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devote a certain
advise their friends that they
Progressive Whist.-Invitations are sent out on "at home" cards with "Progressive Whist" written in one corner. The hours are usually from 8 to 12. An equal number of ladies and gentlemen should be asked. When the guests arrive they are offered tea and coffee, and the host or hostess introduces each gentleman to the
lady who is to be his first partner. The partner-
THE ETIQUETTE OF MOURNING The following are the periods of mourning generally observed, but all of them may be slightly shortened if desired.
Widowers.-A widower should wear mourning for two years.
Widows.-A widow wears mourning for two years; crape for a year and nine months; plain black for the remaining period. The entire dress is made of crape for the first year, after that the dress is trimmed with bands of crape.
Very few now wear the widow's bonnet for longer than a year.
Widows' caps are out of fashion except for old people, and very few wear the white lawn collars and cuffs which used once to be de rigueur. If adopted for the first month they are generally cast aside afterwards.
Parents.-Their children should wear mourning for a year, and crape should be worn for half the time; after that plain black for four months and half-mourning for two.
Sons and Daughters.-The same as for parents viz., crape for six months, black for four months, and half-mourning for two.
Mourning for Infants.-The mourning worn is never extreme, though the loss is perhaps heavier than any. Black is worn for three months, but some people prefer to retain it for double that time. Crape is not worn for infants or young children.
AND FUNERALS. Brother or Sister.-Crape for three months, plain black for two, half-mourning for one. Grandparents. Crape for three months, plain black for two, half-mourning for one. The period used once to be nine months, but now it is seldom extended beyond six.
Uncle or Aunt.-Three months. Plain black for two months, half-mourning the rest of the time. Nephew or Niece.-Plain black for two months, half-mourning for one month.
Uncle or Aunt by Marriage.-Six weeks, plain black.
Great Uncle or Great Aunt.-Black for one month.
First Cousin.- Black for a month or six weeks as preferred.
Second Cousin.-Three weeks; plain black is sufficient.
A Stepmother. The correct period for mourning is six months.
Relations by Marriage.-A woman should wear mourning for her husband's relations for exactly the same time as though they were her own, and vice versa. Good feeling and etiquette are here entirely at one.
Mourning rings are quite out of fashion, and the same may be said of memorial cards. There is no occasion to wear black when paying a visit of condolence, though it does not look in good taste to go brightly clad.
WIDTH OF BORDERS ON NOTE PAPERS.
Italian. Narrow. Middle. Broad. Funerals.-Invitations to a funeral should be printed in plain style on white cards, with border of moderate width, the old-fashioned pictorial, lugubrious cards with deep border being quite out of date. The cards are usually sent out by the undertaker, who also, on the day of the funeral, will attend to all details of arrangement. hearse should be simple in every way, drawn by two, or at most four, horses, without feathers or other ostentatious trappings. Brown or bay horses should be used for the mourning carriages. The order in which the mourners are to be conveyed to the place of interment should be
arranged beforehand. One of the first carriages should convey the officiating minister. The custom of returning to the house for a set meal is quite out of date; light refreshments are served either before starting or on the return; nothing more is now necessary. Memorial and "return thanks" cards are sent out directly after the funeral. The blinds should be kept down till the funeral cortège has left the residence. White is generally used at the funerals of children. The hours for burials in cemeteries, unless otherwise arranged, are-April 1 to September 30, 10 to 6, and for the rest of the year, ro to 3.
TO READ GAS AND ELECTRIC METERS. Every householder will find it advantageous to examine the figures of his Gas or Electric Light Meter at frequent intervals. This is quite an easy matter, and a very few words will suffice to make it clear. The dials of a Gas meter are generally arranged thus:
C. TEN THOUSANDS.
Dials of Gas Meter.
The figures on Dial A represent hundreds up to 1,000; on Dial B, thousands up to 10,000; on Dial C, tens of thousands up to 100,000 cubic feet of gas consumed.
The hand on Dial A, therefore, represents a consumption of 100 cubic feet; B, 1,000 cubic feet; C, 30,000 cubic feet; total Consumption 31,100 cubic feet.
