LITTELL'S LIVING AGE.—No. 372.—5 JULY, 1851.



From the Edinburgh Review. little to the north of the Great Wall, in Eastern Souvenirs d'un Voyage dans la Tartarie, le Thibet, pointed by their spiritual superior to make their

Tartary, at the commencement of 1844, were apet la Chine, pendant les Années 1844, 1845, et 1846. Par M. Huc, Prêtre Missionaire de la way as well as they could through Western TarCongregation de St. Lazare. 2 vols. Paris: tary to Lhassa, the capital of Thibet, and the holy

see of Lamanism. This might look, at first sight, 1850.

like taking the bull by the horns. The reader will About the end of 1846, Mr. Alexander Johnston, find, however, to his surprise, that all the opposison of the late Sir Alexander, and secretary to her tion they experienced was not ccclesiastical, but majesty's minister plenipotentiary in China, was lay-not religious, but political; and that while fellow-passenger on board the steamer from Hong- they received every encouragement and hospitality Kong to Ceylon with a French Lazarist Missionary, from the Lama's government, they were baffled, named Joseph Gabet. It appeared that M. Gabet and at length expelled, by the exertions of the was then on his way from China to Paris, intend- Chinese resident, or ambassador, Ke-shen. ing, should circumstances be favorable on his ar- In China a Romish bishop or priest is obliged to rival, to bring under the notice of the French gov- pass himself off, as well as he can, for a native, in ernment the ill treatment which he himself and a the lay dress of the country ; but they were now brother missionary had experienced at Lhassa, going to enter a nation of priests, and therefore from Ke-shen, resident on the part of the Emperor prepared to disguise themselves as Lamas. Off of China at the court of the Grand Lama. Some went the tail, which had been cherished ever since of our readers will recognize in this name that of their departure from France, leaving the head enthe Imperia! Commissioner who was opposed to tirely shaven. A long yellow robe was fastened Captain Elliot, in 1839, at Canton ; and who, on on the right side by five gilt battons; it was drawn account of the disasters which befell the Chinese round the waist by red girdle. Over this was arms, was disgraced, plundered, and even con- worn a short red jacket, without sleeves; or, as demned to death by the emperor, but has since, they call it in Chinese," a back and breast;' have with marvellous expedition, contrived to regain ing a narrow collar of purple velvet. A yellow nearly all his former honors and credit, and even a hat with broad brim, and surmounted by a red silk greal portion of his foriner wealth, which was button, finished off their new costuine.

Their only colossal, as we shall see. Mr. Johnston found the attendant was a young Mongol neophyte, named narrative of M. Gabet so curious and interesting, as Samdadchiemba, who is thus described :-“Un nez the most recent and authentic account of Thibet in large et insolemment retroussé, une grande bouche its relation to China, that he noted down the prin- fendue en ligne droite, des lèvres épaisses et sailcipal heads at the time, and, on returning to his lantes; un teint fortement bronzé, tout contribuait official post, presented the manuscript to Sir John à donner à sa physionomie un aspect sauvage et Davis, who forwarded a copy in his despatches to dédaigneux." This Tartar Adonis had charge of Lord Palmerston.

two camels and a white horse, which, with a tent Nothing more was heard about the matter, until and a dog to guard it, completed the equipment of the appearance of these two volumes, by M. Huc, our adventurous missionaries for the desert. They the companion of M. Gabet in all his adventures. had no other guide for their route than a compass A more interesting as well as diverting book has and a map of the Chinese empire, published in. seldom issued from the French press. The quali- Paris. fications of a Humboldt are not to be expected in a The apprehensions expressed by the friends, missionary priest. And though it should contribute whom they left behind, regarding what they might nothing to the geographer or savant, we might well suffer in the journey to Lhassa, were fully anbe grateful for its information regarding countries swered in the event. M. Gabet well-nigh sank nearly inaccessible to Europeans; but this in- under the extreme hardships of this savage and formation is conveyed in such an inexhaustible nomadic life; first across an inhospitable desert,. strain of good humor, and fun, as amply to repay and then over mountains to which the Alps are: the perusal of any class of readers. In these points trifles. From plunder they escaped tolerably free, M. Huc bears some resemblance to his English though the Mongol robbers would seem to be the namesake, Theodore, as we may almost call him. civilest in the world. Instead of rudely clapping

