HINDER, v. To keep back; to oppose; obstruct.

HOLINESS, sub. Pre-eminent sanctity; a course of life in conformity to the nature and will of God. Holiness, and righteousness, though in some respects synonymous (or having the same meaning), are, in their origin, distinct terms, and refer to different degrees or standards of action. Righteousness is conformity or agreement with a given rule. Holiness is conformity to the nature of God, who is pre-eminently holy. In striving after the former, the rule given is the guide; having attained that (if it be possible) we may rest. In seeking after the latter, we have no resting-place short of equality in holiness with Him whose nature we are to be conformed to. In theology, however, the rule given and the nature revealed, are alike holy; and hence the terms are usually indiscriminately used.

HOLY, adj. Applied to men, one who leads a life of holiness; applied to things, that which is set apart to holy uses, consecrated to the service of God in the sanctuary.

HONOUR, sub. Respect paid to rank and station ; reverence given to exalted personages among men; veneration and adoration paid to God.

HOPE, v. To expect; to look for with desire; to long for.

HOPE, sub. Expectation; that which is hoped for. The state of the believer here is a state of hope, Rom. viii. 24, 25. The objects of his hope are the promises of God. The grounds of it are God's nature, as unchanging ; God's oath; and God's acts. The nature of it, in consequence, is, that it is a “ sure hope," and a “blessed hope ;” and the effects of it should be holiness and happiness, Rom. xii. 12; 1 John, iii. 3.

HOUSEHOLD, sub. A number of persons dwelling toge. ther in one house, and forming one family. The Church of God is called “the household of God,Eph. ii. 19; and “the household of Faith,” Gal. vi. 10.

HUMBLE, adj. Not proud ; modest, lowly in manner and deportment (illustrated in the case of the Publican in the Temple).

HUMILITY, sub. The grace of meekness and lowliness; the opposite to pride and haughtiness.

HURT, v. To do harm to another; to injure the person or property of another.

HURTFUL, adj. Calculated to do harm; injurious to our interests or our persons.

IGNORANCE, sub. Want of knowledge; especially want of knowledge of God and His Gospel.

IMMORTAL, adj. That which is not liable to death, nor subject to decay; that which can never die. This is the case with the souls of men, for being immaterial substances, they have nothing in them that is liable to corruption, as our bodies have, and therefore can never decay or die.

IMMORTALITY, sub. The state of being immortal; the state wherein there is no more decay or death.

INCARNATE, adj. Embodied in flesh; having assumed and become clothed with flesh.

INCARNATION, sub. The act of assuming flesh, or of becoming clothed with flesh. This word and the preceding are used chiefly with reference to the Saviour, and to His taking man's flesh upon Him in the womb of the Virgin ; so as to be qualified for His work of redemption, and appear on earth a true Immanuel, i.e. God with us; God in human form, atoning for sin, and reconciling sinners to Himself, 1 Tim. iii. 6 ; Rom. viii. 3; 1 John, i. 1, 2.

INCREASE, sub, Growth ; enlargement; additional quantities added to a thing.

INCREASE, v. To grow; advance; improve; go forward; extend; strengthen.

INESTIMABLE, adj. That which is beyond value; that for which an equivalent price cannot be found.

INFIDEL, sub. One who does not believe the Gospel; used generally by us for one who believes not in the existence of a God at all, or, at least, who so professes. In the Collect (No. 30) it is intended to include all the heathen who are yet strangers to God and his Gospel; being the word by which such persons were usually distinguished at the time when our Prayer-book was compiled.

INFIRMITY, sub. Weakness; frailty; feebleness of body or mind. Man's state on earth is one of infirmities; which are, again, the fruits of his sins; through which he has lost that strength, both of mind and body, which he originally possessed. Sins of infirmity are sometimes spoken of in contrast with wilful sins, as being less hei. nous in God's sight; but they equally require an atonement and a sacrifice, and are not on that account to be thought little of, or disregarded.

INNOCENT, adj. Not guilty of a charge; one who does no injury to another; pure, clean from sin.

INNOCENCY, sub. The state of one who is free from fault, and clear from any charge; a state of freedom from sin.

INORDINATE, adj. Beyond all bounds; out of all reason; rebellious, and not submissive to order.

INSPIRE, v. To breathe into; usually spoken of God's breathing His Spirit into His Prophets and Apostles' hearts, to teach them what to write in their books for the edification of the Church, 2 Tim. iii. 16.

INSPIRATION, sub. The act of breathing into, or the state of having been so inspired.

INSTRUCT, v. To train up, or teach; to communicate knowledge on any subject.

