Berlin, and in this matter his interest is feeling upon the subject, that the Empero clear. The greatest obstacle to the success of Austria has found it needful formally to of his plans is the lurking suspicion that his assure the Prussian Court that in the event object is not to “make Germany,” but only of invasion it may count upon its good faith, to aggrandize Prussia — a suspicion which and Bavarians are holding public meetings his consent to the sale of any German ter- to sanction war for Luxemburg. The stake, ritory whatsoever would change into a cer- too, is neither so trifling, nor the pretext tainty. It is essential, if his master is ever quite so dishonourable, as some journals to be elected Emperor, that he should show seem to imagine. The war would be dehimself ready to defend every inch of the scribed as a campaign undertaken to defend Imperial dominion as zealously as he would Europe against exorbitant pretensions, to defend any Prussian province, and the King protect, as Napoleon would probably say, has repeatedly and publicly pledged himselt the “ independence of States, and the senot to surrender so much as a German vil- curity of thrones,” while the stake would be lage. Count von Bismarck's reply to the neither more nor less than the frontier of Liberals in the North German Parliament the Rhine. War with Prussia is war with who asked if he intended to part with Ger- Bavaria under the Treaties of August, and man soil was, therefore, couched in unmis- the Emperor, if victorious, would be master takable terms. He did not wish to wound of Rhenish Prussia, Luxemburg, and the the “susceptibilities” of France unneces- Palatinate besides. On the other hand, the sarily, and the fierce language of the Lib- Emperor may recede silently from his pro eral spokesman, Herr von Bennigsen, a ject; but if he does, he will have received Hanoverian, who seems destined to be the another and most severe check, the pride of Prussian Liberal chief, though“ worthy of a France another and an exasperating wound. representative of the people was not diplom- The sense of suffocation of which M. Foratic.” But he trusted that no Government cade once complained will be intensified, entertained a design of invading the “in- and all France will perceive that Napoleon dubitable rights of Germany," and should is no longer the arbiter of Europe, France any negotiations be opened, he would first no longer able to move in her own strength of all ask the representative assemblies of and independent of any ally. Neither the Germany to take the matter into consider- French nor their Emperor are likely to bear ation. Their decision might be anticipated, that position long without a distinct trial of and the Parliament broke up in a fever of strength, for which both parties are, as enthusiasm, understanding well that Count many believe, silently preparing their revon Bismarck, while abstaining alike from sources. The re-arming of France goes formenaces and boasts, forbids the annexation of ward at a constantly accelerating speed, Luxemburg to France.

while Prussia is urging the South to reorNapoleon is therefore compelled to adopt ganize itself on the Prussian scheme till the one of two equally dangerous courses. He Bavarian Premier tells his Parliament that may persist in demanding the cession, on if it chatters so much over his Army Bills the ground that Luxemburg belongs to the he must perforce resign. When of two House of Orange, that Prussia has no more conterminous frontiers one is full of suspiright of suzerainty there than in Alsace or cion, the other of mortified pride, a very litLorraine, and that her claim to exercise one tle incident may produce the explosion is an assumption injurious to the honour of which both expect, and almost desire. OrFrance and manacing to the independence dered out of Mexico, defeated at Nikolsof all neighboring States. In this event we burg, defied in Schleswig, resisted in Luxemshall have war, perhaps before the Exhibi- burg, abused in Auxerre, with no liberties tion closes, for the French are exasperated to offer to France, and new sacrifices to beyond measure at Prussian success; and demand from his people, the Emperor, to the idea so sedulously inculcated by the keep his seat, must accomplish some great Emperor's friends in the Press, that Prussia, thing. His claim to reign is Success, and if threatened, will give way, is, we are con- in Mexico and Germany, at home and vinced, unfounded. So strong is German abroad, he has of late been unsuccessful.


the conventional laws of human society. From The Spectator.

Their timidity, – just like the timidity of THE IMAGINATION OF ELEPHANTS. children in relation to the magnificent self

assertion of a parish beadle or a country The reperusal of Sir J. Emerson Ten- policeman, — is due to the curious activity nent's delightful chapters on the Wild Ele- of an imagination dominated by the exterphant * reprinted in a separate form from n'al appearances and shows of things. In his great work on Celyon, suggests one of Sir Emerson Tennent's description of the the most curious questions connected with corral, in which whole herds of wild elethe study of animal psychology, — how far phants are taken captive, with a view to the inmagination is relatively weaker or training for the service of man, he shows us stronger in the higher order of animals (rel- thousands of people hazarding their lives on atively, we mean, to their other mental fac- the mere strength of their (well grounded) ulties) than in man himself. Mr. Bagehot conviction that the elephants enclosed in in his acute essays on

