witness, &c.

On the distinctive Difference of Messrs. CHAPMANS' and

Mr. Curr's Patents for Flat Ropes. Communicated by Mr. W. CHAPMAN in Letter to the


AVING observed, since the specification of the patent granted to myself and Mr. Edward W. Chapman, for the formation of " fat bands or belts to be applied to the drawing of minerals from mines," has been published in your Repertory, that this invention has been represented in another publication so nearly similar to that of Mr. Curr, of Sheffield, for flat ropes, as to possess no very distinctive difference; I therefore feel it incumbent ou me to state the grounds on which the patent for fat belts was taken out; and to say, that as a possessor of other patent property, exclusive of more liberal motives, I should be one of the last to think of infringing on the rights of others.

Mr. Curr expressly states that his method of making flat ropes is to lay two or more small ropes side by side, and to secure them in that position by stitching or inter-, lacing, or by any other method; therefore, it is clear that Mr. Curr confined his invention to what he designed it to be; viz. a more useful combination of small ropes for the end which he proposed, than the making of one great rope for the same purpose ; buț by no means to preclude the stitching or interlacing together of other substances than rope, because the art of stitching and interlacing of things together was not of itself new. The question therefore rests on the distinctive difference between a rope and any of its component parts, particularly the strand of a strand-laid rope, which (well knowing that a


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