Some eight years before the late " Papal Ag-a pistol to your breast, they blandly observe, gression,' His Holiness of Rome took a rather“ Venerable elder brother, I am tired of going smaller liberty with the Emperor of China, by ap- a-foot, please to lend me your horse ; I am without pointing a vicar apostolic to Mongol Tartary. The money, do give me the loan of your purse; it is next thing was to ascertain, if possible, the extent very cold to-day, let me have the use of your coat.” and nature of this gigantic vicariat. However If the venerable elder brother has the charity to dreadful the intolerance and oppression under comply, he is duly thanked; but, if not, the humble which Romish priests groan among us, they are a appeal is supported by the cudgel; and, should this good deal worse off in the Celestial Empire ; and not do, by something more coercive still. Very yet there, strange to say, they are as quiet as little better than the professional robbers were any. lambs, and the government seldom hears of them, bands of Chinese soldiers with whom they might except when some stray missionary is detected and have the bad luck to fall in, and whose neighborpacked off to the coast, for foreign shipment. MM. hood, therefore, they diligently shunned. During Gabet and Huc, who happened to be residing a the war with England, on the north-east coast, these


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ragamuffin troops were so dreaded by their own posted himself in the rear of his troops. There, armed countrymen that, when the process of civilized with a long sword, he pressed his troops into action, warfare came to be known and understood by the cutting down without mercy such as were cowardly Chinese people, the latter often welcomed us as enough to fall back. This appears to be an odd style deliverers, and their satisfaction was increased of commanding an army, but those who have lived when the public granaries were thrown open to among the Chinese will see that the military genius them for nothing.

of General Yang was founded upon knowledge of Our missionaries had a characteristic account of the war with England from a Tartar, whom they His tactics certainly did not succeed against our met in the desert :

troops, and as he never made his appearance, it is “What, were all the Tartar banners called to supposed that he occupied his favorite place of gether?”—“Yes, all. At first it passed for a very

honor at the tail of the rear guard, and led gallanily small matter ; every one said it would never reach us.

“We have asked,” says M. Huc, The troops of Kitat* (China) went first of all, but * of several mandarins why the Batourvu Yang had they did nothing. The banners of Solón also marched, not exterminated the English ; all have answered but they could not resist the heat of the south. The that it arose from his compassion." ' emperor then sent us his sacred order.

On We have a terrible description in these volumes the same day we marched to Peking, and from Peking of Tartar uncleanliness, and several of the details on we went to Tien-tsin, where we remained three this subject are quite unpresentable. The dogma ·months.”_" But did you fight-did you see the of the transmigration of souls acts, it seems, with enemy?"-"No ; he did not dare to show himself. some as a protection to the vermin with which they The Chinese protested everywhere that we marched to are infested. The interior of their tenis is repulcertain and unavailing death. •What can you do,' sive and almost insupportable to those unaccustomed said they, against these sea-monsters ? —They live to the odors that prevail there. Diriy as the in the waters like fish. When least expected, they Chinese may be, their northern neighbors far exappear on the surface, and throw combustible balls of iron. When the bow is bent against them they take ceed them; the former at least have taken it upon again to the water like frogs.' Thus it was they tried themselves to settle the question, by calling ihe to frighten us, but we soldiers of the eight banners latter Chow Ta-tsze, “ stinking Tariars," as sysare ignorant of fear. The emperor had provided each tematically as they call Europeans “foreign devils.” leader a Lama instructed in medicine, and initiated This clever and indefatigable, but not too scruin all the sacred auguries. They would cure us of pulous, race, have nearly displaced the Manchows the diseases of climate, and save us from the magic of in their original country to the north-east of the the sea-monsters—what then need we fear? The rebels, Great Wall, and almost as far as the river Saghaon hearing that the invincible troops of Tchakar ap- lien.* The Chinese are the inen of business and proached, were seized with alarm, and asked for peace. shopkeepers in all towns, and have very little mercy The sacred master (Shing-chu) of his immense mercy on the comparatively honest and simple Tartars. granted it, and then we returned to our pastures, and It is impossible to help laughing at the stories of to the charge of our flocks."