“The English Con- the corral would not really try the strength stitution ” has remarked with much justice, of the boundary which held them in, and that when we say that men are governed which was absolutely incapable of 'resisting by their imaginations, we very often mean the charge of even one resolute and fullby the weakness of their imaginations, i.e., grown elephant. Indeed, the wild elephants we suppose, by failing to conceive as vividly showed much more superstitious fear of and as truly as they might, from their own weak white wands pointed at their heads; knowledge of what human nature and bu- than town urchins of the baton of a police- . man passions are like, the hollow interior of

Where is there in civilized society so those really feeble but apparently, potent complete a paralysis produced by imaginaconstitutional fictions by The showiness of tive timidity as is produced in the wildelewhich the larger part of mankind are still phant by that quality ? overawed. Feeble imaginations, Mr. Bagehot means, we suppose, fill in the back

“ There was a strange combination of the ground behind great state and dignity with sublime and the ridiculous in these abortive onsuch really unique qualities as would seem

sets; the appearance of prodigious power in to justify an assumption of unique state and their ponderous limbs, coupled with the almost dignity, while stronger imaginations, build- ludicrous shuffle of their clumsy gait, and the ing on better realized facts, such as the fury of their apparently resistless charge, conessential likeness and ultimate identity of verted in an instant into timid retreat. They human nature in all phases, realizes the rushed madly down the enclosure, their backs hollowness of the interior in question, or at arched, their tails extended, their ears spread, least convinces itself that there is no excep- trumpeting and uttering shrill screams, yet

and their trunks raised high above their heads, tional grandeur of mind and heart corres- when one step further would have dashed the ponding to the exceptional grandeur of mere opposing fence into fragments, they stopped external position and hereditary honours. short on a few white rods being pointed at them The weaker imagination, in this case, paints through the paling; and, on catching the deria grander conception than the stronger im- sive shouts of the crowd, they turned in utter agination, because the one builds on mere discomfiture, and after an objectless circle conventional signs, the other on signs which through the corral, they paced slowly back to it bas itself tested, and of which it has ex- their melancholy halting place in the shade. plored the full significance. Keeping this The crowd, chiefly composed of young men distinction in view, there is little doubt that and boys, exhibited astonishing nerve and com

posure at such moments, rushing up to the the higher order of animals, the Elephants point towards which the elephants charged, especially, have what we should call the pointing their wands at their trunks, and keeping weaker sort of imagination in men, but have up the continual cry of · Whoop! whocp ! it very strongly, more strongly in propor- which invariably turned them to fight.” tion to their reasoning faculties and general power of mind than even the masses of men. The elephant here clearly attaches to the in barbarous States. No one can read Sir pointed wands, to the noise of the multitude, Emerson Tendent's striking chapters with- and the glare of the lights a completely out noticing that elephants have in a very false conception of power. It takes a show high degree, that peculiar kind of imagina- for reality, and when measuring against the tion which gives so wonderful a validity to showy forces which it fears its own huge

strength distrusts itself, as civilized men al• The Wild Elephant, and the Method of Cap ways distrust themselves when in collision turing and Training it in Ceylon, Ry Sir. J. Em. with social conventions. And it is not only erson Tonnent, Bart, London : Longmans,

in moments of excitement and confusion that phant, so far from superstitious avoidance, the elephant displays this remarkable im- examines them with anxious curiosity. The aginative timidity. Sir Emerson Tennent Ceylon engineers say that when they surpoints out a much more curious case of the vey ways through the forests and plant same tendency in the wild elephant, even wooden tracing pegs to mark the levels when he is not disturbed by any tumult or taken during the day, their tracing pegs are display of force, to respect, in deference we generally removed during the night by the suppose to some traditional elephantine elephants, who are uneasy till they underconvention, any artificial fence of sticks, stand these novel symptoms of human agency. however weak:

