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the people. After the war was over, United States troops and officials occupied the island for a time and conducted its business. They did all they could to train the Cubans to conduct their own affairs, and finally the people of Cuba drew up a constitution which they submitted to the United States for approval. It met that approval, but it was feared that things might not go smoothly, and so the United States insisted that in case of trouble this country should have the right of stepping in. Sure enough, after Cuba had been running its own affairs for a time, things got into such a state that America had to take charge of things for a while. When the American troops were leaving the island, President Estrada Palma said: 1 “We are in the presence of the most extraordinary fact recorded in the annals of universal history. We are here to see off from our shores the remainder of the troops of the United States left in Cuba after helping us to secure our independence and the blessing of freedom. They could stay longer under any pretext whatever, they could serve to impose upon us an unjust demand, but the Government of the United States, identified with the liberal spirit and noble character of the American people, is willing, on the contrary, to prove the disinterest and sincerity of the aid rendered us, showing at the same time that we have, as an independent people, the confidence of one of the most powerful nations on earth.”
Suggestions for study What must happen when people come closely in con
tact with each other? Is this principle recognized
1 Foreign Relations of the United States, 1904, pp. 288–89. Edited by the Department of State. Government Printing Office.
between nations? What are independent nations called? How do they consider each other? When did they agree on this? Why? When did the United States claim membership in the family of nations? When did she receive membership? What was the next great change in the family of nations? What countries were affected by this change? Are nations as just toward each other as people are toward each other? Ought they to be? Show how justice has been done to China by the United States; by the world. How did the United States treat Cuba? Relate the facts. Why is there less reason for going to war now than there was in ancient or even in mediæval days? Is there a higher standard of international morality than there was in the ancient or mediæval world? If there is a change for the better, how has this change been brought about? What relation, if any, is there between the military power of a nation and the right
eousness of a cause? On the family of nations, see International Justice,
George Grafton Wilson (Social Service Series of
American Baptist Publication Society). On the open door in China, see World Politics, pp. 176–
178, Paul S. Reinsch (The Macmillan Co.); History for Ready Reference, vol. VI, p. 102, J. N. Larned (C. A.
Nichols Co., Springfield). On the Boxer affair, see History for Ready Reference, vol.
VI, pp. 115 ff., J. N. Larned. The Memoirs of Li Hung Chang, chap. xv (Houghton Mifflin Co.). China's Story, chaps. XXIII-XXIV, William Eliot Griffis (Houghton Mifflin Co.).
FEBRUARY: EFFECTS OF WAR
ILLUSIONS OF WAR 1
RICHARD LE GALLIENNE
War is a most detestable thing. If you had seen but one day of war, you would pray God you might never see another. - WELLINGTON.
HENRY TURNER BAILEY
In the realm of the arts man has suffered incalculable and irreparable losses through war. The paths of great military heroes ... have always been marked by the destruction of temples, the burning of palaces, the looting of cities, and the annihilation of priceless treasures, precious works of art impossible to reproduce by any means whatever. The beheaded granite kings of Egypt, the broken horsemen of the Parthenon, the mutilated saints of the shrines of England, cry out forever, like the souls beneath the altar in John's vision, “How long, O Lord, holy and true?” When shall the ravages of war be stayed? ... War has swallowed up all but a handful of the wonderful works of the artists and craftsmen of a thousand generations, and left us poor indeed.
1 From New Poems. By permission of John Lane Co.
2 Address delivered before the National Arbitration and Peace Congress. New York, 1907.
Every nation to-day disclaims any intention to make war upon others. Each professes its willingness to be just and also expresses the belief that other nations intend to be just also. Yet great armies are maintained and great fleets kept up, and this is clearly because of mutual suspicion, of a feeling that the other nation does not speak quite truly when it says it has no intention of attacking others. Surely this is inconsistent, and indeed it is out of accord with all the forces of the twentieth century.
War is very terrible. In the famous charge of the British Light Brigade at Balaklava on October 25, 1854, which Tennyson has immortalized in his ringing poem, there were twenty-five minutes of actual fighting, and for every minute of it eight men lost their lives, fullgrown men, in the best of health, many leaving a wife and children, all leaving relatives to mourn their loss. That was an unusually disastrous incident; but the study of many wars has enabled men to figure out that in every battle the average of men killed will be one in fifty. And on the enemy's side, other men will suffer just as much
War, however, has ceased to be a matter of mere dashing against the enemy. The great battle of Mukden in February and March, 1905, shows what modern warfare is. The battle began on February 16 and raged for nineteen days. The forces that confronted each other
numbered about eight hundred and fifty thousand men, and they were spread over a front one hundred miles wide. The commanders were miles to the rear of their troops, connected with each part of their forces by telephone, keeping track of their movements on maps and giving orders by telephone. It was a game of chess, played by the generals in safety. The first reports said that the Russians lost thirty thousand men dead, over one hundred thousand wounded, and about forty thousand prisoners, out of about three hundred and seventyfive thousand engaged. The Japanese admitted fifty thousand casualties in four hundred thousand men, although the true number was probably one hundred thousand. Two months later, in the naval battle of Tsushima, the fate of three thousand men was sealed in less than three hours.
But war has other effects beside the wounding and killing of men. With so much commerce going on between nations, the slightest disturbance anywhere in the world makes business lose thousands of dollars. When this condition came to be recognized, it had a profound effect on the war system. If two nations went to war, the others were no longer willing to be interfered with in their business. So the nations began to divide in the case of war into belligerents and neutrals. By declaring neutrality in these days, a nation avoids as much as possible the disturbance which war creates, but the effect of war on neutrals may mount up to large proportions, as shown in the war between Italy and Turkey. When the Italian fleet approached the Dardanelles to make an attack on Constantinople, the Turkish authorities planted submarine mines through the straits to blow up the Italian warships if they ventured in, and as a matter