The figures as they stand in the diagram would be recorded thus 311 and two ciphers being added for the hundreds, the result is 31,100.
When the next record is taken let us suppose that the reading is 52,700; from this is to be deducted the amount of the previous record (as above), and the difference-21,600-is the number of cubic feet of gas consumed in the interim.
Should the amount registered appear to be considerably in excess of the amount consumed, there is a leakage somewhere in the pipes or else the meter is out of order. A search for the escape should at once be made, though not with a light, as is too often done, with the frequent consequence of disastrous explosions. The sense of smell should be called into requisition as a-detective agent. When the disspot is
covered, the gas must be turned off and the pipe repaired. At the top of the meter just over the indicating dials there is usually a smaller dial showing single feet.
only for one quarter, even though the meter may have been registering wrongly ever since it was set up.
From the accompanying illustration it will be seen that the dials of an electric meter are similar to those of a gas meter, and are read with equal facility.
The reading of the accompanying figure is 9,248. The o ooo dial is not taken down, because the representing 10,000 is not quite reached; and it will be noticed that all the dials are read in a similar way, that is, the figure that the index has just passed is the one to be read, and not the figure which the index is approaching.
all the burners in the house are turned off and the pointer in this dial watched, any escape of gas will
Electric meters register either in 66 hours," "lamp-hours." or watts. In the case of ampere-hour or lamp-hour meters the reading represents the total number of ampere-hours or lamphours which have been consumed, and some account would have to be taken of the pressure of the supply to convert this reading into Board of Trade units. A Watt-meter measures directly in Board of Trade units, and has the advantage of giving the consumer the benefit of any falling off there may be in the supply pressure, which is not the case in the other two forms of meters.
Electric Meter Register.
cause a forward movement of the pointer. And it should not be forgotten that an escape of one foot per hour equals 8,760 feet in a year.
But should the meter seem to be the culprit, the only thing to do is to send it to the nearest testing place of the County Council, where it will be examined for the small charge of one shilling. The householder has to pay the cost of conveying it to and from the Office of the County Council. On receiving their official notice that the meter registers so much per cent. over and above the actual consumption, the paper on which this intimation is made must be forwarded to the Gas Company, and they will make a proportionate reduction, but
If the accompanying figure were the dial of a Watt-meter it would be read as 924 8 Board of Trade units. In some of the older forms of Watt-meters this reading would have to be multiplied by the constant K = 4 (see figure) to get the correct total amount of electric power consumed. The constant was introduced to obviate the necessity for running the meter at high speeds, but in the latest type of Watt-meter this multiplication is effected in the gearing, and the reading off the dial is correct in itself.
THE FAMILY DOCTOR.
By DR. E. P. PHILPOTS, M.D., F.R.G.S. USEFUL NOTES FOR EMERGENCIES.
Abdomen-Injuries to.-May arise from rupture of some internal organ. In some cases collapse follows, and internal bleeding may prove fatal. Brandy for extreme collapse. Empty the bladder, and if micturition is suspended use a catheter. Put patient in bed. Apply ice to abdomen.
Ague-or intermittent fever. This disease is usually accompanied by an enlarged spleen. During the cold stage of an attack, give warm diluent drinks, apply warm blankets and bottles to feet, hot-air baths, &c. During hot stage, give cooling drinks, sponge the body with tepid water. In sweating stage, rest, and the free use of tepid diluent drinks. Removal from the district is advisable.
Apoplexy-Symptoms: Pain in head. Patient suddenly falls down, face flushed, is insensible, pulse full and rather slow, sometimes sickness and vomiting come on, оссаsionally paralysis. Cold sweats, stertorous breathing, involuntary micturition. Treatment -Take to a cool well-ventilated room, oosen clothes. Cold to head, stimulating and purgative enemata. Blisters to scalp. Mustard foot baths. Emetics if stomach overloaded. If face be very turgid, bleed, but this with caution.
