or chain, the carriage will with great ease be progressively expanded for use, and kept in that state. By fixing "the horse on the ring 6, the carriage will in like manner be contracted, and kept so. Any other width may be had by a bar from 11 to 11. The square frame is composed of four pieces of wood, of such a length as to admit of an expansion of the intended width; they are fixed to each other by a bolt at all the angles marked 8, as are the two bars marked 33; so that every point of contact has a free motion. The whole frame is fixed to the axle-tree at 7,

By this frame, &c. the carriage may be expanded or contracted with ease and at pleasure to answer any road, or to cultivate any given width of ground at once going over. The driver is to ride, and the horses and wheels to go in the furrows; thus do much more work, and in a better manner, with less injury to the soil and grain than by any method now in use.

This invention may be applied to a one horse chaise, taxed cart, &c. where the roads are bad, as such chaise, &c. could contract or expand so as to run within or without the old ruts; for which purpose the frame might be made circular, which would be a more pleasing form, and as slight as possible.

I am, Gentlemen,
Yours, &c.




Description of an Apparatus to secure Persons from sink.

ing in Water, or to act as a Life Preserver when shipwrecked. By Mr. F. C. DANIEL, of Wapping.

With an Engraving. From the TRANSACTIONs of the Society for the Encou: ragement of Arts, MANUFACTURES, and COMMERCE. The Gold Medal of the Society was voted to Mr. DANIEL

for this Intention. A, Fig. 2 (Plate XIII.) represents the body of the machine, which is double throughout, made of pliable waterproof leather, large enough to admit its encircling the body of the wearer, whose head is to pass betwist the two fixed straps, B B, which rest upon the shoulders ;

the armsof the wearer pass through the spaces on the outside of the straps ; one on each side, admitting the machine under them io encircle the body like a large hollow belt; the strap, C, on the lower part of the machine, is ata tached to the back of it, and by passing betwist the thighs of the wearer, and buckling at D, holds the machine sufficiently firm to the body, without too much pressure under the arms. The machine being thus fixed, is inflated with air by the wearer blowing in from his lungs through the cock E, a sufficient quantity of air to fill the machine, which air is retained by turning the stop-cock. The machine when filled with air, will displace a sufficient quantity of water to prevent four persons from sinking under water.

Mr. Daniel recommends his life preservers to be prepared as follows : viz. To select sound German horsebides, and to cut a piece six feet long, and two feet six inches wide, free from blemish or shell; it is first to be curried, and then rendered water-proof by Moller


stein's patent varnish, of Osborn-street, Whitechapel, which preserves the leather more supple, and admits it to be easier inflated than any other water-proof leather *.

The leather is nailed on a board, and the varmish applied upon it; it is then to be passed into an oven several times, the varnish being each time repeated, till the leather is completely covered; it is then cut out in the form of a jacket, as above described, and neatly and firmly. stitched; the seams and stitches are afterwards to be perfectly secured by the following black elastic varnish.

H.-Gum asphaltum, two pounds; amber, half a pound; gum benzoin, six ounces; linseed-oil, two pounds; spirits of turpentine, eight pounds; and lampblack, half a pound; united together in an earthen ves, sel with a gentle heat.

The machine, when properly made according to the drawing and description, resembles a broad belt, or. circular girdle, cumposed of two folds of pliable leather attached together, and perfectly impervious to water. When used, the wearer introduces his head. and arms within the circle, the stop-cock in front, the two fixed straps E E rest. one upon each shoulder, to prevent the belt from sinking down; the lower strap C, is then brought between the thighs, and buckled in front, which prevents the machine from being forced back; the machine is then inflated by the applie çation of the mouth to the stop-cock in front, and when properly filled, the turning of the cock retains the air in the machine, and expands it so much as to displace a quantity of water so great, as to sustain the wearer, and a further weight, if necessary, buoyant in the water.

See specification inserted in the seventh volume of the present series, page 165.


I owe

The following Letters in Commendation of the Life Pre

server have been received by Mr. DANIEL. Copy of a Letter from Mr. GEORGE WILLERS, late Surgeon of the Alert Private Ship of War, lost off the Western Islands,

Sir, I am happy in having it in my power to say, my life to your invaluable invention, the life preserver; and the circumstances relative thereto are as follow : I shipped as surgeon on board the Alert private ship of war, mounting 18 guns, and 98 men, coinmanded by James Desormeaux, esq. belonging to Messrs. Wright and Birch, Walbrook. We sailed for Falmouth, April 1805, and, after cruising five months, on the 22d of September we unfortunately struck on a rock in the Western Islands, and the ship went to pieces in five minutes ; at that time we had eignty-four men on board : I witnessed the loss of every officer, six in number, and sixty-four foremast men ; thirteen of the crew were saved, by clinging to pieces of the wreck, spars, &c. which drifted from the wreck; and I have the happiness to say, by possessing one of your life preservers (though I cannot swim,) I was supported for some time, the sea running mountains high, but providentially a large Portuguese boat put off to my assistance, being then near a mile from the shore ; and I was thus saved by the hands of Providence, and your invention, from a watery grave.

I beg, Sir, you will permit me to acknowledge how much I feel myself obliged to you; and you are at full liberty to make this case known for the benefit of mankind. I am, Sir, your most obedient servant,


Sir, Mr. George Willers, late surgeon of the Alert prirate ship of war, and whom I succeeded as a surgeon in Mansion House-row, Kennington, in April 1807, went, as I have been informed, again to sea some time in the month of July or August following.

I have in my possession an engagement wrote by Mr. Willers, and which I have compared with the letter sent to Mr. Daniel, of Wapping, by him, giving an account of his happy escape from drowning, by means of his life-preserver; and I have no hesitation in saying, that the letter is in Mr. Willers's hand-writing, so far as comparison will guide me, having seen him write and sign the engagement above mentioned.

I have the honour to be, &c. &c. HUGH BROWN.

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Copy of a Letter from JOHN DICKENSON, Esq. of the

City of Norwich, to Mr. DANIEL. Sir, I intended myself the pleasure of calling on you, and acquainting you personally of a singular incident, when the excellence of your machine, or life-preserver, was most conspicuously manifested.

I went from the city of Norwich, in a pleasure-boat that I keep for the amusement of sailing, in company with a gentleman and two ladies. As our return to Norwich, in the evening, was indispensible, and the direction of the wind favouring us both ways, a few hours would effect it, the distance being only thirty miles; accordingly we set sail about foar o'clock, it being moon-light during the night; and fortunately procured, in case of accident" (the wind blowing hard at South-east) one of your life-preservers, through the interest of a friend, of a captain, who had purchased one at Newcastle. The precaution pfoted, in a short time VOL. XIH. SECOND SERIES. Ss


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