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and choose it, and are utterly averse to parting with it. In like manner they often dissemble in pretence and show, which they make in their prayers, of dependence on God for mercies, and of a sense of his sufficiency to supply them. In our coming to God, and praying to him for such and such things, there is a show that we are sensible we are dependent on him for them, and that he is sufficient to give them to us. But men sometimes seem to pray, while not sensible of their dependence on God, nor do they think him sufficient to supply them ; for all the while they trust in themselves, and have no confidence in God. They show, in words, as though they were begyars; but in heart they come as creditors, and look on God as their debtor. In words, they seem to ask for things as the fruit of free grace; but in heart they account it would be hard, unjust, and cruel, if God should deny them. In words, they seem humble and submissive, but in heart they are proud and contentious; there is no prayer but in their words.
It doth not render God at all the less a prayer-hearing God, that he distinguishes, as an all-seeing God, between real prayers and pretended ones. Such prayers as those which I have just now been mentioning, are not worthy of the name in the eyes of him who searches the heart, and sees things as they are. That prayer which is not of faith, is insincere ; for prayer is a show, or manifestation of dependence on God, and trust in his sufficiency and mercy. Therefore, where this trust or faith is wanting, there is no prayer in the sight of God. And, however God is sometimes pleased to grant the requests of those who have no faith, yet he has not obliged himself so to do; nor is it an argument of his not being a prayer-bearing God, when he hears them not.
3. It is no argument that he is not a prayer-hearing God, that he exercises his own wisdom as to the time and manner of answering prayer. Some of God's people are sometimes ready to think, that he doth not hear their prayers, because he doth not answer them at the times when they expected; when, indeed, God doth hear them, and will answer them, in the time and way to which his own wisdom directs. The business of prayer is not to direct God, who is infinitely wise and needs not any of our directions; who knows what is best for us ten thousand times better than we, and knows what time and what way are best. It is fit that he should answer prayer, and, as an infinitely wise God, in the exercise of his owo wisdom, and not ours, God will deal as a father with us, in answering our requests. But a child is not to expect that the father's wi-dom be subject to bis; nor ought he to desire it, but should e-teem it a privilege, that the parent will provide for him according to his own wisdom.
As to particular temporal blessings, for which we pray, it is no argument that he is not a prayer-hearing God, because he bestows them not upon us : for it may be that God sees the things for which we pray not to be best for us. If so, it would be no mercy in him to bestow them upon us, but a judgment. Such things, therefore, ought always to be asked with submission to the divine will. God can answer prayer, though be be. stow not the very thing for which we pray. He can sometines better answer the lawful desires and good end we have in prayer another way. If our end be our own good and happiness, God can, perhaps, better answer that end in bestowing something else than in the bestowment of that very thing which we ark.
And if the main good we aim at in our prayer be attained, our prayer is answered, though not in the bestowment of the individual thing which we sought. And so that may still be true which was before asserted, that God always hears the prayer of FAITH. God never once failed of hearing a sincere and believing prayer; and those promises for ever hold good, " Ask, and ye shall receive; seek, and ye shall find; knock, and it shall be opened to you ; for every one that asketh, receiveth; and he that seeketh, findeth; and to him that knocketh, it shall be opened."
Another use of this doctrine may be, of reproof to those that neglect the duty of prayer. If we enjoy so great a privi. lege as to have the prayer-hearing God revealed to us, how great will be our folly and inexcusableness, if we neglect the privilege, or make no use of it, and deprive ourselves of the advantage by not seeking this God by prayer. They are hereby reroved who neglect the great duty of secret prayer, which is more expressly required in the word of God than any other kind. What account can those persons give of themselves, who neglect so known a duty? It is impossible that any among us should be ignorant of this command of God. How daring, therefore, is their wickedness, who live in the neglect of this duty! and what can they answer to their judge, when he shall call them to an account for it?
Here I shall briefly say something to an excuse which some may be ready to make for themselves. Some may be ready to
pray, my prayer will not be the prayer of faith, because
I am in a natural condition, and have no faith.
This excuses not from obedience to a plain command of God. The command is to all to whom the command shall come. God not only directs godly persons to pray, but others also. In the beginning of the second chapter of Proverbs, God directs all persons to cry after wisdom, and to lift up their voices for understanding, in order to their obtaining the fear and knowledge of God; and in Jam. i. 5, the apostle says, “ If any man lack wisdom, let him ask of God; and Peter directed
say. If I do
Simon Magus to repent, and pray to God, if perhaps the thought of his heart might be forgiven him, Acts viii. 22. Therefore, when God says, do thus or thus, it is not for us to make excuses, but we must do the thing required. Besides,
God is pleased sometimes to answer the prayers of unbelievers.
