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of the love they should bear to one another: and then, that they may not be deceived or disappointed, He predicts to them the very different atmosphere they shall meet with, when they descend into the world again from this mount of the Lord, on which for a while they have been dwelling. Once He had been constrained to say to them, "The world cannot hate you;" but now that they really believed in Him, and loved Him, they too should drink of the cup that He drank of, and with the baptism that He was baptized withal should they be baptized. Only He will prepare them for this. Charged with such a mission, endowed even with miraculous powers of beneficence, they might fondly expect the world to come in as willing captives, won by such power of love. But they must be prepared for disappointment; and this thought may help to sustain them under it, that their Master went through it all before them. And then He proceeds to give the reason of the world's hate. The world here means the evil part of it; those to whom this world is all. If now they used the corrupt maxims of the world, thought as the world thought, did in all things as the world around them did,- they would plainly prove that they too were of the world; and the selfish world, which ever inclines to those who will countenance it in evil, would so have no quarrel with them, but would recognize them as of itself, and love them so long as it could make use of them. But with them it was indeed different. They had been chosen out of the world, to teach it, and, where need be, to "testify of it, that the works thereof are evil." They had been picked out, as the well-disposed soldiers of a mutinous army might be, to persuade the rest, and bring them to a better mind. But as "every one that doeth evil hateth the light," so with those whom they addressed. There is a great solemnity in the manner of expression here; this word "the world" thus repeated these five times."

St. John vii. 7.

2 See Abp. Trench's suggestive lines, To a Friend on entering the Ministry.

3 This before you may also mean more than you, or as your leader.

4 St. John xvii. 16.

5 St. John iii. 20.

6 St. John xvii. 14.

7 Compare 1 St. John ii. 15–17: iv. 10-16. His Lord's last words seem ever ringing in His servant's ear.

DII.

THE SAME SUBJECT-continued.

St. John xv. 20-27.

Remember the word that I said unto you, The servant is not greater than his lord. If they have persecuted me, they will also persecute you; if they have kept my saying, they will keep yours also. But all these things will they do unto you for my name's sake, because they know not him that sent me. If I had not come and spoken unto them, they had not had sin: but now they have no cloke for their sin. He that hateth me hateth my Father also. If I had not done among them the works which none other man did, they had not had sin: but now have they both seen and hated both me and my Father. But this cometh to pass, that the word might be fulfilled that is written in their law. They hated me without a cause. But when the Comforter is come, whom. I will send unto you from the Father, even the Spirit of truth, which proceedeth from the Father, he shall testify of me: and ye also shall bear witness, because ye have been with me from the beginning.

The Lord proceeds in the same strain to prepare His Disciples for the scandal of the Cross. He reminds them, first, of what He had come from saying, when after supper He washed their feet and gave them that signal lesson of humility; and secondly, of His words on a previous occasion, recorded by other of the Evangelists. The readers of Church-history will recognize the literal truth of the words which follow. Those who are acquainted with the accounts which have come down to us of those early times will remember, in the ten persecutions which befell the Church while Paganism was powerful, how even to bear the name of Christ was to expose oneself to the enemy; how all who bare the Christian name were subject to the world's scorn and

St. John xiii. 16.

2 St. Matt. x. 24, 25; St. Luke vi.

40, margin. See St. John xx. 30; xxi. 25.

hate.' But it seems to have been Jewish, even more than Pagan enmity that the Lord had in view. They professed to know God, to be the only people that had the knowledge of the true God, and yet they deliberately rejected Him whom He had sent; thus proving, notwithstanding all their boasting, that they were no better than "the Gentiles which know not God." For to outrage the Ambassador, is to insult the Sovereign who sends him and whom he represents; and these slew not the servants only, but even the Son.3 In this phrase, "Know not," is implied the wilfulness of their sin, whose language was, practically, and sometimes even literally, "Depart from us, for we desire not the knowledge of Thy ways." For they might have known. The Lord Himself had come and spoken unto them; had come down from Heaven to converse with men on earth. He had given ample proof of His authority, of His Divine mission. He had done among them, as some even of themselves admitted, works which none other 5 had ever done. For He taught as one that had authority; and the miracles He wrought were wrought not as by Divinely prompted men, but in His own name, and by His own inherent power. So that they were without excuse. Their enmity to Christ was enmity to God. In Him they saw the Father," and saw in vain. And so in them was fulfilled the saying of the Psalmist, the word written, and written more than once, in their own Law; that Book thus described by one of its parts, which they had in their hands, but to which they gave so little heed." And

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' In Pliny's famous letter to Trajan (Ep. x. 97) we have the difficulty started, whether men confessedly free from fault should be punished for a name. So that as Tertullian (Apol. c. ii.) shows, innocent men were hated on account of a name. St. Matt. x. 22; Acts iii. 6, 16; iv. 7, 10; v. 28, 40, 41; St. James ii. 6, 7; 1 St. Pet. iv. 14, 16.