Asthma. During the paroxysm relief may be obtained by inhaling the fumes of "Himrod,
some preparation containing the leaves of datura tatula mixed with nitre. Severe cases are relieved by inhaling a few drops of chloroform. An antispasmodic draught containing spirit of ether, sumbul, ammonia, and dilute hydrocyanic acid will often relieve.
Bites and stings-poisonous.-DOG BITES. -It is some satisfaction to know that all "mad dogs are not hydrophobically so, and that distemper madness makes dogs more frantic than does rabies pure and simple. If you have reason to believe that the dog that has bitten is suffering from rabies, tightly bandage or ligature above and below the bite; the wounded part should then be entirely excised, taking care to cut out every part that has come in contact with the animal's teeth, expose the wound to a stream of cold water, and thoroughly cauterize the edges with lunar caustic. It is well after this to be inoculated after the method of M. Pasteur; the earlier this is done the better. (See also Snake Bites.)
STINGS may be treated with a strong solution of liquid ammonia in water; the sting must be extracted if the insect has left it in. A good hot poultice will relieve the inflammation. A sting on the tongue from a wasp concealed in fruit is a dangerous form of sting, and medical advice should at once be obtained.
Bleeding-To arrest.-Severe bleeding coming in jerks from a wound shows that it is in relation to a severed artery. Tightly bandage the limb between the wound and the heart, apply cold, and get a surgeon to ligature the artery as soon as possible. Amongst styptics may be mentioned lunar caustic, blue vitriol, tannin, alum, and all astringents.
BLEEDING FROM THE LUNGS.-Lay the patient down. Let him suck ice freely (a doubtful remedy), give two grains of gallic acid, and a drachm of liquor of ergot of rye in an ounce of water every hour or half-hour. Keep the room cool and free from visitors, keep the patient as quiet as possible,
BLEEDING FROM THE NOSE.-Stuff up tannin, put ice up the nostril, inject a strong solution of alum up the nostril, apply cold to the spine. In severe cases plug the nostril from behind, this requires the skill of a surgeon to be a successful operation.
BLEEDING FROM THE BOWELS. - Astringent injections or suppositories.
Breathing- -suppressed.-This occurs in so many cases that under its heading would come Drowning, Asphyxia from poisonous gases or drugs, Hanging, Apoplexy, Syncope, Sunstroke, &c. It is sufficient therefore to bring under this heading the operation known as "artificial respiration,' which is resorted to in all cases where the patient's life is in danger from his inability to breathe.
1. Strip the body, rub it dry, wrap it in warm blankets and keep in a fairly warm room in the recumbent posture with the head slightly raised.
2. See the nostrils and mouth are free for breathing purposes, remove artificial teeth. 3. Apply heat by bladder or hot-water bottles to the pit of the stomach, armpits, between the thighs, and to the soles of the feet.
4. Rub the body with the hand to encourage circulation.
5. Raise the patient's arms above the head, pulling upon them to raise the walls of the chest, at the same time rotating the body on to the right side.
6. At the same time bend both knees, and make pressure on the back and front below the lungs.
7. Now roll the body on to the back or a little to the left side, at the same time bringing both arms to the side, and pressing them against the ribs and straightening the knees. 8. Remember that rules Nos. 5, 6, and 7 should take exactly five seconds, not less, and then be repeated. To work quicker than this is attended with danger, the idea being to bring about artificially what the patient is unable to accomplish.
9. As soon as the patient commences to breathe stop the operation.
Many recommend the application of a strong smelling bottle to the nose, some inflate the lungs through a nostril with a pair of bellows, others inject warm brandy and water into the stomach, but the great idea is to restore (a) animal heat, (b) the power to breathe, and (c) the circulation of the blood. Above all things do not give up trying to restore life simply because no good results appear to be forthcoming, for individuals occasionally take as long as four hours to be "brought to.
Bruises. Apply a lotion of spirits and water or tincture of arnica and water, or use ice. To allay the pain paint the bruised part (if no broken skin with equal parts of aconite, belladonna and opium liniments.