their ingenious rascality. They are in fact the It is known for certain that when the British chevaliers d'industrie-the Scapins and Mascarilles force had reached Nanking and the grand canal in of Eastern Asia. M. Huc, in the following pas1842, the emperor so fully expected a visit at sage, gives an account of their tricks, which might Peking that he stationed a force at Tien-tsin, as have applied very closely to the way in which they stated by the Tartar, and made every preparation treated our poor sailors in the south of China :to decamp into Tarlary himself. In the confusion

When the Mongols, an honest and ingenuous race of packing up, some dexterons persons contrived to

as ever was, arrive in a trading town, they are immerob the treasury of several millions, and to this day diately surrounded by Chinese, who carry them off the culprits have never been, detected. The parties home as it were by force. Tea is prepared, their considered responsible, however, were, with all beasts looked to, a thousand little services rendered. their relations and connexions, 'macie answerable They are caressed, fattered, magnetized, in short. for the restoration of the treasure to the third and The Mongols, who have nothing of duplicity in their fourth generation. Without adverting to this cir- own character, and suspect none in others, end by cumstance, M. Huc observes, in another place, that being moved and touched by all these kindnesses. during the progress of the war with the English, They take ip sober earnest all the professions of nous savions que l'empereur était aux abois, et

devotion and fraternity with which they are plied, qu'il ne savait où prendre l'argent nécessaire pour had the good fortune to meet with people they can

and, in a word, persuade themselves that they have empêcher de mourir de faim une poignée de soldats confide in. Aware, inoreover, of their own inaptitude qui étaient chargés de veiller à l'intégrité du terri- for commercial dealings, they are enchanted at finding toire Chinois."

brothers-- Ahatou, as they call it—who are so kind as The most distinguished hero, sent by the empe- to undertake to buy and sell for them. A good dinner ror to exterminate the English during our war, was gratis, which is served in a room to the rear, always a Chinese general named Yang. This man had ends by persuading them of the entire devotion of the enticed the unfortunate Mahomedan chief, Jehang- Chinese confederacy. “ If these people were interhir, in the war with Cashgar, to trust himself in ested,” says the honest Tartar to himself, “ if they his hands, and then sent him in a cage to Peking, wished to plunder ine, they would hardly give me where, after amusing the emperor, he was cruelly such a good dinner for nothing; they would not put to death. M. Huc heard the following account expend so much money on me. It is generally at this of Yang's tactics :

first repast that the Chinese bring into play all that

their character combines of villany and trickery. As soon as the battle began he tied his beard in two On in possession of the poor Tartar, he never eslarge knots, to keep it out of his way; and then capes. They serve him with spirits in excess, and

* Thus, the Chinese town at Moscow is called * Maintenant on a beau parcourir la Mantchourie Kitaigorod, and Marco Polo always calls China ka- jusqu'au fleuve Amour. C'est tout comme si on thay, anglicè, Kathai.

voyagait dans quelque province de Chine,

make him drink till he is fuddled. Thus they keep! Polygamy, abolished by the gospel, and contrary in possession of their victim for three or four days, never itself to the happiness and peace of families, should, losing sight of him, making him smoke, drink, and perhaps, be considered as a good for the Tartars. In eat ; while they sell his live stock, and purchase for the actual state of their society, it acts as a barrier to him whatever he may want, charging him generally the libertinage and corruption of manners. Celibacy double or triple for everything.

being imposed upon the Lamas, and the class which

shaves the head, and lives in the lamaseries, being sa M. Huc puts in a strong light that appropriation numerous, if the daughters could not place themselves to themselves of Manchow, or Eastern Tartary, in families in the rank of secondary wives, it is easy (the country of their last conquerors,) which has to imagine the disorders which would arise from this been effected by the Chinese within something more multiplicity of young women left to themselves withthan a century, and to which we have already out support. alluded. In a map of this country, constructed by The married state, however, is anything but the the Jesuits, Père Duhalde states his reason for in- conjugal, in the literal and derivative sense of the serting the Tartar names, and not the Chinese. term. The husband can send back the lady to her “Of what use," says he, “ would it be to a travel parents without even assigning a reason.