2 Rom. ii. 17-20.

3 St. Matt. xxi. 33-43.

St. John iii. 2; vi. 14; vii. 31, 40, 46; ix. 32.

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5 Neither here (v. 24) nor in ch. yii. 31, is the word man in the original, 6 St. John ix. 39-41.

7 St. John xii. 45; xiv. 9; Heb. i. 3. 8 Ps. XXXV. 19; lxix. 4. The Vulgate has gratis.

St. John v. 38-40; Acts xiii. 26-29, 32-35, 40, 41. "The meaning in this, as in so many other places of the Gospel, is not that the Jews hated Christ in order that the words of David might be fulfilled; but that from their hatred, resulted the fulfilment of certain words spoken pro

again the Lord adverts to the coming of the Comforter. For hitherto He had been predicting persecutions; but lest their hearts should droop under the heavy prospect, He encourages them again with the promise of Divine help. They were to testify to the nations what things they had seen and heard all the time that the Lord Jesus went in and out among them.' With great power should they bear witness. They are not alone, He tells them, in this testimony. The Spirit witnesses with them.3 Truth shall prevail.

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DIII.
PERSECUTION.

St. John xvi. 1-6.

These things have I spoken unto you, that ye should not be offended. They shall put you out of the synagogues: yea, the time cometh, that whosoever killeth you will think that he doeth God service. And these things will they do unto you, because they have not known the Father, nor me. But these things have I told you, that when the time shall come, ye may remember that I told you of them. And these things I said not

unto you at the beginning, because I was with you.

But now

I go my way to him that sent me; and none of you asketh me,

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there seems to be a sort of aposiopesis, as in St. John xiv. 31.

Acts i. 21, 22; iv. 20; 1 St. John i. 1-3.

2 Acts i. 8; iv. 33.

3 St. Matt. x. 17-20; St. Luke xii. 11, 12; Acts v. 32; Rom. viii. 16. Note the He of v. 26, and its correlation with the ye of the next verse, in proof of the personality of the Holy Spirit. Upon another point touching which there has been much needless

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Whither goest thou? But because I have said these things unto you, sorrow hath filled your heart.

The Lord, who had spoken generally of the hatred of the world to the Church, proceeds now to speak of this more particularly; sketching the future fortunes of His Church, foretelling that first chapter of its early history. But first He tells them why He tells them. One reason is (another He gives presently) that they should not be scandalized, or stumble, as over something for which they were not prepared; but be fore warned, and so fore-armed. To be "put out of the synagogue "2 was much more than simply to be excluded from the place of public worship. It cut a man off from the society of his former associates, and from all the privileges of his people. It was a moral outlawry. All men shunned him on whom this mark was set. He was virtually an outcast. Those familiar with the history of the dark ages, or who are acquainted with the effect of losing caste among the Hindoos, will be able to realize the terrors of this excommunication. The Jews, who, since their subjection to the Romans, had lost the power of putting to death, thought it meritorious even by irregular means to compass the destruction of any who were obnoxious; and the men who, in however clandestine a manner, carried out the secret sentence of their displeasure, were regarded by the rulers with approbation.3 So that there grew up a desperate and

I V. 4.

2 Note the original expression in v. 2.

Acts xxiii. 12-15, 20, 21. Jeremy Taylor (Ser. on The Gunpowder Treason) speaks of those "with whom excommunication not only drives from spirituals, but deprives of temporals; and is not to mend our lives, but to take them away." He had said before, "Men care not how far they go, if they do but once think they can make God a party of their quarrel . . . As it is ordinary for charity to be called coldness in religion, so is it as ordinary for a pretence of religion to make cold charity... God's

anathemas post not so fast as ours do." The following observations of Bp. Patrick (Parable of the Pilgrim, ch. ii.) made with reference to the Puritan fanatics of his day, describe a spirit not yet extinct: "There seemed no difference between them and the prophets, but only that they could not prove their mission . . . That which was but the love of their own opinion, they constantly miscalled the love of God and of His truth . . . God's enemies they thought they opposed in their own . . . There was no heat but they took it for divine, though it were of their own kindling; and so they were but all

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