Burns and Scalds.-If patient collapse give 25 drops of laudanum with some warm brandy and water internally. Keep air from surface, do not disturb the burnt skin. Apply a lotion to the part, made of two parts of linseed oil, one part of lime water, and about one part in two hundred of carbolic acid--on cotton wool covered with
gutta-percha tissue or oil-silk. Prick any vesicles containing water. Some prefer dusting the affected part with flour, chalk, starch, or car
bonate of lead, if this plan is adopted do not interfere with the crust formed by the powder.
Catalepsy-is suddenly suppressed power of will and consciousness, and is best exemplified in mesmerism; it is usually met with in hysterical females. (See Hysteria.)
Cauterize-how to.-In case of a bite or poisonous wound chemical or actual cauteries may be used. The former include nitrate of silver, chromic acid, and the mineral acids. The latter simply means the application of a red-hot iron (e.g. the poker) to the affected part.
Cold-When overcome by the effects of.-The patient goes giddy, blind, weak and stiff in his limbs, his pulse falls, his respiration grows weak, he has an intense desire to sleep, and eventually dies from coma (see Coma). Employ friction to the body. Do not place him too rapidly under the influence of heat, give him a stimulating enema, and try to get him to swallow warm milk, coffee, or beef tea, with brandy.
Coma-is the result of cold as above, inflammation of the brain, apoplexy, epilepsy, blood poisoned by urine diabetes, opium taking, alcohol drinking, or direct injury. It is a state of stupor with loss of consciousness. Each form of coma has symptoms peculiar to the exciting cause of the attack.
Concussion of the Brain-is the result of some act of violence to the head, and results in collapse, sickness, and loss of all muscular power. Apply cold to the head, give a strong purgative, empty the bladder, keep the extremities warm, and if no signs of rallying come on, give stimulants.
Convulsions are involuntary contractions of the whole muscular system, usually accompanied by unconsciousness, are due to some internal cause affecting the nervous system. Under this head come Epilepsy, Hysteria, Lock-jaw, &c., which see.
Cough Mixture. For an irritating cough (for adults use oxymel of squills one ounce, tincture of tolu three drachms, white poppy syrup six drachms, ipecacuanha wine two drachms, mucilage one ounce, ammoniacum mixture up to eight ounces a teaspoonful or more for a dose.
Croup. Immediately the child is seized with the attack give from two to five drops of antimonial wine in water every ten or fifteen minutes, place it in a warm bath near a fire, and keep off all draught with a screen; after faintness comes on remove the child from the bath and place it on a hard bed where steam from a steam kettle can be freely admitted, to keep in which it is advisable to curtain the bed in. Generally speaking, after faintness and vomiting has been induced the attack goes off, but bad cases are relieved by the judicious inhalation of chloroform. (See also"Emetics.")
Death Tests.-Hold mirror to mouth. If living, moisture will gather. Push pin into flesh. dead the hole will remain, if alive it will close up. Place fingers in front of a strong light. If alive, they will appear red; if dead, black or dark.
Delirium Tremens.-Sleeplessness, a busy and non-violent delirium, trembling of hands, patient sees all kinds of horrid animals, &c., loss of appetite, pale and moist skin, &c. Give ice internally, induce the patient to eat any kind of nutrient and easily digested food. Fifteen grains of chloral may be given four times a day, or half a grain of morphia may be injected occasionally. Do not suddenly stop all stimulants, and keep patient quiet and well watched.
Diphtheria. No specific known, anti-toxin reatment recommended by some practitioners. External applications to the throat are useless, but a strong solution of perchloride of iron with
glycerine was tried with very good results during an epidemic of a virulent form of the disease to paint the throat with after the pellicles had formed.
Dislocations-of many of our joints require surgical skill to reduce, especially those of the thigh, the ankle, the wrist, and the elbow; they are usually reduced by firmly pulling the distorted joint in the long axis of the limb, and at the same time using lateral pressure to force the bones into their places. One of the commonest and one of the easiest dislocations to reduce is the shoulder joint. Place the patient on a chair, place another chair by his side, and let the operator place his foot upon raise the arm, let the knee go into the armpit, and pull the arm outwards and downwards forcibly, the operator's knee acting as the fulcrum, and the patient's elbow as the lever. Remember that all dislocations become more difficult to reduce as time lapses, therefore it is necessary to be prompt.