He is ler in Manchouria to know that the river Saghalien quits by the oxen, the sheep, and the horses which is called by the Chinese -loung-Keang, (river he was obliged to give as the marriage present ; of the Black Dragon,) since he has no business and the parents, it seems, can sell the same merwith them, and the Tarlars, with whom he has to chandise over again to a second bidder! deal, know nothing of this name?". “ This obser

Our travellers, in their progress westward, had to vation might be true in the time of Kanghy," says cross the Yellow River more than once where it M. Huc, " when it was made, but the very opposite makes a bend northwards through the Great Wall is the fact at present; for the traveller in Manchou- and back again, enclosing in this curve an area of ria now finds that he has to deal with China, and some three degrees square, the miserably waste it is of the -loung-Keang that he hears, and not and sandy country of the Orious. Unhappily for of the Saghalien.' In our own colonies, the the poor missionaries, this ruthless and ungainly rapidly increasing numbers and wealth of the stream (which a late emperor justly called China's Chinese, where they exist, are apt to give them a sorrow") was in its frequent condition of overflow, degree of presumption which, with the aid of their and we have a pitiable description of the miseries vices, might make them troublesome, were it not endured by themselves and their camels, of all for the wholesome dread they entertain of European beasts the least adapted to deal with foods. The power, wherever they happen to be really acquainted waters of the Yellow River, pure and clear at their with it.

source among the Thibet mountains, do not assuno M. Huc explains how Thibet, and even Mongol their muddy tinge until they reach the alluvial tracts Tartary, to a considerable extent, is a nation of of the Ortous, where they spread over thousands Lamas. He says he may venture to assert that in of acres during the inundations, altogether concealMongolia they form at least a third of the whole ing the bed of the stream. Being from this point population. In alınost every family, with the ex- always nearly on a level with the country through ception of the eldest son, who remains homme which they now, this defect of encaissement is the noir,"* all the rest of the males are destined to be cause of disastrous accidents, when the rapid stream Lamas. Nothing can be more obvious than the is swollen by melting snows near its source. The fact that, in China Proper, Buddhism and its same velocity, which charges the river thickly with temples are in ruins, and the priests left in a starv-comminuted soil, prevents its deposition on the ing condition ; while, on the other hand, the passage until it reaches the provinces of Honan and government gives every encouragement to Laman- Keangnan, where the actual bed of the river is now ism in Tartary. The double object is said to be higher than a great portion of the immense plain thus to impose a check on the growth of the popu- through which it runs. This evil being continually lation, and at the same time render that population aggravated by further depositions of inud, a fearful as little warlike as possible. The remembrance of catastrophe seems to overhang that unfortunate the ancient power of the Mongols haunts the court region at the same time that the constant repair of Peking. They were once masters of the empire, of the dikes taxes the ingenuity, while it exhausts and, to diminish the chances of a new invasion, the the treasury, of the Chinese government. Sir John study is now to weaken them by all possible means. Davis offered to the minister Keying, a relation of

With this large proportion of the male popula- the emperor, the aid of English engineers in an tion condemned to celibacy, M. Huc gives us the emergency where science could scarcely fail of following reasons for his thinking that polygamy, beneficial results ; but he shook his head, and said under all the circumstances, is the best thing for he dared not even mention the subject. the Mongol Tartars.f It seems generally to have

The personal observations of M. Huc settle the existed in the pastoral and nomadic state.

question as to the real nature and amount of what * This is a distinguishing term for the Laity, who is called the “Great Wall” towards the west :wear their black hair, while the Lamas shave the We had occasion (he says) to cross it at more than whole head.

fifteen different points, and several times we travelled † M. Huc is here treating of the Mongol Tartars ; for whole days in the line of its direction, and kept it not of the Thibetians. Faiher Regis, in his memoir constantly in view. Often, in lieu of those double annexed to Duhalde, speaking of the polyandry of turreted walls, which exist near Peking, we met with Thibet, ştates expressly that the Tartars admit of no such irregularity.” Turner, Moorcroft, and Skin- my and polyandry: The Nair, we suspect, does not ner, found a plurality of sbands common at Tesboo limit himself to his coparcenary wife; and in the Loomboo, Ladak, and on the Himalayas. We found Mahabarat, although Draupadi is the wife of the Five it too in Ceylon, as Cæsar had found it in Britain. Pándus brothers, some of them-if not all-and Arjuna Barbarous as the custom seems to us, and inexplicable especially, have several other wives. But, in case M. by any supposed disproportion of the sexes, we perceive Huc found polyandry at Lhassa, in either form, the no more satisfactory explanation of its existence among omission is unaccountable. It must have been as the Thibetians, than among the Nairs in Malabar. great a novelty to a European, as the rumor of Mr. There is no incompatibility, it is true, between polyga- | Hodgson's "live unicorn."