INSTRUCTION, sub. Knowledge communicated on any subject; teaching in general, Prov. iv. 1; xiii. 1; xv. 32.

INTENT, sub. An end or design; “ to the intent that” means in order that, or to the end that, i.e. having such an end in view as the paragraph refers to.

INWARD, adj. Situated within the body, not on its surface, i.e. seated in the mind ; internal ; in the heart.

INWARDLY, adv. Having respect to that which is within ; in the heart.

ISRAELITES, sub. The descendants of Jacob, who was also called Israel. “ The true Israelites” referred to in Collect, No. 30, are not those who are Israelites by birth only, for, as Rom. ix. 6, they are not all Israel which are of Israel, but those who are Abraham's seed in respect of their faith; all true believers of whatever nation, Rom. ii. 28, 29; Gal. ii. 28, 29; Phil. iii. 3.

JESUS, sub. This word means “a Saviour,” and is the personal title of the Son of God, because He is the Saviour of sinners. He received this name by commandment of the angel, prior to His birth of the Virgin.

Jews, sub. The descendants of Abraham, who formerly dwelt in Palestine; and were so called from Judea, a name given to their country, from Judah, one of their tribes. The Jews are made the subjects of our special prayers on the day on which we commemorate the Crucifixion of the Saviour, because it was by their forefathers that that Saviour was rejected, and His blood yet rests on their unbelieving children ; and because, unless they are brought to believe in that Saviour, a fearful condemnation assuredly awaits them all.

Join, v. To knit or unite together; to combine and form unions and alliances.

Joy, sub. A sweet emotion in the heart, filling its possessor with happiness; gladness in the heart.

JUDGE, v. To hear and decide a cause, as Solomon, 1 Kings, iii. 16-28; to pass sentence upon criminals after proof of guilt; to examine one's course and conduct, 1 Cor. xi. 31.

JUDGMENT, sub. The power or faculty of judging ; the act of exercising that faculty; the sentence or determination come to by a judge, or after judging.

Just, adj. One who acts truly and honourably with all; one who never defrauds or wrongs another; one who gives to all their dues ; one who is justified before God.

JUSTLY, adv. In a just manner; according to justice and right.

JUSTIFY, v. To make just or pronounce just; to acquit of a charge; to free one from suspicion of guilt, and make his innocence clear. In a religious sense, it means to make just at the bar of God; to clear a sinner from the guilt of his sins, and thereby to free him from the penalty those sins deserved. That men are thus justified is the result of Christ's sufferings in their stead (see next word); and when treating on the subject, it is commonly said that they are justified, 1, freely by grace, i.e. out of God's favour only, and not because of any merits of their own; 2, meritoriously by Christ, i.e. by merit on Christ's part, who has deserved, and in a manner earned, their justification for them, though they themselves deserve it not; 3, instrumentally by faith, i.e. faith is the instrument by which this justification is realised by the individuals themselves, and without which it is never attained; 4, evidentially by works, i.e. their works are the evidence of their justification, and they thereby testify before men


that they have that faith whereby their justification is secured.

JUSTIFICATION, sub. The act of making just, or acquitting at the bar of God; or the state of those who are so made just and acquitted. The justification of a sinner in God's sight proceeds on these grounds. The sinner deserves death because of his sins; Jesus Christ steps in and suffers in his stead. The penalty due to sin being thus paid, justice is vindicated, the law magnified and made honourable; and so, without derogation from any of His attributes, God is able to pardon the sinner; or, in the words of Scripture, “He can be just and yet the justifier of him that believeth in Jesus.” Hence justification on these terms is freely proclaimed, and all are invited to avail themselves thereof.

KEEP, v. To retain or hold fast; to protect and defend; to observe and practise.

KEEPER, sub. One who keeps or preserves. God is the keeper of His people. See Ps. cxxi.; Gen. xxviii. 15; 1 Pet. i. 5.

King, sub. A sovereign prince, or chief ruler in a country.

KINGDOM, sub. A state or country under the dominion of a king.

Know, v. To have a clear understanding of a thing ; to be correctly informed on any subject; to be acquainted with through the evidence of our senses.

KNOWLEDGE, sub. Certain intelligence or information on any subject; skill in any science or art; acquaintance with facts or persons.

LAMENT, v. To mourn over anything; to weep because of troubles and afflictions; to be very sorry for sins.

LAMENTATION, sub. Mourning; bewailing of misfortune; sorrow on account of calamities which have overtaken us. The name, also, of a book in the Bible, so called because it contains the Lamentations of the Prophet over the desolate state of the city and people whom he loved.

LAUDABLE, adj. That which deserves praise; that which is worthy of commendation, and so acceptable.

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