It is clear, then, that the elephants are ren

dered uneasy, troubled in their imagina“There is something still unexplained in the tions, by these curious marks of special and dread which an elephant always exhibits on ap- unexplained human interest in their dwellproaching a fence, and the reluctance which he ing place, just as Morgiana in the Forty displays to face the slightest artificial obstruc- Thieves was rendered uneasy by seeing the tion to his passage. In the area of the fine old chalk mark on her master's door ; and tank of Tissa-Weva, close by Anarajapoora, the though they have not the cleverness to imnatives cultivate grain, during the dry season, itate Morgiana's device by pegging in around the margin where the ground has been like manner a number of diverging ways left bare by the subsidence of the water. little patches of rice they enclose with small through the forest to puzzle their supposed sticks an inch in diameter and five or six feet in enemies, they show none of the special rebeight, such as would scarcely serve to keep spect to these marks of human agency which out a wild hog if he attempted to force his way they show to the artificial fence. Indeed, it through. Passages of from ten to twenty feet is a recognized and very, generally successwide are left between each field, to permit the ful way to escape a vicious elephant to wild elephants, which abound in the vicinity, to throw down anything complicated in his path, make their nocturnal visit to the water still re- which, in his caution, he will examine so maining in the centre of the tank. Night after carefully before he proceeds as to give his night these open pathways are frequented by chase time to escape. Colonel Hardy in herds, but the tempting corn is never touched, nor is a single fence disturbed, although the 1820 saved himself from a vicious “ rogue merest movement of a trunk would be sufficient elephant by throwing down his dressing-case to demolish the fragile obstruction. Yet the which the creature in question waited to same spots, the fences being left open as soon force open and examine minutely instrument as the grain has been cut and carried home, are by instrument. Hence it is clear there - eagerly entered by the elephants to glean is something conventional in the elephant's amongst the stubble. Sportsmen observe that special respect for a weak fence, which one an elephant, even when enraged by a wound, wrench or blow of his trunk would either will hesitate to charge an assailant across an root up or break a gap in. intervening hedge, but will hurry along it to seek for an opening."

How strong the conventional imagination of the elephant is, is seen, even without re

spect to man, in his intense respect for the This can only be due to the activity of the organic unity of a single herd or family, imagination in suggesting some peculiar which he shows both positively and negadanger latent in the fence, unless indeed it tively: One herd will never, even when be, which is quite conceivable in such a united by a common danger, admit another creature as the elephant, a real respect for herd, or even a single individual of another the property of man, and a generous reluc- herd, into the limits of its own group. tance to deprive him of his chosen food when Even when more than one herd are capthe elephant's own food is so much more tured in the same corral, they will never plentiful. If this, however, were the true unite or join in the same charges against explanation, it would imply a very much the barrier. Any attempt to join them on more powerful and just imagination, build the part of a stray elephant is resisted pering up a true impression of human wants by tinaciously, even by blows. Here is the sympathy than ihe other supposition of a same high value attached to conventions timid and apprehensive imagination disposed which induced some fashionable man to asto regard certain indications of human care sign as a reason for not saving another from and vigilance as threatening danger to the drowning, — that he had never been introrace of elephants. That this apprehensive duced to him. We should explain it by imagination is not mere senseless cowardice saying that the elephants attach a higher is shown by the fact that in other cases of superstitious or imaginative value to the artificial signs of human agency the ele- strict unities of elephantine States or na


tionalities, than to the immediate result of found depression. What this may

be life or death to any one such State or na- due to it is impossible to say, - possibly tionality. It is not a want of value for the some magnetic influence of the breath, power of organization. The wonderful de- possibly some feeling that the cold sensation scription of the placing of a picket by the which comes from you is a sign of displeasleader of a herd of elephants anxious to ure. So, too, many horses are said to be bathe near a human encampment, and the influenced in a very intense and inexplicaanxious generalship with which the leader ble manner by whispering in their ear, to examined his outposts, and himself surveyed which they attach, as the dog does to the the ground in advance, sufficiently proves puff of air from the mouth, some superstithis. Besides, whenever a herd of elephants tious signification. is at bay it always follows one leader, and if On the whole, all animals alike have that that leader is slain, follows the next, and so earlier and weaker form of imagination on till the last is left in isolation. The im- which we may call the conventional, which aginative insight into the value of organiza- makes them attribute a great over-importion is evidently fully possessed by the ele- tance to the regular and ordinary signs and phant. But with this positive and strong sometimes to extraordinary signs of either imagination he also combines that weakness danger, or hostility, or kindness, or displeasof imagination which exaggerates the value ure, and which makes them observe certain of particular conventions to which he is ac- laws and habits in the obedience to which customed ; and this prevents him from con- they have been brought up with an almost cluding a treaty of alliance with another superstitious nicety; in other words, they endangered herd, or elephantine nation, have precisely the kind of imagination of - in the hour of common peril ; — therein what the Germans call “ Philis ine” human inferior to some human Philistines, for did beings. But there are very rare signs of not even the Record combine with Dr. Pu- that higher imagination which distrusts and sey against the Essayists and Reviewers ? disbelieves the most conspicuous and ostenThe imaginative value for unity is exag- tatious signs of things, when there are gerated by him into the imaginative super- trifling but much more trust worthy signs of stition of exclusiveness, rather than violate a different condition of things to guide which he will perish. And the same imag- them. Elephants evidently, like many inative sensitiveness is shown in the nega- human beings, have an implicit faith in the tive form by the result to the nerves, and power which can raise a great noise and mind of an elephant of being thus separated dust, and no sufficiently sceptical elephant from his own State, and not allowed to join has yet arisen to teach them that these any other. Creatures so isolated are called things are usually symptoms rather of brag by the bunters “rogue elephants,” and al- and weakness than of real strength. They ways betray the vicious qualities of human have not the sceptical imagination which misanthropes. Their solitude so preys upon distrusts ostentatious symptoms, nor have them that, instead of sharing the generally they apparently the still higher imagination gentle, timid, and generous nature of the which can discover an order at the root of elep nt, they become insane, furious, and apparent disorder, a government and a purvicious, and are the dread of all the neigh- pose behind seeming confusion and anarchy. borhood in which they live. It is evidently The highest effort of purely creative imageven more true that it is not good for the ination of which we know in any animal is elephant to live alone,' than for man · him- that which induces it, for instanie, to feign self. Solitude distorts his imagination till death in order to escape captivity, of one it becomes quite morbid and destructive. instance of which in an elephant Sir EmerThe 66