nothing more than a simple piece of masonry, and to give us a proof of his sagacity, called upon us to sometimes a modest rampart of earth. We even say without hesitation whether we were not English: occasionally saw their famous wall reduced to its most and, to leave no doubt of the meaning of his question, simple expression, and composed solely of some heaped he added, that by Ing-kie-li, he meant the " seastones. *

devils" who had made war on Canton.—"No, we It may be observed, with reference to the land are not English ; and not devils of any kind, whether frontiers of the Chinese empire on the west, that of the sea or of the earth.” An idler came up, very the authority of the emperor, instead of abruptly tempestuous examination : “ You,” said he to the inn

luckily, just in time to remove the ill effect of this encountering the hard outline of an entirely inde- keeper, “ do not know how to look at the human form. pendent authority, is shadowed off by something How dare you pretend that these people are Yangof a blended jurisdiction. “ There exists in the Kan- kouei-tse ? Don't you know that they have all blue sou, and upon the frontiers of the province of Sse- eyes and red hair?"_“ You are right," said the innTchouan, many tribes who thus govern themselves, keeper, “ I had not considered it well.”—“ No, cerunder special laws. All bear the denomination of tainly,” added we, “you have not. Do you think Tou-sse, to which is added the family name of their that marine monsters could live upon land as we do, chief or sovereign.” (P. 36.) We find in another and ride on horseback ?”—“Oh, that's right, it is place that this prevails to the south-west, on the just so; the Ing-kie-li, they say, never dare to quit borders of Ava. “On the outskirts of the empire, the sea; as soon as they get on land they tremble and towards the west, are a number of towns or stations, die, like fish taken out of water.”—They talked much called Too-sse, or native jurisdictions,' where the of the manners and character of sen-devils, and after aborigines are more or less independent, and where all was said, it was settled that we were not at all of

the same race. ] there is, in fact, a kind of divided authority, each party being immediately subject to its own chiefs. These volumes contain the most detailed and This is particularly true of the Lolos.”The complete account of Lamanism that we remember Chinese, vol. i.

ever to have met with ; and they confirm, on the It is an odd result of our war with China, that authority of these Romish priesis themselves, the something of the same principle should have been astonishing resemblance that exists between the established by treaty at the Five Ports of trade on external rites and institutions of Buddhism and the opposite side of the empire. British subjects those of the Church of Rome. Besides celibacy, are there entirely independent of the Chinese law, fasting, and prayers for the dead, there are enshrined and governed by their own consuls, who act under relics, holy water, incense, candles in broad day, ordinances framed by the governor and legislative rosaries of beads counted in praying, worship of council of Hong-kong, confirmed by her majesty in saints, processions, and a monastic habit resembling council. The inference from the frequency of these that of the mendicant orders. Although our “native jurisdictions" is, that Chinese law, as worthy missionaries call the images of Lamanism adıninistered towards foreigners, becomes intoler- idols, and the Romish idols images, we do not think able ; so at least it proved at Canton.

the distinction is worth much, and therefore inay It would be a pity to spoil the following passage throw in this item with the rest; the more especby a translation :

ially as, on the summary principle of “inveniam Notre aubergiste, un Chinois pur-sang, pour nous

viam, aut faciam," the commandment against idol donner une preuve de sa sagacité, nous demanda sans

worship has been thrust bodily out of their Decatergiverser si nous n'étions pas Anglais ; et pour ne

logue by the Romanists, as may be seen from any laisser aucun doute à sa question, il ajouta qu'il enten- copy of the Missal. It is remarkable that these dait par Ing-kie-li les " diables marins," qui faisai- very missionaries had an image made for their own ent la guerre à Canton. Non, nous ne sommes pas adoration, from a European model, at a place on Anglais; nous autres, nous ne sommes diables d'au- their journey where a huge image of Buddha had cune façon, ni de mer, ni de terre. Un dés@uvré vint just been cast, and sent off to Lhassa. (Vol. i., fort à propos détruire le mauvais effet de cette inter- p. 41.) Thus the object of their worship was a pellation intempestive.—Toi, dit-il à l'aubergiste, tu molten image, the work, not only of men's, but ne sais pas regarder les figures des hommes. Comment oses-tu prétendre que ces gens là sont des Yang- Buddhism or Romanism.