Drowning.-1. Loosen clothing, if any. Empty lungs of water by laying body on its stomach, and lifting it by the middle so that the head hangs down. Jerk the body a few times. 3. Pull tongue forward, using handkerchief, or pin with string, if necessary, 4. Imitate motion of respiration by alternately compressing and expanding the lower ribs, about twenty times a minute. Alternately raising and lowering the arms from the sides up above the head will stimulate the action of the lungs. Let it be done gently but persistently. 5. Apply warmth and friction to extremities. 6. By holding tongue forward, closing the nostrils, and pressing the "Adam's apple" back (so as to close entrance to stomach), direct ipflation may be tried. Take a deep breath and breathe it forcibly into the mouth of patient, compress the chest to expel the air, and repeat the operation. 7. DON'T GIVE UP! People have been saved after HOURS of patient, vigorous effort. 8. When breathing begins, get patient into a warm bed, give WARM drinks, or spirits in teaspoonfuls, fresh air and quiet.
Remember that you have (a) to restore animal heat, (b) to restore the circulation, (c) to induce breathing. On no account use violence, do not place the patient with his head down, nor roll the body about, nor rub it with salt, spirits, &c., and do not inject tobacco smoke. Electricity may often be resorted to with advantage. (See also "Breathing.")
Emetics. In giving emetics remember that antimonial wine is a depressant of the heart's action; the dose of it is one or two drachms in water followed by plenty of warm water. Ipecacuanha wine (half to one ounce), or sulphate of zinc (ten grains in water), followed by plenty of tepid water taken internally are far better remedies to use when the object is merely the prompt evacuation of the contents of the stomach. The readiest form of domestic emetic is mustardflour and warm water, plenty of it, followed by copious draughts of warm water. As a remedy for the spasms of croup (the idea being to make a child feel sick without being so), give it a teaspoonful every hour or two of a mixture made of two drachms of ipecacuanha wine, three drachms of syrup of Hemidesmus, half an ounce of glycerine, and water up to two ounces.
Enemas.-The best purgative enema is made by placing in a small basin of hot water, 1 ozs. of castor oil, then use ordinary soap in the water as though you were washing your hands; this thoroughly incorporates the oil with the water. To allay pain use one syringe full of warm water, with fifteen drops of Battley's sedative of opium extract. But enemas for nutrition and as anodynes are now cast aside for the nutrient and opiate suppositories, which are on sale at all chemists, although it is doubtful if the latter act as rapidly as do fluid enemata.
Epilepsy-or falling sickness.-Treatment of a fit of Lay patient on a hard bed or on the floor; plenty of air; raise head; warm clothes; keep something between jaws to prevent biting of tongue; remove false teeth; if face blue, cold water to head; give snuff to induce sneezing; there is little to be done during an attack, and epileptics should always be attended by someone, for they fall so suddenly, and are so insensible to what takes place after they have fallen, that they may, if lett alone, do themselves severe bodily harm.
Eyes-Foreign bodies in.-Get the patient's head bent well backwards, drop a drop or two of olive oil between the upper eyelid and the eye, then seize the upper eyelashes, and pull the upper eyelid well forward and in front of the lower one, press it against the latter as it returns to its original position, and if the offending substance is beneath the upper eyelid (as it usually is), you will see it deposited on the lower lid. If this plan fails to remove it, pull the upper eyelid forward and look beneath it, where may probably be seen the minute substance causing the pain, which can be removed with a paper "spill," or a sharpened wooden match, or a camel hair pencil. If, however, the foreign body is embedded in the front of the eye (the cornea) it must be " dug out with a needle. For lime in the eye, use a weak lotion of vinegar and water to which a few drops of laudanum have been added.
Fainting.--A fit of.-Patient is pale, and unconscious, skin clammy, pupils dilated, limbs loose, and he looks deadly. Lay him down, dash cold water on his face; loosen his neck; open window and door and place in a draught, and use a strong smelling bottle.