rogue” elephant is even more dan- son Tennent tells us. The elephant in this gerous than the " rogue” politician who case, after capture, deliberately lay down acts with no party. The political Timons and so entirely suppressed all movement, are mildness itself to the elephantine Ti- that all his captors thought him dead, and

the lonely 'miselephants of the two of them leaned against the corpse, as Ceylon forests.

they thought it, while the others took off There are other animals besides the ele- the ropes. They had not advanced many phant which the imagination sometimes feet from the place where his body lay than paralyzes by its excitability. You will find he jumped up, and fled swiftly back to the with many dogs that while, for instance, jungle, with loud cries of excitement. In they delight in being blown about in a high cases like these the animal must clearly apwind, if you blow at them even in play they prehend that its captors can do nothing will exhibit every sign of horror and pro- | with it, and will be induced to abandon it,


if they believe it dead, and also must clear- | habits, — to which usually the imagination ly conceive what the signs of death are. of animals and of elephants, as the most This is the only case we can remember of docile of all animals, attaches too much animal imagination working counter to the importance. direction of immediate impressions and past

THE OLD ENGLISH CHRONICLERS. which ceased to be believed in when the rigidity Sometimes such chroniclers' tales of the super- of the conception they had formed of him benatural are more tragic, yet with a dash of the gan to be refined away. In reading story after grotesque in their tragedy. The cellarer of a story illustrative of the prodigious superstitions certain monastery had been defrauding the de- which the chroniclers recorded and shared funct members of their masses, in order to feed how, when Richard I. approached his father's more sumptuously the living brotherhood. One corpse, it began to bleed, and the Lion-Heart, time that he was passing the empty chapter- who feared nothing human, instantly wept with house, as he thought it, a voice that made his horror, like a child - in reading such things, flesh creep summoned him to come in. He en- we say, it is difficult to fancy how men breathed tered trembling, as well he might; for there sat freely or enjoyed life at all. But the truth is the dead abbot at the head of the table, with the that the counteracting elements were propordead monks around him, and the cowering sin- tionately vigorous. There was a very active ner who had robbed them was first rebuked and animal life, and a great deal of rude roystering then flogged: But the most awful stories are jollity, for one thing; while, of course, if one those in which the Devil and his subordinate set of superstitions stimulated fear, another set devils appear: sometimes dragging corpses from encouraged hope; and the Church was a vast their graves; sometimes vainly attempting to standing army against the powers of hell, just bully good and pious men; almost always tri- as the feudal militia was always ready for serumphant over those who by wickedness had be- vice at short notice against foreigners. The come their legitimate prey. The Devil was no point of view, then, from which the chroniclers abstraction, no principle of evil, no figure of regarded things in general was the antithesis of speech, in the days of the chroniclers, but a real the scientific one. They did not deal with ubiquitous being, ever on the watch to ruin “ causes,' tendencies, currents of opinion,” man, and endowed with indefinite powers of and so on, like the modern philosophical histometamorphosis for the purpose. All mischief rian, at all. With an ever-living sense of the that was done, was done Diabole suadente or continuous action of Infinite Power on human instigante ; and even in politics he was so influ- affairs, they hardly grasped at all the idea of ential that he fairly ranked as a European Pow- Law. They saw in Providence a force like er, like the Emperor or the King of France. that of the kings and barons under whom they Long after the dates of which we have been lived, striking in at every moment to do justice chietly speaking, that is, the eleventh, twelfth, in some incomprehensible way; and they saw and thirteenth centuries, Luther habitually such special intervention in a thousand cases talked of the Devil along with the Pope and in which nobody now would venture to say that the Turk, as the chief of a kind of Triple Alli- he sees anything but the operation of general ance. This materialistic view, so to speak, of principles long since recognised as universal the Enemy is the real explanation of the intense and unchangeable. Cornhill Magazine. credulity of our ancestors about witchcraft,

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