pagan hands, employed indifferently for either kouei-tse ? Est-ce que tu ne sais pas que ceux-ci ont

It is at once curious, and an instructive lesson to les yeux tout bleus, et les cheveux tout rouges. C'est unprejudiced minds, to observe that M. Huc, while juste, dit. l'aubergiste, je n'avais pas bien réfléchi:-- he indulges in pleasantries at the expense of the Non, certainement, ajoutảmes-nous, tu n'avais pas bien Buddhists, entirely forgets how applicable his réfléchi. Crois-tu que des monstres marins pourraient, commes nous, vivre sur terre, et seraient capables d'al- sarcasms are to his own side of the question. After ler à cheval?—Oh, c'est juste, c'est bien cela ; les describing an assembly in a college of Lamas, Ing-kie-li, dit-on, n'osent jamais quitter la mer; aus- where the explanations given by the priests or sitôt qu'ils montent à terre, ils treinblent et meurent professors on certain points of their religion proved comme les poissons qu'on met hors de l'eau. On parla as vague and incomprehensible as the thing to be beaucoup des mæurs et du caractère des diables marins, explained, he adds, “ On est, du reste, convaincu et d'après tout ce qui en fut dit, il demeura demontré que la sublimité d'une doctrine est en raison dique nous n'étions pas du tout de la même race. recte de son obscurité et de son impénétrabilité."

[Our inn-keeper, a full-blooded Chinese, in order Let us only suppose M. Huc expounding to those * Père Gerbillon informs us, that beyond the Yellow Lamas the dogma of Transubstantiation, and addRiver, to its western extremity, (or for full one half ing, in testimony of its truth, that St. Ignatius of its total length,) the wall is chiefly a mound of Loyola, with eyesight sharpened by faith, declared earth or gravel, about fifteen feet in height, with only he actually saw the farinaceous substance change occasional towers of brick. Marco Polo's silence con- ing itself into flesh. “ Les hommes,'' observes our cerning it may therefore be accounted for on the suppo- author in another place, " sont partout les mêmes !” sition that, having seen only this imperfect portion, he did not deem it an object of sufficient curiosity to the devotees and recluses of Buddhism, are similar

The jokes in which M. Huc indulges, against deserve particu'ar notice, without the necessity of imagining that he entered China to the south of the to what have been repeated a thousand times with great barrier.—The Chinese, vol. i.

reference to those of Romanism :

This young Lama of eighty years old was a large pictures and tablets which conceal, without adornwell made fellow, whose lumbering and stout figure ing, the walls and pillars of many a church at seemed to prove a great consumption of butter, in his Rome, and not to think of strict seclusion. We could never see him put his nose out of his house door, without thinking of La

nam posse mederi

Picta docet templis multa tabella tuis. Fontaine's rat, who, out of devotion, had retired into a Dutch cheese.

To instance a higher department of art—as the old

artist, in painting his Venus, is said to have comThe monasteries of the Lamas, resembling as bined'" each look that charın'd him in the fair of they do in so many respects those of the Romanists, Greece," so the Italian painters have sometimes differ from them on soine few points. The mem- immortalized the features of their own mistresses bers are all subject to the same rule and the same in pictures, of saints and martyrs, intended to adorn discipline; but they do not seem to live to the same churches. extent in community ; and exclusive rights of

In its modern traits, as well as in its ancient, property prevail among them. Our missionaries Lamanism maintains its reserblance to Romanism. passed some months in these establishments. Besides Prodigies and miracles of constant occurrence come his holiness, the Supreme Lama at Lhassa, there are

to the aid of the priesthood, and maintain their inGrand Lamas, who derive their investiture from him, Auence over the stupid multitude. Some of the and descend from past ages in uninterrupted succes instances adduced are palpable cases of ingenious sion. With reference to one of these, it is ob- jugglery ; but M. Huc, with characteristic facility, served :

believes in the miracle, while he attributes it to the If the person of the Grand Lama drew little of our agency of the devil :admiration, it was not so with his dress, which was