Indeed he hears not their prayers for their goodness or acceptableness, or because of any true respect to him manifested in them, for there is none ; nor has he obliged himself to answer such prayers ; yet he is pleased sometimes, of his sovereign mercy, to pity wicked men, and hear their cries. Thus he heard the cries of the Ninevites, Jonah iii. and the prayer of Ahab, 1 Kings xxi. 27, 28. Though there be no regard to God in their prayers, yet he, of his infinite grace, is pleased to have respect to their desires of their own happiness, and to grant their requests. He may, and sometimes does, hear the cries of wicked men, as he hears the hungry ravens, when they cry, Psal. cxlvii. 9, and as he opens his bountiful band, and satisfies the desires of every living thing, Psal. cxlv. 16. Besides, the prayers of sinners, though they have no goodness in them, yet are made a means of a preparation for mercy.
Finally, seeing we have such a prayer-hearing God as we have heard, let us be much employed in the duty of prayer: let us pray with all prayer and supplication : let us live prayerful lives, continuing instant in prayer, watching thereunto with all perseverance; praying always, without ceasing, earnestly, and not fainting,
CHRISTIAN CAUTIONS, OR THE NECESSITY OF
PSALM cxxxix. 23, 24.
Search me, O God, and know my heart; try me, and know my
thoughts ; and see if there be any wicked way in me, and lead me in the way everlasting.
This psalm is a meditation on the omniscience of God, or upon his perfect view and knowledge of every thing, which the Psalmist represents by that perfect knowledge which God bad of all his actions, his downsitting and his uprising; and of his thoughts, so that he knew his thoughts afar off; and of his words, " There is not a word in my tongue,” says the Psalmist,“ but thou knowest it altogether. Then he represents it by the impossibility of fleeing from the divine presence, or of hiding from him; so that if he should go into heaven, or hide himself in hell, or fly to the uttermost parts of the sea ; yet he would not be hid from God: or if be should endeavour to hide himself in darkness, yet that would not cover him; but the darkness and light are both alike to him. Then he represents it by the knowledge which God had of him while in his mother's womb, ver. 15, 16. “My substance was not hid from thee, when I was made in secret ; thine eyes did see my substance, yet being imperfect; and in thy book all my members were written."
After this the Psalmist observes what must be inferred as a necessary consequence of this omniscience of God, viz. that he will slay the wicked, since he seeth all their wickedness, and nothing of it is hid from him. And last of all, the Psalmist improves this meditation upon God's all-seeing eye, in begging
This Tract contains the substance of four posthumous discourses, on the text Prefixed, first printed at Edinb. 1788.
of God that he would search and try him, to see if there were any wicked way in him, and lead him in the way everlasting.
Three things may be noted in the words.
1. The act of mercy which the Psalmist implores of God towards himself, that God would search him. “Search me, O God, and know my heart; try me, and know my thoughts."
2. In what respect he desires to be searched, viz. "to see if there were any wicked way in him." We are not to understand by it, that the Psalmist means that God should search him for his own information. What he had said before, of God's knowing all things, implies that he hath no need of that. The Psalmist had said, in the second verse, that God understood his thought afar off; i. e. it was all plain before him, he saw it without difficulty, or without being forced to come nigh, and diligently to observe. That which is plain to be seen, may be seen at a distance.
Therefore, when the Psalmist prays that God would search him, to see if there were any wicked way in him, he cannot mean that he should search that he himself might see or be informed, but that the Psalmist might see and be informed. He prays that God would search bim by his discovering light; that he would lead him thoroughly to discern himself, and see whether there were any wicked way in him. Such figurative expressions are often used in scripture. The word of God is said to be a discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart. Not that the word itself discerns, but it searches and opens our hearts to view ; so that it enables us to discern the temper and desires of our hearts. So God is often said to try men. Не doth not try them for his own information, but for the discovery and manifestation of them to themselves or others.
3. Observe to what end he thus desires God to search him, viz. “ That he might be led in the way everlasting:" i. e. not only in a way which may have a specious show, and appear right to him for a while, and in which he may have peace and quietness for the present; but in the way which will hold, which will stand the test, which he may confidently abide by for ever, and always approve of as good and right, and in which he may always have peace and joy. It is said, that “the way of the ungodly shall perish,” Psal. i. 6. In opposition to this, the way of the righteous is in the text said to last for ever.
All men should be much concerned to know whether they do
not live in some way of sin. David was much concerned to know this concerning himself; he searched himself, he examined his own heart and ways; VOL. VI.