Fevers. To produce perspiration take ten grains of Dover's powder on going to bed, and an aperient on the following morning, as the opium contained in the powder may produce constipation.
Fits. These are of four kinds, Epileptic, Apoplectic, Hysterical, and Fainting; all treated of under their respective heads, and all differing from each other in a way that makes diagnosis comparatively easy.
Fractures. That a bone is fractured may be seen by the distortion of the limb, and the sound caused by the broken bones. Prior to the arrival of a surgeon place the limb on pillows in as restful position, and as much as possible in its natural state. An ordinary chip band-box with the bottom out is useful to put over a limb to prevent the pressure of bedclothes, &c.
Gargle. The best form of gargle for an ordinary sore throat is made thus:-Mulberry juice two ounces, chlorate of potash, alum, and nitrate of potash of each ninety grains, syrup of tolu two ounces, acid infusion of roses up to eight ounces, add more alum if not astringent enough.
Gunshot Wounds-are contused and lacerated. There is little bleeding unless a large vessel is divided or a vascular part injured such
as the lungs. A bone may be splintered. Extract the bullet or foreign body with bullet forceps, and without enlarging the aperture of the wound, if possible. At first apply cold to the wound; but circumstances may afterwards suggest poultices. When the sloughs have separated, and suppuration has commenced to cease, it is well to apply stimulating lotion, and a bandage to support the parts. Constitutionally, it is necessary to allay the fever which is the outcome of the suppuration, and support the strength of the patient.
Patient suffers from "shock."
Hanging. The patient should be treated for suspended respiration or for apoplexy, the result of pressure on the jugular veins. (See "Breathing.") Galvanism may be used.
Hysteria.-Be firm and do not sympathise with the patient, throw cold water on her face, apply ammonia to the nose, and give the following anti-spasmodic draught: - Aromatic spirits of ammonia, tincture of sumbul, tincture of valerian, and spirits of sulphuric æther, of each fifteen drops. Infusion of quassia an ounce and a half.
Lockjaw-or Tetanus.- Crampy pain about the neck, the jaw, and the throat, twitching of the muscles of the face, cramp ultimately seizes the whole body which is stiff (especially the muscles of the back). Treatment in pronounced and acute cases is of but little use. Íce may be applied to the spine, and opium and Indian hemp given as a medicine, but the inhalation of chloroform is the only form of relief known. The symptoms are identical with those of poisoning by strychnia.
Mother's Milk.-Infants should not be fed on Cow's milk, which is far too strong in some respects for them to digest and too weak in others. A very good substitute for Mother's milk is made thus: Fresh milk, pint; hot water, pint; sugar of milk, 1 oz. ; carbonate of potash, 4 grs.
Obstruction of the Bowels-causes sickness sudden and violent pains, constipation, collapse, and discharges of blood and mucus posteriorly. Give opium freely, and large injections of warm water.
Pills. The best form of dinner pill is made by mixing together a grain of powdered capsicum, a grain of Barbadoes aloes extract, a quarter of a drop each of oil of cloves and pure carbolic acid, and two grains of maltopepsin. The best form of liver pill is made of half a grain of podophyllin resin, two grains of compound scamony powder, one grain of powdered capsicum, and two grains of extract of taraxacum, one or two for a dose.
Poultices and Plasters.-The best and cleanest method of making a mustard plaster is to spread mustard such as is used for the table on rough brown paper with a knife, like butter on bread, let it remain for a minute, and then wipe it all off and apply the damp paper.
Poultices are now manufactured, and it saves trouble to buy them in the dry state and make them ready for use by placing them in boiling water. The best way to make them is to sew in a muslin bag the oatmeal or linseed meal to be used, and place the bag in boiling water, or boil it. It can be used over and over again. spongiopiline and hot water make an excellent moist hot application for all practical purposes.
Prolapsus ani-and protruding piles.-Carefully sponge the protruding part quite clean, let the patient sit over some hot water, then anoint the part with ointment of galls, opium and Hamamelis, and, with a warm soft towel, make continuous pressure, which if persevered in will result in returning the part,