A purely human philosopher would reject, without exactly that of bishops : he wore on his head a yellow doubt, such facts, or without hesitation would set mitre; a long staff in form of a crosier was in his them down as Laman tricks. As for us, Catholic right hand ; and his shoulders were covered with a missionaries, we believe that the great liar, who mantle of violet taffety, held over his breast by a deceived our first parents in Paradise, still carries on clasp, and in everything resembling a cope. After his system of lies; he who had the power of supportwards we noticed many resemblances between the

ing in the air Simon the sorcerer, may very likely Catholic worship and the ceremonies of the Lamans.

now speak to man by the mouth of a child, to M. Huc afterwards recapitulates as follows:

strengthen the faith of his worshippers.

Whatever Protestants may think and say of the The cross, the mitre, the dalmatic, the cope or charuble which the Grand Lamas wear in travelling, means by which the Romish Church has maintained or when they perform some ceremony outside the and extended its influence over the masses of mantemple, the service of two choirs, the psalmody, the kind, it is impossible to deny the thorough knowlexorcisms, the censer supported by five chains, edge of human nature on which all its measures opened or shut at pleasure ; the benedictions given by have been calculated. The same causes which the Lamas with the right hand stretched over the heads have aided it so long against the reforms of a purer of the faithful ; the chaplet ; the celibacy of the clergy; faith are likely to aid it much longer; and we the spiritual retreats ; the worship of saints; fasts ; really see very little chance of a change. The processions ; litany ; holy water ;-—see, in how many priesily array, the lighted taper, and the histrionic ways the Buddhists agree with us!

pantomime, are aided by smoking censers, graven He might have added, that they likewise have a images, and all the paraphernalia by which so goddess, whom they call Tien-how, literally regina been before distinguished. We entirely agree with

many temples of so many different religions have cæli, "Queen of Heaven;" but with a different M. Huc, that the Romish Church has a fair field for legend.

Our author very naturally endeavors to persuade proselytism in the vast regions where Buddhism at himself and his readers that by some process of present prevails. In external forms, the transition diablerie these things have been borrowed from his is the easiest possible ; and during his short resiown church ; but why should we do such violence blait toujours que la beauté de nos cérémonies eût

dence at Lhassa, he remarked :—“Il nous semto the subject, when there is the much easier, more intelligible, and more straightforward course of ag, puisamment sur ce peuple, si avide de tout ce deriving both from something older than either ; qui tient au culle extérieur.** and remaining persuaded, as most of us must have * In a book which bad belonged to a Romish misbeen long ago, that the Pagan rites and Pontifex sionary in China was found this estimate written on Maximus of the modern Rome represent, in out

the fly-leaf in Italian :ward fashion, the paganism and Pontifex Maximus

“ Numbers included under different known relig

ionsof the ancient ? Strange to say, instead of blink

Catholic Apostolic Church of Rome, 139,000,000 ing the matter, a sort of parallel has often been

Schismatic Greek Church,

62,000,000 studiously preserved and paraded, as when the

Protestant Church and its branches, 59,000,000 Pantheon, the temple of “all the gods,” was consecrated by Pope Boniface to “ all the saints." Is

Total of Christianity,

260,000,000 it necessary for us to compare the annual sprinkling of horses with holy water to the like process at the Jews,

4,000,000 Circeusian games—the costly gifts at Loretto to the Mahometans,

96,000,000 like gifts at Delphi-the nuns to the virgines Hindoos,

60,000,000 sancte of old Rome -lhe shrines of " Maria in Buddhists,

170,000.000 trivjis" to the like rural shrines of more ancient

Confucianists and others,

147,000,000 idols — the flagellants (whose self-discipline Sancho

737,000,000 80 dexterously mitigated in his own case) to the practices of ihe priests of Isis ? In running the " The number of Buddhists is probably not overparallel, the only difficulty is where to stop. It is rated, considering that they extend from Japan to impossible to look at the innumerable votive | Lhassa, and from the confines of Siberia to Siam."

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